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Politburo of the Communist Party of China

The Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China, formally known as the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and known as Central Bureau before 1927, is a group of 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. Unlike politburos of other Communist parties, power within the politburo is centralized in the Politburo Standing Committee, a smaller group of Politburo members; the Politburo is nominally elected by the Central Committee. In practice, scholars of Chinese elite politics believe that the Politburo is a self-perpetuating body, with new members of both the Politburo and its Standing Committee chosen through a series of deliberations by current Politburo members and retired Politburo Standing Committee members; the current and former Politburo members conduct a series of informal straw polls to determine the group's level of support for each new candidate's membership in the Politburo. The process for selecting the new Politburo begins with a closed door meeting by the incumbent Politburo Standing Committee in Beidaihe in the summer before the Party Congress convenes.

The power of the Politburo resides in the fact that its members simultaneously hold positions within the People's Republic of China state positions and with the control over personnel appointments that the Politburo and Secretariat have. In addition, some Politburo members hold powerful regional positions. How the Politburo works internally is unclear, but it appears that the full Politburo meets once a month and the standing committee meets weekly; this is believed to be much more infrequent. The agenda for the meetings appears to be controlled by the General Secretary and decisions are made by consensus rather than by majority vote; the Politburo was eclipsed by the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee in the early 1980s under Hu Yaobang, but has re-emerged as a dominant force after Hu's ousting in 1987. The 19th Politburo was elected at the first plenary session of the 19th Central Committee in October 2017. Keys "Hu Jintao and the Party Politburo", Winter 2004: Party Affairs, By Alice L. Miller, China Leadership Monitor No. 9 www.nodulo.org Pictures of the members 19th Politburo of the Communist Party of China Collective leadership Surname stroke order Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China General Secretary Central Secretariat General Office Central Security Bureau Central Guard Unit

Joe Ansbro

Joe Ansbro is a former Scottish international professional rugby union player. He is the first player of African origin to represent Scotland at test level in history, his favoured position is centre. He most played for London Irish. After gaining 11 full international caps his rugby career ended due to serious neck injury at the age of 26. Ansbro was born in Glasgow and raised near Gatehouse of Fleet in Dumfries & Galloway, South West Scotland, he was educated at Gatehouse Primary School and played youth rugby with Stewartry, the Castle Douglas club. He was educated at Stonyhurst College near Clitheroe in Lancashire, North West England, before embarking on study of a Natural Sciences degree at Robinson College, Cambridge. Ansbro joined the Northampton Academy in 2006, during this time he was part of the Cambridge University side that took part in The Varsity Match, producing some quality displays for the University. Northampton Saints took notice of this and he became a regular in the number 13 shirt during their season in National Division One, he scored in the EDF Energy Trophy final.

Ansbro joined London Irish in 2011 on a three-year deal. The Scotland centre was one of numerous international players to join the club in 2011. London Irish head coach Toby Booth said: "He's quick, powerful with a great future ahead and will fit in nicely." Ansbro commented that "there are some great players who have committed their long term futures to the club and that speaks volumes for what is happening there." Ansbro made his international debut for Scotland A during the 2009 IRB Nations Cup tournament in Romania. Scotland A went on to win the tournament, with Ansbro making his debut as outside centre in the win against Uruguay, he made his first senior Scotland appearance in the 21–17 victory over reigning world champions South Africa in doing so he became the first black player to represent Scotland at test level. A week he played in the 19–16 win against Samoa at Pittodrie in Aberdeen. Ansbro made his 6 nations appearance in Scotland's opening match of the 2011 Six Nations Championship against France in Paris.

Ansbro and the rest of the Scotland team put in an impressive performance against a clinical French side despite losing the match 34–21. His first points for Scotland came in the 10–6 victory in a 2011 Rugby World Cup warm-up game against Ireland where he scored the winning try in the 76th minute. Ansbro was included in Scotland's 30 man squad for the 2011 Rugby World Cup in New Zealand, he went on to score his first RWC try against Romania in Scotland's first group game of the 2011 tournament. The number 13 jersey in the next two games was taken by Nick de Luca before Ansbro was again selected, this time in Scotland's final group game versus England. Ansbro broke his neck in a pre-season friendly against Munster on 24 August 2012. After being taken to hospital straight after the match it was discovered that Ansbro had a triple fracture of the C1 vertebrae; as of 15 May 2013 Ansbro retired from rugby union. Ansbro, having graduated from Cambridge before his professional career is to become a Biology teacher and rugby coach at Harrow School, a leading boys' independent school.

