Experimental film, experimental cinema or avant-garde cinema is a mode of filmmaking that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms and alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working. Many experimental films early ones, relate to arts in other disciplines: painting, dance and poetry, or arise from research and development of new technical resources. While some experimental films have been distributed through mainstream channels or made within commercial studios, the vast majority have been produced on low budgets with a minimal crew or a single person and are either self-financed or supported through small grants. Experimental filmmakers begin as amateurs, some used experimental films as a springboard into commercial film making or transitioned into academic positions; the aim of experimental filmmaking is to render the personal vision of an artist, or to promote interest in new technology rather than to entertain or to generate revenue, as is the case with commercial films.
The term describes a range of filmmaking styles that are quite different from, opposed to, the practices of mainstream commercial and documentary filmmaking. Avant-garde is used, for the films shot in the twenties in the field of history's avant-gardes currents in France, Germany or Russia, to describe this work, "underground" was used in the sixties, though it has had other connotations. Today the term "experimental cinema" prevails, because it's possible to make experimental films without the presence of any avant-garde movement in the cultural field. While "experimental" covers a wide range of practice, an experimental film is characterized by the absence of linear narrative, the use of various abstracting techniques—out-of-focus, painting or scratching on film, rapid editing—the use of asynchronous sound or the absence of any sound track; the goal is to place the viewer in a more active and more thoughtful relationship to the film. At least through the 1960s, to some extent after, many experimental films took an oppositional stance toward mainstream culture.
Most such films are made on low budgets, self-financed or financed through small grants, with a minimal crew or a crew of only one person, the filmmaker. Some critics have argued that much experimental film is no longer in fact "experimental" but has in fact become a mainstream film genre. Many of its more typical features—such as a non-narrative, impressionistic, or poetic approaches to the film's construction—define what is understood to be "experimental". Two conditions made Europe in the 1920s ready for the emergence of experimental film. First, the cinema matured as a medium, highbrow resistance to the mass entertainment began to wane. Second, avant-garde movements in the visual arts flourished; the Dadaists and Surrealists in particular took to cinema. René Clair's Entr'acte featuring Francis Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, with music by Erik Satie, took madcap comedy into nonsequitur. Artists Hans Richter, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Germaine Dulac, Viking Eggeling all contributed Dadaist/Surrealist shorts.
Fernand Léger, Dudley Murphy, Man Ray created the film Ballet Mécanique, sometimes described as Dadaist, Cubist, or Futurist. Duchamp created the abstract film Anémic Cinéma. Alberto Cavalcanti directed Rien que les heures, Walter Ruttmann directed Berlin: Symphony of a Metropolis, Dziga Vertov filmed Man With a Movie Camera, experimental "city symphonies" of Paris and Kiev, respectively; the most famous experimental film is considered to be Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí's Un chien andalou. Hans Richter's animated shorts, Oskar Fischinger's abstract films, Len Lye's GPO films would be excellent examples of more abstract European avant-garde films. Working in France, another group of filmmakers financed films through patronage and distributed them through cine-clubs, yet they were narrative films not tied to an avant-garde school. Film scholar David Bordwell has dubbed these French Impressionists, included Abel Gance, Jean Epstein, Marcel L'Herbier, Dimitri Kirsanoff; these films combine narrative experimentation, rhythmic editing and camerawork, an emphasis on character subjectivity.
In 1952, the Lettrists avant-garde movement in France, caused riots at the Cannes Film Festival, when Isidore Isou's Traité de bave et d'éternité was screened. After their criticism of Charlie Chaplin at the 1952 press conference in Paris for Chaplin's Limelight, there was a split within the movement; the Ultra-Lettrists continued to cause disruptions when they announced the death of cinema and showed their new hypergraphical techniques. The Soviet filmmakers, found a counterpart to modernist painting and photography in their theories of montage; the films of Dziga Vertov, Sergei Eisenstein, Lev Kuleshov, Alexander Dovzhenko, Vsevolod Pudovkin were instrumental in providing an alternative model from that offered by classical Hollywood. While not experimental films per se, they contributed to the film language of the avant-garde; the U. S. had some avant-garde films before World War II, such as Manhatta by Charles Sheeler and Paul Strand, The Life and Death of 9413: a Hollywood Extra by Slavko Vorkapich and Robert Florey.
