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Polish contribution to World War II

The European theatre of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on Friday September 1, 1939, followed by the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939. The Polish Army was defeated after a month of fighting. Poland never capitulated. After Poland had been overrun, a government-in-exile, armed forces, an intelligence service were established outside of Poland; these organizations contributed to the Allied effort throughout the war. The Polish Army was recreated in the West, as well as in the East. Poles provided significant contributions to the Allied effort throughout the war, fighting on land and air. Notable was the service of the Polish Air Force, not only in the Allied victory in the Battle of Britain but the subsequent air war. Polish ground troops were present in the North Africa Campaign. Polish forces in the east, fighting alongside the Red army and under Soviet command, took part in the Soviet offensives across Belarus and Ukraine into Poland, across the Vistula and towards the Oder and into Berlin.

Some Polish contributions were less visible, most notably the prewar and wartime deciphering of German Enigma machine codes by cryptologists Marian Rejewski and his colleagues. The Polish intelligence network proved to be of much value to the Allied intelligence; the Polish forces as a whole may be considered to have been the 4th largest Allied army in Europe, after the Soviet Union, United States and Britain. The invasion of Poland by the military forces of Nazi Germany marked the beginning of World War II in Europe; the Soviets invaded Poland on September 17 German-allied Slovakia invaded In keeping with the terms of the Secret Additional Protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Germany informed the Soviet Union that its forces were nearing the Soviet interest zone in Poland and so urged the Soviet Union to move into its zone. The Soviets had been taken by surprise by the speed of the German advance as they had expected to have several weeks to prepare for an invasion rather than a few days.

They did promise to move as as possible. On September 17 the Soviets invaded eastern Poland, forcing the Polish government and military to abandon their plans for a long-term defense in the Romanian bridgehead area; the last remaining Polish Army units capitulated in early October. In accordance with their treaty obligations, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany on September 3. Hitler had gambled, that France and Britain would allow him to annex parts of Poland without military reaction; the campaign began on September 1, 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact containing a secret protocol for the division of Northern and Central Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. It ended on October 1939, with Germany and the Soviet Union occupying the entirety of Poland. German losses included 16,000 killed in action, 28,000 wounded, 3,500 missing, over 200 aircraft, 30% of their armored vehicles; the Polish casualties were around 66,000 694,000 captured.

German losses during the Polish campaign amounted to 50% of all casualties they would suffer until their invasion of USSR in 1941. There was a substantial group of Poles who risked their lives during the German occupation to save Jews. German-occupied Poland was the only European territory where the Germans punished any kind of help to Jews with death for the helper and his entire family. So, Poland was the only German-occupied country to establish an organization to aid Jews. Known by the cryptonym Żegota, it provided food, medical care and false documents to Jews. Most of Żegota's funds came directly from the Polish Government-in-Exile in Great Britain. Most Jews who survived the German occupation of Poland were saved by Poles unconnected with Żegota. Estimates of Jewish survivors in Poland range from 40,000-50,000 to 100,000-120,000. Scholars estimate. Of the individuals awarded medals of Righteous among the Nations those who were Polish citizens number the greatest. There are 6,339 Polish men and women recognized as "Righteous" to this day, amounting to over 25 percent of the total number of 22,765 honorary titles awarded already.

The main resistance force in German-occupied Poland was the Armia Krajowa. While AK command said it numbered 400,000 sworn members, only a small fraction of these was involved in partisan warfare: in 1943 one percent and in 1944 five to ten percent. Throughout most of the war, AK was one of the three largest resistance movements in the war; the AK coordinated its operations with the exiled Polish Government in London and its activity concentrated on sabotage and intelligence gathering. Its combat activity was low until 1943 as the army was avoiding suicidal warfare and preserved its limited resources for conflicts that increased when the Nazi war machine started to crumble in the wake of the successes of the Red Army in the Eastern Front; the AK started a nationwide uprising against Nazi forces. Before that, AK units carried out thousands of raids

Harsola copper plates

The Harsola copper plates are a set of two 949 CE Indian inscriptions that record the grants of two villages to a Nagar Brahmin father-son duo. The grants were issued by the Paramara king Siyaka II; the copper plates were discovered in Harsol in present-day Gujarat state. Besides the Paramara ancestors of Siyaka, the inscription mentions men with Rashtrakuta titles. Based on their identification as Rashtrakuta kings, some historians have theorized that Paramaras descended from the Rashtrakutas. However, others have argued that these men were Paramara rulers who had adopted Rashtrakuta titles to portray themselves as successors of the Rashtrakutas in Malwa. In the early 20th century, the plates were in the possession of a Visnagar Brahmin named Bhatta Magan Motiram, a resident of Harsol, it is not known how the plates came to be in his possession. According to Keshavlal Dhruv, the first two plates were found joined together by a ring, the other two plates were found loose. There is a Garuda symbol on only one of the plates, the two grants were issued to a father-son duo by the same king on the same day.