James Robertson - the first known black rugby union player. He played for Edinburgh District in the early 1870s. Alfred Clunies-Ross - the first non-white rugby union international player, he was capped by Scotland in the first international match in 1871. Clunies-Ross was half-Malayan; the Clunies-Ross family were Scots from the Cocos Islands. Andrew Watson - the first black person to play association football. Watson played for Maxwell and Queens Park before being capped for Scotland national football team. Scotland Rugby Team Profile Northampton Profile The Rugby Blog profile

Tomb of Eurysaces the Baker

The tomb of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces the baker is one of the largest and best-preserved freedman funerary monuments in Rome. Its sculpted frieze is a classic example of the "plebeian style" in Roman sculpture. Eurysaces built the tomb for himself and also his wife Atistia around the end of the Republic. Located in a prominent position just outside today's Porta Maggiore, the tomb was transformed by its incorporation into the Aurelian Wall. What is significant about this extravagant tomb is that it was built by a freedman, a former slave. Three sides of the trapezoidal structure remain intact. All have the same form, with over a plain lower storey, now below ground level but exposed, a storey consisting of pairs of engaged columns between flat slabs, all crammed together with no space in between; the effect is far from the classical orders. There are unusual circular openings in the topmost storey, now thought to represent kneading-basins or grain-measuring vessels. Below a cornice is the frieze, with continuous scenes in relief showing the operation of the bakery where Eurystaces made what was evidently a considerable fortune.

Reconstructions imagine a rising roof above this, now lost. Although there is no conclusive statement on the monument that Eurysaces was a freedman - there is no "L" for libertus in the inscription – there are a number of reasons for believing that this was the case, his name takes the form of a Roman praenomen and nomen followed by a Greek cognomen, nomenclature typical for a freedman, combining as it does the identity of the former owning family with that of the individual when a slave. The inscription lacks the filiation usual for the freeborn; the banausic and labour-intensive activities commemorated, those of baking, are not celebrated by the freeborn upper classes. The unusual form of the monument and of its inscription have been used to locate Eurysaces as a nouveau riche parvenu in the manner of Trimalchio, with his "naïve ostentation" vulgarly imitative of élite culture; the later Pyramid of Cestius is another individualistic tomb for an evidently wealthy man outside the traditional élite.

Burial within the pomerium or sacred boundary of the city was prohibited. Although the precise extent of the pomerium at the various stages of its history is uncertain, it is believed to have been coterminous with the Aurelian Walls extending to the area of the Porta Maggiore after its expansion by Claudius. Streets of tombs in a prominent position just outside the city gates are known from Pompeii as well as the Via Appia. Eurysaces' tomb, at the junction of the Via Praenestina and Via Labicana just before entering Rome, was in a prominent position, its trapezoidal form was dictated by the space available. Other burial complexes in the vicinity are known, including the columbarium of Statilius Taurus, consul at the time of Augustus, with over seven hundred loculi or burial niches. An inscription relating to another baker, has been found in local excavations; the tomb, dwarfed by the Aqua Claudia, rises to a height of some thirty-three feet. Of concrete faced with travertine on a tufa base, it stands as a monument both to Eurysaces and, through the frieze, to the wider profession of baking.

The style different from the classical Roman styles of tombs, makes Eurysaces' tomb stand out. The surviving part of the inscription reads "EST HOC MONIMENTVM MARCEI VERGILEI EVRYSACIS PISTORIS REDEMPTORIS APPARET," or in English, "This is the monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces, contractor, public servant." While the final word in this quote, "Apparet", is translated as public servant, the actual Latin word for a public servant is Apparitor. Apparet is a verb meaning to appear or make apparent, this translation however does not seem to fit the rest of the inscription; the word Apparet is yet to be translated within the context of this quotation. In the BBC documentary Meet the Romans with Mary Beard, professor Mary Beard, translates "apparet" as "it's obvious!" Beard suggests "apparet" is signalling a joke, as if to say "get it?!". Thus Beard translates the epitaph as "This is the monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces, contractor, it's obvious." A relief representing various stages of bread production runs along the top of the tomb.

