Political correctness

Political correctness is a term used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. In public discourse and the media, the term is used as a pejorative with an implication that these policies are excessive or unwarranted. Since the late 1980s, the term has been used to describe a preference for inclusive language and avoiding language or behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against groups defined by sex or race. Early usage of the term politically correct by leftists in the 1970s and'80s was as self-critical satire, it was considered an in-joke among leftists used to satirise those who were too rigid in their adherence to political orthodoxy. The modern pejorative usage of the term emerged from conservative criticism of the New Left in the late 20th century; this usage was popularized by a number of articles in The New York Times and other media throughout the 1990s, was used in the debate surrounding Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind.

The term gained further currency in response to Roger Kimball's Tenured Radicals, conservative author Dinesh D'Souza's 1991 book Illiberal Education. Commentators on the political left in the United States contend that conservatives use the concept of political correctness to downplay and divert attention from substantively discriminatory behavior against disadvantaged groups, they argue that the political right enforces its own forms of political correctness to suppress criticism of its favored constituencies and ideologies. In the United States, the term has played a major role in the "culture war" between liberals and conservatives. William Safire states that the first recorded use of the term politically correct in the typical modern sense is by Toni Cade Bambara in the 1970 anthology The Black Woman; the term entered modern use in the United Kingdom around 1975. In the early-to-mid 20th century, the phrase politically correct was used to describe strict adherence to a range of ideological orthodoxies within politics.

In 1934, The New York Times reported that Nazi Germany was granting reporting permits "only to pure'Aryans' whose opinions are politically correct."As Marxist-Leninist movements gained political power, the phrase came to be associated with accusations of dogmatic application of doctrine in debates between American Communists and American Socialists. This usage referred to the Communist party line which, in the eyes of the Socialists, provided "correct" positions on all political matters. According to American educator Herbert Kohl, writing about debates in New York in the late 1940s and early 1950s, The term "politically correct" was used disparagingly, to refer to someone whose loyalty to the CP line overrode compassion, led to bad politics, it was used by Socialists against Communists, was meant to separate out Socialists who believed in egalitarian moral ideas from dogmatic Communists who would advocate and defend party positions regardless of their moral substance. In the 1970s, the American New Left began using the term politically correct.

In the essay The Black Woman: An Anthology, Toni Cade Bambara said that "a man cannot be politically correct and a chauvinist, too." Thereafter, the term was used as self-critical satire. Debra L. Shultz said that "throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the New Left and progressives... used their term'politically correct' as a guard against their own orthodoxy in social change efforts." PC is used in the comic book Merton of the Movement, by Bobby London, followed by the term ideologically sound, in the comic strips of Bart Dickon. In her essay "Toward a feminist Revolution" Ellen Willis said: "In the early eighties, when feminists used the term'political correctness', it was used to refer sarcastically to the anti-pornography movement's efforts to define a'feminist sexuality'."Stuart Hall suggests one way in which the original use of the term may have developed into the modern one: According to one version, political correctness began as an in-joke on the left: radical students on American campuses acting out an ironic replay of the Bad Old Days BS when every revolutionary groupuscule had a party line about everything.

They would address some glaring examples of sexist or racist behaviour by their fellow students in imitation of the tone of voice of the Red Guards or Cultural Revolution Commissar: "Not very'politically correct', Comrade!" Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind heralded a debate about "political correctness" in American higher education in the 1980s and 1990s. Professor of English literary and cultural studies at CMU Jeffrey J. Williams wrote that the "assault on... political correctness that simmered through the Reagan years, gained bestsellerdom with Bloom's Closing of the American Mind." According to Z. F. Gamson, Bloom's book "attacked the faculty for'political correctness'." Prof. of Social Work at CSU Tony Platt says the "campaign against'political correctness'" was launched by Bloom's book in 1987. An October 1990 New York Times article by Richard Bernstein is credited with popularizing the term. At this time, the term was being used within academia: "Across the country the term p.c. as it is abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities".

Nexis citations in "arcnews/curnews" reveal only seventy total citations in articles to "political correctness" for 1990.