Therefore, it can be inferred that all the plates must have been joined together. D. B. Diskalkar noticed these plates in 1922-23, published a transcript in a Gujarati journal Puratattva, he and K. N. Dikshit published a revised transcript with translation in Epigraphia Indica Volume XIX; the copper plates are rectangular in shape, are inscribed only one side. The first copper plate of Grant A is 21.5 cm x 13 cm in size, includes 16 lines. The second plate is of 21 cm x 8.5 cm in size, contains 11 lines. Both the Grant B copper plates measure about 20 cm x 13 cm, contain 16 and 13 lines respectively. Both the grants are written in Nagari script; the text is a mix of poetry. Minus the formal portion about the actual grant and the Garuda emblem, the contents of the two grants is same. Both the grants open with a customary symbol, a verse invoking blessings of the Varaha avatar of Vishnu; the first plate depicts a flying Garuda holding a snake in its right arm. The beautifully incised Garuda image in human form with wings on the grants, is considered to be the earlier form of drawing which came to be known as the Jain style as used in Jain manuscripts.

Next, the inscriptions mention Amoghavarsha-deva, whose titles are Paramabhattakara and Parmaveshvara. This is followed by the name of his successor Akalavarsha-deva, whose titles are Prithvi-vallabha and Sri-vallabha; the mention of these kings is followed by the expression tasmin kule, although the name of the family is not mentioned. According to scholars such as K. N. Dikshit, DB Diskalkar and H V Trivedi, the name of the family appears to have been omitted because of an oversight. Next, the inscription lists three kings with conventional descriptions: Bappairaja or Vappairaja Vairisimha, son of Bappairaja Siyaka, son of Vairisimha This part of the inscription records the grants of two villages in Mohadavasaka vishaya to a father-son duo; the donees were Nagar Brahmins of Anandapura. Grant A: Kumbharotaka village to Lallopadhyaya, son of Govardhana Grant B: Sihaka village to Nina Dikshita, son of LallopadhyayaBoth the grants were issued by Siyaka, described as Maharajadhiraja and sāmanta-cūḍa-maṇi.

The grants were issued on the banks of the Mahi River, on 31 January 949 CE. The inscription mentions that Siyaka assembled the residents of the Kumbharotaka and other neighbouring villages. In their presence, he made perpetual grants of the villages for religious merit and for his family's fame; the inscription lists the instructions for the villagers to offer the donees and their descendants the shares of the produce, royalties and gold. This is followed by imprecatory verses to curse anyone; the inscription states that the grants were made at the request of the ruler of Khetaka mandala, after Siyaka's return from a successful campaign against Yogaraja. The dapaka or the officer-in-charge of registering the grants was a Thakkura named Vishnu. Both the grants were written by a Kayastha named Gunadhara; each grant ends with a sign manual of Siyaka. "Amoghavarsha" and "Akalavarsha" were titles used by the rulers of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. Therefore, some historians, such as D. C. Ganguly have identified these terms used in the inscriptions as the names of Rashtrakuta kings, most Amoghavarsha I and his son Krishna II.

Ganguly further theorizes that Siyaka's grandfather Vakpati I was a patrilinear descendant of the Rashtrakutas. However, there is a lacuna before the words tasmin kule in the inscription, therefore, Ganguly's suggestion is a pure guess in absence of any concrete evidence. Critics of this theory argue that the Rashtrakuta titles in these inscriptions refer to Paramara rulers, who had assumed these titles to portray themselves as the legitimate successors of the Rashtrakutas in the Malwa region; the Rashtrakutas had adopted the titles such as Prithvi-vallabha, used by the preceding Chalukya rulers. Historian Dasharatha Sharma points out that the Paramaras claimed the mythical Agnikula origin by the tenth century: had they been descendants of the Rashtrakutas, they would not have forgotten their prestitgious royal origin within a generation. K. N. Dikshit and D. B. Diskalkar, who edited the Harsola inscription, alternatively suggested that the Paramaras may have descended from a Rashtrakuta princess.

However, this cannot be said with certainty

Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria

Dimitrovgrad is a town in Haskovo Province, Bulgaria. It is along the Maritsa River in the Thrace region, close to Haskovo. Dimitrovgrad had a population of 38,015 and is the administrative centre of Dimitrovgrad Municipality. Founded in 1947, Dimitrovgrad is a planned city built by the People's Republic of Bulgaria following World War II; the established communist government designed the town as a socialist model city and a modern industrial center. Dimitrovgrad is named for the first communist leader of Georgi Dimitrov. Dimitrovgrad was planned by the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the communist state that came to power following World War II. Construction of the city began on May 10, 1947, with most of the labor provided by youth volunteers who arrived from around Bulgaria; the establishment of Dimitrovgrad was announced on 2 September, 1947, by Georgi Dimitrov, the leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. The three villages of Rakovski and Chernokonyovo were merged to form Dimitrovgrad.