The relief depicts, on the delivery and grinding of grain and sifting of flour. During demolition of the superimposed late antique fortifications by Pope Gregory XVI in 1838, a full-length relief portrait was discovered of a man and woman in toga and palla. Theft of the female head from the relief in 1934 and uncertainty as to the present whereabouts of the urn, believed to be somewhere in the Museo Nazionale Romano, mean their study is now conducted from excavation drawings and early photographs. Reconstructions relate these items to the tomb on the grounds of their style, subject matter, a

Penrose method

The Penrose method is a method devised in 1946 by Professor Lionel Penrose for allocating the voting weights of delegations in decision-making bodies proportional to the square root of the population represented by this delegation. This is justified by the fact, that due to the square root law of Penrose, the a priori voting power of a member of a voting body is inversely proportional to the square root of its size. Under certain conditions, this allocation achieves equal voting powers for all people represented, independent of the size of their constituency. Proportional allocation would result in excessive voting powers for the electorates of larger constituencies. A precondition for the appropriateness of the method is en bloc voting of the delegations in the decision-making body: a delegation cannot split its votes. Another precondition is; the representativity of each delegation results from statistical fluctuations within the country, according to Penrose, "small electorate are to obtain more representative governments than large electorates."

A mathematical formulation of this idea results in the square root rule. The Penrose method is not being used for any notable decision-making body, but it has been proposed for apportioning representation in a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, for voting in the Council of the European Union; the Penrose method became revitalised within the European Union when it was proposed by Sweden in 2003 amid negotiations on the Amsterdam Treaty and by Poland June 2007 during summit on the Treaty of Lisbon. In this context, the method was proposed to compute voting weights of member states in the Council of the European Union; the voting in the Council of the EU does not follow the Penrose method. Instead, the rules of the Nice Treaty are effective between 2004 and 2014, under certain conditions until 2017; the associated voting weights are compared in the adjacent table along with the population data of the member states. Besides the voting weight, the voting power of a member state depends on the threshold percentage needed to make a decision.

Smaller percentages work in favor of larger states. For example, if one state has 30% of the total voting weights while the threshold for decision making is at 29%, this state will have 100% voting power. For the EU-27, an optimal threshold, at which the voting powers of all citizens in any member state are equal, has been computed at about 61.6%. After the university of the authors of this paper, this system is referred to as the "Jagiellonian Compromise". Optimal threshold decreases with the number M of the member states as 1 / 2 + 1 / π M. According to INFUSA, "The square-root method is more than a pragmatic compromise between the extreme methods of world representation unrelated to population size and allocation of national quotas in direct proportion to population size. Under the Penrose method, the relative voting weights of the most populous countries are lower than their proportion of the world population. In the table below, the countries' voting weights are computed as the square root of their year-2005 population in millions.

This procedure was published by Penrose in 1946 based on pre-World War II population figures. It has been claimed that the Penrose method is restricted to votes for which public opinion is divided for and against. A study of various elections has shown. In practice, the theoretical possibility of the decisiveness of a single vote is questionable. Elections results that come close to a tie are to be challenged, as was the case in the US presidential election in Florida in 2000, which suggests that no single vote is pivotal. In addition, a minor technical issue is that the theoretical argument for allocation of voting weight is based on the possibility that an individual has a deciding vote in each representative's area; this scenario is only possible. List of countries by population The Double Majority Voting Rule of the EU Reform Treaty as a Democratic Ideal for an Enlarging Union: an Appraisal Using Voting Power Analysis, D. Leech and H. Aziz, University of Warwick. Many more references at the web page of American Mathematical Society here

373rd Rifle Division

The 373rd Rifle Division was raised in 1941 as an infantry division of the Red Army, served for the duration of the Great Patriotic War in that role. It began forming in August 1941 in the Urals Military District, it was moved to the front northwest of Moscow while still trying to complete its training and went straight into action in mid-December during the winter counteroffensive. Until May 1943, it was involved in the bloody fighting around the Rzhev salient. After a period in reserve for rebuilding, the division's combat path shifted southward when it was assigned to 52nd Army, where it remained for the duration of the war, it won a battle honor in eastern Ukraine fought across the Dniepr River late that year, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its successes. Following this it advanced through western Ukraine in the spring of 1944 into Romania in the summer, where it played a major role in the second encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army. After again moving to the reserves the division shifted northwards with its Army to join 1st Ukrainian Front, fighting through Poland, eastern Germany and into Czechoslovakia.

By the 373rd had compiled an enviable record, went on to serve into the postwar era. The division began forming in August, 1941 in the Urals Military District at Chebarkul in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, based on the first wartime shtat for rifle divisions, with an authorized strength of 10,859 personnel, its order of battle was as follows: 1235th Rifle Regiment 1237th Rifle Regiment 1239th Rifle Regiment 931st Artillery Regiment 243rd Antitank Battalion 262nd Antiaircraft Battery 430th Reconnaissance Company 439th Sapper Battalion 619th Signal Battalion 453rd Medical/Sanitation Battalion 446th Chemical Protection Company 483rd Motor Transport Company 222nd Field Bakery 791st Divisional Veterinary Hospital 50840th Field Postal Station 699th Field Office of the State BankLt. Col. Vasilii Ivanovich Khmylyov was not assigned to command of the division until September 19, he would remain in command until August 11, 1942. In November the division was assigned to the 39th Army, forming in the Arkhangelsk Military District, began moving by rail to join this command while it was still short of training and equipment.