Bae Ki-jong

Bae Ki-Jong is a South Korean footballer, who plays as forward for Gyeongnam FC. He has represented South Korea internationally. Bae's first club was Daejeon Citizen. With them he was nominated Rookie of the Year award. At the end of 2006, he transferred to Suwon Samsung Bluewings. On 17 December 2009, he moved to Jeju United. In his first season with the Jeju, Bae scored one assists. In his second season with the Jeju, Bae scored his first goal of the new season in a 2–1 win over Busan I'Park on 6 March 2011. On 28 March 2009, he made his first international match appearance against Iraq; as of 8 May 2017 Bae Ki-jong – K League stats at National Team Player Record Bae Ki-jong – FIFA competition record Bae Ki-jong at Bae Ki-jong at Soccerway

Marihuana (novel)

Marihuana is a 1941 novella by Cornell Woolrich, published under the pen-name William Irish. The story is about a man who goes on a murder spree after being exposed to marijuana for the first time. King Turner is in a deep funk after his wife, left him. He's fallen in with a pair of reprobates, Bill Evans and Wash Gordon, who are more interested in him as the butt of their jokes than as a friend. One night they drag King and a girl named Vinnie to a "ranch"—a sort of speakeasy where people smoke "grass". After getting high, King hallucinates that Vinnie is his ex-wife and begins chasing her around the room. Bill hands him a knife as a lark and tells him to "pin her down." King does that and flees the room. He steals the man's gun. Before he can leave the ranch, a couple police officers arrive. King evades pursuit and hides out in the phone booth of a candy store. While there, a police officer enters and walks towards the store's proprietor to buy a numbers ticket, but King, paranoid from the marijuana, thinks the officer is there to arrest him, responds by gunning the man down.

King heads to the hotel where his ex-wife is living. Eleanor agrees to talk with King in her room. After hearing his story, she tries to calm him down but with little effect, she convinces him to let coffee from room service. On the phone, she tells the clerk that she wants her order fixed "just like the other night," referring to the fact that she'd had sleeping powder added to her coffee to help with insomnia, but before the order can arrive, King grows paranoid. When he thinks room service is taking too long, King flees the room. With nowhere else to go, he heads back to his apartment. King escapes onto the ledge of the building. Detective Spillane, the officer in charge of catching him, follows him out, but before he can save him, King jumps to his death; the book ends with a final twist—back in her apartment Vinnie is alive and well, telling a friend about the gag she and Wash had pulled on King. Bill had only handed King a butter knife, when King stabbed her, Vinnie took a ketchup-soaked piece of bread and squeezed it to simulate blood.

Vinnie is unaware of subsequent events and thinks the whole situation hilarious, though her friend has doubts. The story ends with Detective Spillane arriving and Vinnie's friend thinking, "He's either a bill collector or a plainclothesman... or maybe a little of both." Detective Spillane appears throughout the story as a competent officer, one step behind King, genuinely wants to help him. However the rest of the police force does not fare so well; when the two officers arrive at the ranch, the proprietor lets them in without making any effort to hide the illicit behavior inside, indicating that the officers are on the take. The officer King shoots was attempting to purchase an illegal numbers ticket from the owner of the candy store. Woolrich's depiction of marijuana is in keeping with popular views of the time which saw the drug as causing "insanity and death," according to Federal Bureau of Narcotics Commissioner Harry J. Anslinger In his efforts to circumscribe marijuana use, Anslinger disseminated stories based on the trope of "marijuana-crime-insanity", such as evidenced by the Victor Licata case in which the 21-year-old murdered his family with an axe.

Inhaling marijuana smoke makes King lethargic and he loses all sense of time—something that continues throughout the story as he thinks several days have gone by despite it being the same night. King and his friends experience munchies which causes Bill to raid the ranch's kitchen for food. King's lethargy soon turns to hallucinations and paranoia, which causes him to embark upon his murder spree. Though King and his friends are all middle class, they travel to Hell's Kitchen, an area, a center for bootleggers during Prohibition; the "ranch" operates to a speakeasy—the proprietor bribes local police officers, visitors leave their cars several blocks away so as not to draw attention to the ranch, a bouncer guards the door, inspecting each person through a peephole before letting them enter. Peculiarly, Woolrich has the ranch operate as a buffet, with each visitor paying a cover charge in exchange for an unlimited amount of marijuana; the term "ranch" is Woolrich's own invention, derived from the slang term for marijuana, "grass."

Characters refer to it as "reefer," though they always describe the joints as cigarettes. Marijuana first appeared in the May 1941 edition of Detective Fiction Weekly. Dell published it as volume 11 of their 10 Cent Book line. Like the other books of this series, original editions are now collectors' items that can sell for more than $100