Construction of the town continued intensively for several more years. The main practical reason behind the new city was to create a modern industrial centre for Bulgaria. There was an ideological foundation for building it; the widespread destruction in Eastern Europe caused by World War II and the rise of Soviet-backed communist states in the region lead to numerous cities being built or rebuilt using new socialist planning styles. The original buildings in Dimitrovgrad were built in architectural styles popularly known as "Soviet Empire" or "Stalin Baroque", with facades of the earliest monumental, with plinths, large columns and small decorative balconies. Over time, as the town expanded, buildings were built featuring less ornamentation in the newer Modernist architectural style. In 1970, the first celebration of the national poetry festival'Penio Penev' took place, that tradition continues to the present. In 1980, the biennial Bulgarian theatrical poster was held for the first time. In 1987, the museum house Penio Penev was opened.

In 1992, shortly after the collapse of communism in Bulgaria, the monument to Georgi Dimitrov was removed by the authorities. This move proved unpopular with the local residents, in 2012 a plan was adopted by Dimitrovgrad city council to restore the statue and re-mount it by 2013. So far this has not happened. Architecture in Dimitrovgrad is similar to that of the Roman Empire: It has spacious streets and large parks, it is one of the greenest cities in Bulgaria. There are three large parks with about 15 lakes, dozens of species of rare trees and flowers, sculptures and fountains; the population of Dimitrovgrad during the first decade after its foundation averaged about 34,000. In the following decades it started growing because of migrants from rural areas, reaching its peak between 1985 and 1992, when it exceeded 50,000. Since particularly during the 1990s, the population declined due to the poor economic situation in the region that lead to a new migration to the country's capital Sofia and abroad.

Dimitrovgrad is twinned with: Official website of Dimitrovgrad municipality Portal website of Dimitrovgrad Website of National Community Center "Vasil Levsky 2003", Dimitrovgrad

James J. Ferris High School

James J. Ferris High School is a four-year comprehensive public high school serving students in ninth through twelfth grades located in Jersey City in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States, operated as part of the Jersey City Public Schools; the school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1940. The school is named for James J. Ferris, a civil engineer and politician in Jersey City best known for supervising the construction of the Pennsylvania Railroad Harsimus Stem Embankment and the concrete foundation of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Powerhouse; as of the 2017-18 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,327 students and 105.5 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 12.6:1. There were 45 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. Ferris offers specialized learning centers focusing on Finance, Hospitality & Tourism, Management / Office Procedures and International Studies. Students in the Finance Magnet are high achievers from all over the city.

The magnet offers courses in Accounting, Banking, Financial Planning, Intro to Finance, Computers Business Applications 1&2. Juniors in this magnet attend Shadowing programs once a month at the Hyatt or Pershing LLC. During the student's senior year, they have an opportunity to take a paid internship co-op program at Merrill Lynch, Pershing, Bank of Tokyo, or the Board of Education; the school was the 299th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 339 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2014 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", using a new ranking methodology. The school had been ranked 270th in the state of 328 schools in 2012, after being ranked 320th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed; the magazine ranked the school 280th in 2008 out of 316 schools. The school was ranked 284th in the magazine's September 2006 issue, which surveyed 316 schools across the state. ranked the school 341st out of 367 public high schools statewide in its 2009-10 rankings which were based on the combined percentage of students classified as proficient or above proficient on the language arts literacy and mathematics components of the High School Proficiency Assessment.

The James J. Ferris High School Bulldogs compete in the Hudson County Interscholastic League, which includes private and parochial high schools in Hudson County and operates under the supervision of the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association. With 905 students in grades 10-12, the school was classified by the NJSIAA for the 2015-16 school year as North II, Group III for most athletic competition purposes, which included schools with an enrollment of 778 to 1,062 students in that grade range; the boys' track team won the Group III state indoor relay championships in 1973. Warren Loving running back who played in the NFL in 1987 for the Buffalo Bills. Tony Nicodemo, college basketball player who set several records while playing for Saint Michael's College of Vermont in the late 1950s. Ralph Peduto, film and television actor. Ray Radziszewski, former professional basketball player who played in one game in 1958 for the Philadelphia Warriors. Michael Angelo Saltarelli, prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Bishop of Wilmington from 1995 to 2008.