However, much pre-war experimental film culture consisted of artists working in isolation, on film projects. Painter Emlen Etting directed dance films in the early 1930s. Commercial artist and
James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens was an American track and field athlete and four-time gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games. Owens specialized in the sprints and the long jump, was recognized in his lifetime as "perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history", he set three world records and tied another, all in less than an hour at the 1935 Big Ten track meet in Ann Arbor, Michigan—a feat that has never been equaled and has been called "the greatest 45 minutes in sport". He achieved international fame at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany by winning four gold medals: 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, 4 × 100 meter relay, he was the most successful athlete at the Games and, as a black man, was credited with "single-handedly crushing Hitler's myth of Aryan supremacy", although he "wasn't invited to the White House to shake hands with the President, either". The Jesse Owens Award is USA Track and Field's highest accolade for the year's best track and field athlete.
Owens was ranked by ESPN as the sixth greatest North American athlete of the 20th century and the highest-ranked in his sport. In 1999, he was on the six-man short-list for the BBC's Sports Personality of the Century. Jesse Owens known as J. C. was the youngest of ten children born to Henry Cleveland Owens and Mary Emma Fitzgerald in Oakville, Alabama, on September 12, 1913. At the age of nine, he and his family moved to Cleveland, for better opportunities, as part of the Great Migration, when 1.5 million African Americans left the segregated South for the urban and industrial North. When his new teacher asked his name, he said "J. C.", but because of his strong Southern accent, she thought he said "Jesse". The name stuck, he was known as Jesse Owens for the rest of his life; as a youth, Owens took different menial jobs in his spare time: He delivered groceries, loaded freight cars and worked in a shoe repair shop while his father and older brother worked at a steel mill. During this period, Owens realized.
Throughout his life, Owens attributed the success of his athletic career to the encouragement of Charles Riley, his junior high school track coach at Fairmount Junior High School. Since Owens worked in a shoe repair shop after school, Riley allowed him to practice before school instead. Owens and Minnie Ruth Solomon met at Fairmont Junior High School in Cleveland when he was 15 and she was 13, they dated through high school. Ruth gave birth to their first daughter, Gloria, in 1932, they married on July 5, 1935 and had two more daughters together—Marlene, born in 1937, Beverly, born in 1940. They remained married until his death in 1980. Owens first came to national attention when he was a student of East Technical High School in Cleveland. Owens attended Ohio State University after his father found employment, which ensured that the family could be supported. Affectionately known as the "Buckeye Bullet" and under the coaching of Larry Snyder, Owens won a record eight individual NCAA championships, four each in 1935 and 1936.
Though Owens enjoyed athletic success, he had to live off campus with other African-American athletes. When he traveled with the team, Owens was restricted to ordering carry-out or eating at "blacks-only" restaurants, he had to stay at "blacks-only" hotels. Owens did not receive a scholarship for his efforts, so he continued to work part-time jobs to pay for school. Owens achieved track and field immortality in a span of 45 minutes on May 25, 1935, during the Big Ten meet at Ferry Field in Ann Arbor, where he set three world records and tied a fourth, he equaled the world record for the 100-yard dash, set world records in the long jump. Both 220 yard records may have beaten the metric records for 200 meters, which would count as two additional world records from the same performances. In 2005, University of Central Florida professor of sports history Richard C. Crepeau chose these wins on one day as the most impressive athletic achievement since 1850. On December 4, 1935, NAACP Secretary Walter Francis White wrote a letter to Owens, although he never sent it.
He was trying to dissuade Owens from taking part in the Olympics on the grounds that an African-American should not promote a racist regime after what his race had suffered at the hands of white racists in his own country. In the months prior to the Games, a movement gained momentum in favor of a boycott. Owens was convinced by the NAACP to declare "If there are minorities in Germany who are being discriminated against, the United States should withdraw from the 1936 Olympics." Yet he and others took part after Avery Brundage, president of the American Olympic Committee branded them "un-American agitators". In 1936, Owens and his United States teammates sailed on the SS Manhattan and arrived in Germany to compete at the Summer Olympics in Berlin. Owens arrived at the new Olympic stadium to a throng of fans, according to fellow American sprinter James LuValle, many of them young girls yelling "Wo ist Jesse? Wo ist Jesse?" Owens's success at th
Lina Wertmüller is an Italian screenwriter and film director. She was the first woman nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director for Seven Beauties in 1977, she is known for her films The Seduction of Mimi and Anarchy and Swept Away. Wertmüller was born Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Spañol von Braueich in Rome in 1928 to a devoutly Catholic Swiss family of aristocratic descent. Wertmüller has depicted her childhood as a period of adventure, during which she was expelled from 15 different Catholic high schools. During this time she was infatuated with comic books, describing them as influential on her in her youth Alex Raymond’s Flash Gordon. Wertmüller characterizes the framing of Raymond’s comics as “rather cinematic, more cinematic than most films”, an early indication of a natural inclination towards the cinematic. Wertmüller has spoken about her desire to work in the film and theater industries as taking hold of her at a young age, as early on in life she developed an appreciation for the works of famed Russian playwrights Pietro Sharoff, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Konstantin Stanislavsky, a sentiment that drew her into the world of performing arts.