The Army consolidated in the Torzhok area, in late December it was assigned to Kalinin Front. Beginning on January 8, 1942, 39th Army took part in the Sychevka-Vyasma Offensive Operation, planned "to encircle, capture or destroy the enemy's entire Mozhaisk - Gzhatsk - Vyasma grouping", that is, what became known as the Rzhev salient. During the January advance, 39th Army bypassed north of Rzhev itself in an effort to get behind the city and encircle the forces of German 9th Army holding there, it advanced into a gap between Bely and Olenino and by the third week of the month was fighting for Sychevka from the west taking the town's railway station. 29th Army and the 11th Cavalry Corps entered the gap, but despite bitter fighting and reinforcements from 39th Army, the 29th was unable to liberate Rzhev. On January 23, a German counterattack from Olenino and Rzhev constricted the gap, worsening an critical supply situation for the two Armies. A further attack on February 5 cut the 29th off from the 39th.

Despite urgent efforts, including paratroop operations, the German cordon could not be pierced, the survivors of 29th Army trickled through to the lines of the 39th and 30th Armies during the rest of the month. As of February 28 the 373rd was recorded as having a total of 2,274 personnel, 21 percent of its authorized strength. During the following months 39th Army held its positions, always under severe supply constraints during the spring rasputitsa. In May and June, Army Group Center began planning a limited offensive to eliminate the smaller Soviet salients to its rear. Operation Seydlitz began on July 2, faced heavy resistance, but by July 5 the Army's commander, Lt. Gen. I. I. Maslennikov, had decided to withdraw from the salient. On July 9, the escape corridor was more-or-less sealed, the remaining troops of 39th Army began emerging much as had the men of the 29th Army months earlier. During July, 39th Army recorded 23,647 total personnel losses, including 22,749 missing-in-action; the remnants of the 373rd were withdrawn for reforming.

As of August 1, 39th Army consisted of only "Cavalry Detachment Stepanov" and the cadre of the 373rd, by September 1 the division was in the reserves of Kalinin Front. Due to this rebuilding, the 373rd was unavailable for the First Rzhev–Sychyovka Offensive Operation. On August 12, Lt. Colonel Khmylyov was replaced in command by Lt. Col. Matveii Sergeevich Yeroshkin, but on September 11 he was in turn replaced by Col. Kuzma Ivanovich Sazonov, who would be promoted to the rank of major general on September 13, 1944, would remain in command for the duration of the war; the division returned to active operations, back in 39th Army, in time for the Second Rzhev–Sychyovka Offensive Operation known as Operation Mars. By late November, 39th Army held positions at the northern apex of the salient, the 373rd had the 1235th and 1237th Rifle Regiments north of the village of Kazakovo, while the 1239th faced the east side of the German bridgehead at the town of Molodoi Tud; the Army, now under command of Maj. Gen. A. I.

Zygin, was on a secondary sector, with the mission to "attack and seize the high road running from Molodoi Tud to Rzhev... and in cooperation with 22nd Army... seize the key city of Olenino." The terrain in the sector was difficult, the German forces had fortified the south bank

Chris Woo

Christopher W. T. Woo is an American former competition world record-holder, he represented the United States at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Quebec. Woo competed in the final of the men's 100-meter breaststroke and finished eighth in a time of 1:05.13. He swam for the gold medal-winning U. S. team in the preliminary heats of the men's 4×100-meter medley relay, but did not receive a medal because he did not swim in the final. In 1976 he set the U. S. national high school record in the 100-yard breaststroke at 55.99 seconds, which would stand as the record until broken by 1992 Olympic 100-meter breaststroke winner Nelson Diebel. Woo attended the University of California, Los Angeles, where he swam for coach Ron Ballatore's UCLA Bruins swimming and diving team in National Collegiate Athletic Association competition. At the 1979 Pacific-10 Conference championships, he won an individual title in the 100-yard breaststroke, was a member of the Bruins' winning relay team in the 4x100-yard medley. Since his retirement from competition swimming, Woo became a dentist.

List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of University of California, Los Angeles people World record progression 4 × 100 metres medley relay