Core members of the school's administration are: Deneen Alford, Principal Gary Gentile, Vice Principal Emilio Pane, Vice Principal James J. Ferris High School Jersey City Public Schools Jersey City Public Schools's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education School Data for the Jersey City Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics

Leo Posada

Leopoldo Jesús Posada Hernández is a former Major League Baseball outfielder. He played for the Kansas City Athletics from 1960 through 1962. After his retirement as a player, he served as a minor league manager. Posada was signed as undrafted amateur free agent by the Milwaukee Braves in 1954. In 1956, he was selected by the Kansas City Athletics from the Braves in the minor league draft. Posada played for the Athletics from 1960 to 1962. On August 3, 1962, he was traded by the Athletics with Dale Willis and Bill Kunkel to Braves for Orlando Peña. Posada continued to play in the minor leagues until 1969. In 1975, Posada served as manager of the Class A Fort Lauderdale Yankees of the Florida State League. Posada's brother, Jorge Posada, Sr. was a scout for the Colorado Rockies. His nephew, Jorge Posada, Jr. is a retired catcher who played with the New York Yankees for 17 years. List of Major League Baseball players from Cuba Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet, or Pura Pelota

Jung District, Seoul

Jung District is one of the 25 districts of Seoul, South Korea. Jung has a population of 131,452 and has a geographic area 9.96 km2, making it both the least-populous and the smallest district of Seoul, is divided into 15 dong. Jung is located at the centre of Seoul on the northern side of the Han River, bordering the city districts of Jongno to the north, Seodaemun to the northwest, Mapo to the west, Yongsan to the south, Seongdong to the southeast, Dongdaemun to the northeast. Jung is the historical city center of Seoul with a variety of old and new, including modern facilities such as high rise office buildings, department stores and shopping malls clustered together, a center of tradition where historic sites such as Deoksugung and Namdaemun can be found. Jung is home to cultural sites such as the landmark N Seoul Tower on Namsan Mountain, the Myeongdong Cathedral, the Bank of Korea Museum, the Gwangtonggwan, the oldest continuously-operating bank building in Korea and one of city's protected monuments since March 5, 2001.

The Myeongdong neighborhood is one of the most famous shopping areas and popular tourist destinations in South Korea. Jung District is one of the most significant business cores of Seoul. Notable companies based in Jung District include Hanhwa, Hanjin, Doosan Corporation, SK Telecom, LG U+, Daewoo International, Daehan Logistics, Ssangyong Cement, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, Lotte Shopping and many more. Many banking and other financial companies have headquarters in Jung District, such as KB Financial Group, Woori Financial Group, Shinhan Financial Group, Hana Financial Group, Korea Life Insurance, Samsung Life Insurance, Industrial Bank of Korea, Korean Exchange Bank, Samsung Card. Major newspapers such as The Chosun Ilbo and JoongAng Ilbo, The Dong-a Ilbo are based in Jung District; the headquarters of South Korean food company CJ Cheil Jedang is in the CJ Cheiljedang Building in Ssangnim-dong, near the Dongdaemun History & Culture Park Station. Air France operates a ticketing office on the 11th floor of the Korean Air Building in Jung District.

Air China has an office on the 1st and 2nd floors of the Hansuang Building in Seosomun-dong in Jung District. All Nippon Airways operates the Seoul Office in Room 1501 on the 15th floor of the Center Building in Sogong-dong, Jung District. Hainan Airlines operates its South Korea office in Suite 1501 of the Samyoung Building in Sogong-dong. MIAT Mongolian Airlines has its Seoul Branch Office in the Soonhwa Building in Sunhwa-dong. In the 1980s Korean Air had its headquarters in Jung District. Color: Green Tree: Pine tree Flower: Rose Bird: Korean magpie Jung District is the center of Seoul; because this it was a fitting place for many scholars who stayed in Seoul to discuss and pursue crucial academic or political subjects during the Joseon Dynasty. Han Myeong Hoe: scholar and tactician in the early Joseon Dynasty Park Ji won: famous scholar during the mid-Joseon Dynasty. Namgung Uk: activist for the Korean independence movement The National Human Rights Commission of Korea has its headquarters in the Gumsegi Building in Jung District.

The Korean Maritime Safety Tribunal had its headquarters in the S1 Building in Sunhwa-dong, Jung District. The offices of the KMST are now in Sejong City. International schools include: Russian Embassy School in Seoul Seoul Chinese Primary School in Myeong-dong Deoksugung Namdaemun Bank of Korea Museum Global Village Folk Museum Grand Ambassador Seoul hotel Gwangtonggwan Koreana Hotel National Theater of Korea Seoul Museum of Art Myeongdong Cathedral N Seoul Tower Namsan mountain Chungmu Arts Hall Lotte Hotel Seoul Tour Financial Hub Center Hunchun, People's Republic of China Xicheng District, People's Republic of China "중구". Doosan Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2008-04-22. Jung District, Seoul travel guide from Wikivoyage Jung-gu Official site in English Jung-gu Official site in Korean