After graduating from Accademia Nazionale di Arte Drammatica Silvio D'Amico in 1951, Wertmüller produced a number of avant-garde plays, traveling throughout Europe and working as a puppeteer, stage manager, set designer and radio/TV scriptwriter. These interest from her youth continued to develop as time wore on, her creative attention beginning to gravitate towards two generic avenues, it is these two approaches that Wertmüller says are at the core of her creative self, always will be. After her years spent touring with an avant-garde puppet group, Wertmüller set her sights on film. In the early 1960s, Flora Carabella, a school friend, introduced Lina to Marcello Mastroianni, Flora’s husband and famed Italian actor, who introduced her to mentor and renowned auteur Federico Fellini. Wertmüller has spoken a great deal on the importance of her relationship with Fellini, with particular emphasis on his influence on her during her time as assistant director on 8½. Describing their collaboration and his character in an interview, Wertmüller is quoted as saying: “You can not speak about Fellini.
Describing him is like describing a sunrise or sunset. Fellini was an extraordinary human being, a force of nature, he was a man of extraordinary intelligence and sympathy. In the documentary I talked about many moments with him while we were filming 8½. Meeting Fellini is like discovering a wonderful unknown panorama, he opened my mind when he said something that I will never forget: “If you are not a good storyteller, all the techniques in the world will never save you.” He told me that before I started shooting my first film,'I basilischi'". Although The Basilisks, scored by Ennio Morricone, was critically well received, it did not garner the sort of attention that her works would. Throughout the 1960s, Wertmüller produced a series of films that were well liked but that failed to garner international success. Of these films, her first collaboration with Giancarlo Giannini occurred in 1966’s musical comedy Rita the Mosquito; as Darragh O’Donoghue described in an issue of Cineaste “her early films comprise a straight pastiche of neorealism and early Fellini, an episodic comedy, two musicals, a lovely Spaghetti Western -works where knowledge of generic predecessors was essential”.
The 1970s for the socialist auteur saw the release of all of her most influential and regarded films, many of which featured a collaboration with Giancarlo Giannini. Beginning in 1972 with The Seduction of Mimi, continuing until 1978 with Blood Feud, Wertmüller released seven films many of which are considered masterpieces of Commedia all'italiana, it was during this time she saw critical and international success, gaining traction as a filmmaker outside of Italy and in the United States on a scale that many of her contemporaries were baffled by and unable to attain themselves. In 1975, Swept Away won Top Foreign Film awarded by the National Board of Review in the United States and the following year, this period of celebrated creative output culminated in the 1976 film, Seven Beauties, for which she became the first female director to be nominated for an Oscar; this film, which again features Giannini in the lead role, pushes Wertmüller’s specific brand of tragic comedy to its limits, following a self-obsessed Casanova from a small Italian town, sent to a German concentration camp.
The film was met with controversy due to Wertmüller’s frankness in her rendering of the apparatuses of genocide as well as her perceived macabre insensitivity towards its survivors, but since has been celebrated and accepted as her masterwork. She signed a contract with Warner Bros. to make four films and her first for them was her first English language film, titled A Night Full of Rain, wentered into the 28th Berlin International Film Festival in 1978. The film was not a success and Warners cancelled the contract, her 1983 film A Joke of Destiny was entered into the 14th Moscow International Film Festival in 1985 and Camorra was entered into the 36th Berlin International Film Festival in 1986. In 1985, she received the Women
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl was a German film director. Born in 1902, Leni Riefenstahl grew up in Germany with her brother Heinz, killed on the Eastern Front in World War II. A talented swimmer and artist, she became interested in dancing during her childhood, taking dancing lessons and performing across Europe. After seeing a promotional poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals, Riefenstahl was inspired to move into acting. Between 1925 and 1929, she starred in five successful motion pictures. Riefenstahl became one of the few women in Germany to direct a film during the Weimar Period when, in 1932, she decided to try directing with her own film called Das Blaue Licht. In the 1930s, she directed Triumph des Willens and Olympia, resulting in worldwide attention and acclaim; the movies are considered two of the most effective, technically innovative, propaganda films made. Her involvement in Triumph des Willens, however damaged her career and reputation after the war; the exact nature of her relationship with Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler remains a matter of debate.
However, Hitler was in close collaboration with Riefenstahl during the production of at least three important Nazi films, a closer friendship is claimed to have existed. When in 2000 Jodie Foster was planning a biographical drama on Riefenstahl, war-crime documenters warned against a revisionist view that glorified the director, they stated that publicly Riefenstahl seemed "quite infatuated" with Hitler and was in fact the last surviving member of his "inner circle". Others go further, arguing that Riefenstahl's visions were essential to the success of the Holocaust. After the war, Riefenstahl was arrested, but classified as being a "fellow traveler" or "Nazi sympathiser" only and was not associated with war crimes. Throughout her life, she denied having known about the Holocaust. Besides directing, Riefenstahl wrote several books on the Nuba people. Riefenstahl died of cancer on 8 September 2003 at the age of 101 and was buried at Munich Waldfriedhof. Helene Bertha Amalie Riefenstahl was born in Germany on 22 August 1902.
Her father, Alfred Theodor Paul Riefenstahl, owned a successful heating and ventilation company and wanted his daughter to follow him into the business world. Since Riefenstahl was the only child for several years, Alfred wanted her to carry on the family name and secure the family fortune. However, her mother, Bertha Ida, a part-time seamstress before her marriage, had faith in Riefenstahl and believed that her daughter's future was in show business. Riefenstahl had a younger brother, killed at the age of 39 on the Eastern Front in Nazi Germany's war against the Soviet Union. In 1944 she married Wehrmacht Major Peter Jacob. In the 1960's she developed a life-long relationship with Horst Kettner, forty years younger than her. Riefenstahl fell in love with the arts in her childhood, she began to write poetry at the age of four. She was athletic, at the age of twelve joined a gymnastics and swimming club, her mother was confident her daughter would grow up to be successful in the field of art and therefore gave her full support, unlike Riefenstahl's father, not interested in his daughter's artistic inclinations.
In 1918, when she was 16, Riefenstahl attended a presentation of Snow White which interested her deeply. Her father instead wanted to provide his daughter with an education that could lead to a more dignified occupation, his wife, continued to support her daughter's passion. Without her father's knowledge, she enrolled Riefenstahl in dance and ballet classes at the Grimm-Reiter Dance School in Berlin, where she became a star pupil. In the post-war years she was subject of four denazification proceedings, which declared her a Nazi sympathizer but she was never prosecuted, she was never an official member of the Nazi party but was always seen in association with the propaganda films she made during the Nazi period. Riefenstahl attended dancing academies and became well known for her self-styled interpretive dancing skills, traveling across Europe with Max Reinhardt in a show funded by Jewish producer Harry Sokal. Riefenstahl made 700 Reichmarks for each performance and was so dedicated to dancing that she gave filmmaking no thought.
She began to suffer a series of foot injuries that led to knee surgery that threatened her dancing career. It was while going to a doctor's appointment that she first saw a poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals, she became inspired to go into movie making, began visiting the cinema to see films and attended film shows. On one of her adventures, Riefenstahl met Luis Trenker, an actor from Der Berg des Schicksals. At a meeting arranged by her friend Gunther Rahn, she met Arnold Fanck, the director of Der Berg des Schicksals and a pioneer of the mountain film genre. Fanck was working on a film in Berlin. After Riefenstahl told him how much she admired his work, she convinced him of her acting skill, she persuaded him to feature her in one of his movies. Riefenstahl received a package from Fanck containing the script of the 1926 film Der Heilige Berg, she made a series of films for Fanck, where she learned from him film editing techniques. One of Fanck's films that brought Riefenstahl into the limelight was Die weiße Hölle vom Piz Palü of 1929, co-directed by G. W. Pabst.
Her fame spread to countries outside Germany. Riefenstahl produced a
Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, maybe for millions of years. The climate system is comprised of five interacting parts, the atmosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere; the climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system gives off energy to outer space; the balance of incoming and outgoing energy, the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling; as this energy moves through Earth's climate system, it creates Earth's weather and long-term averages of weather are called "climate". Changes in the long term average are called "climate change"; such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter Earth's energy budget.
Examples include cyclical ocean patterns such as the well-known El Nino Southern Oscillation and less familiar Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can result from "external forcing", when events outside of the climate system's five parts nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar volcanism. Human activities can change earth's climate, are presently driving climate change through global warming. There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; the field of climatology incorporates many disparate fields of research. For ancient periods of climate change, researchers rely on evidence preserved in climate proxies, such as ice cores, ancient tree rings, geologic records of changes in sea level, glacial geology. Physical evidence of current climate change covers many independent lines of evidence, a few of which are temperature records, the disappearance of ice, extreme weather events.
The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change; the term "climate change" is used to refer to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this sense in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause.
During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem. Prior to the 18th century, scientists had not suspected that prehistoric climates were different from the modern period. By the late 18th century, geologists found evidence of a succession of geological ages with changes in climate. In the years since, a great deal of scientific progress has been made understanding the workings of the climate system. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth; this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms". These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing; some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are key threshold factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself. External forcing mechanisms can be either natural. Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast, slow (e.g. thermal exp
Dziga Vertov was a Soviet pioneer documentary film and newsreel director, as well as a cinema theorist. His filming practices and theories influenced the cinéma vérité style of documentary movie-making and the Dziga Vertov Group, a radical film-making cooperative, active from 1968 to 1972. In the 2012 Sight & Sound poll, critics voted Vertov's Man with a Movie Camera the 8th best film made. Vertov's younger brothers Boris Kaufman and Mikhail Kaufman were noted filmmakers, as was his wife, Yelizaveta Svilova. Vertov was born David Abelevich Kaufman into a family of Jewish lineage in Białystok, Poland a part of the Russian Empire, he Russified his Jewish name David and patronymic Abelevich to Denis Arkadievich at some point after 1918. Vertov studied music at Białystok Conservatory until his family fled from the invading German Army to Moscow in 1915; the Kaufmans soon settled in Petrograd, where Vertov began writing poetry, science fiction, satire. In 1916-1917 Vertov was studying medicine at the Psychoneurological Institute in Saint Petersburg and experimenting with "sound collages" in his free time.
He adopted the name "Dziga Vertov", which translates loosely from Ukrainian as'spinning top'. Vertov is known for many early writings while still in school, that focus on the individual versus the perceptive nature of the camera lens, which he was known to call his "second eye". Most of Vertov's early work was unpublished, few manuscripts survived after the Second World War, though some material surfaced in films and documentaries created by Vertov and his brothers, Boris Kaufman and Mikhail Kaufman. Vertov is known for quotes on perception, its ineffability, in relation to the nature of qualia. After the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, at the age of 22, Vertov began editing for Kino-Nedelya, which first came out in June 1918. While working for Kino-Nedelya he met his future wife, the film director and editor, Elizaveta Svilova, who at the time was working as an editor at Goskino, she began collaborating with Vertov, beginning as his editor but becoming assistant and co-director in subsequent films, such as Man with a Movie Camera, Three Songs About Lenin.
Vertov worked on the Kino-Nedelya series for three years, helping establish and run a film-car on Mikhail Kalinin's agit-train during the ongoing Russian Civil War between Communists and counterrevolutionaries. Some of the cars on the agit-trains were equipped with actors for live performances or printing presses; the trains went to battlefronts on agitation-propaganda missions intended to bolster the morale of the troops. In 1919, Vertov compiled newsreel footage for his documentary Anniversary of the Revolution; the so-called "Council of Three," a group issuing manifestoes in LEF, a radical Russian newsmagazine, was established in 1922. Vertov's interest in machinery led to a curiosity about the mechanical basis of cinema, his statement "We: Variant of a Manifesto" was published in the first issue of Kino-Fot, published by Aleksei Gan in 1922. It commenced with a distinction between "kinoks" and other approaches to the emergent cinematic industry: "We call ourselves kinoks – as opposed to "cinematographers", a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags.
We see the cunning and calculation of the profiteers. We consider the psychological Russo-German film-drama – weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories – an absurdity." In 1922, the year that Nanook of the North was released, Vertov started the Kino-Pravda series. The series took its title from the official government newspaper Pravda. "Kino-Pravda" continued Vertov's agit-prop bent. "The Kino-Pravda group began its work in a basement in the centre of Moscow", Vertov explained. He called it dark. There was an earthen floor and holes one stumbled into at every turn. Dziga said, "This dampness prevented our reels of lovingly edited film from sticking together properly, rusted our scissors and our splicers." "Before dawn- damp, teeth chattering- I wrap comrade Svilova in a third jacket." Vertov's driving vision, expounded in his frequent essays, was to capture "film truth"—that is, fragments of actuality which, when organized together, have a deeper truth that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
In the Kino-Pravda series, Vertov focused on everyday experiences, eschewing bourgeois concerns and filming marketplaces and schools instead, sometimes with a hidden camera, without asking permission first. The episodes of Kino-Pravda did not include reenactments or stagings; the cinematography is simple, unelaborate—perhaps a result of Vertov's disinterest in both "beauty" and the "grandeur of fiction". Twenty-three issues of the series were produced over a period of three years; the stories were descriptive, not nar
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well