Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
A polity is any kind of political entity. A polity, like a state, does not need to be a sovereign unit, the most preeminent polities today are Westphalian states and nation-states, commonly referred to as nations. It therefore encapsulates a vast multitude of organisations, many of form the fundamental apparatuses of contemporary states such as their subordinate civil. Polities do not need to be in control of any geographic areas, as not all political entities, the historical Steppe Empires originating from the Eurasian Steppe are the most prominent example of non-sedentary polities. These polities differ from states because of their lack of a fixed, defined territory, Empires differ from states in that their territories are not statically defined or permanently fixed, and consequently that their body politic was dynamic and fluid. It is useful, then, to think of a polity as a political community, a polity can be defined either as a faction within a larger entity or, at different times, as the entity itself.
Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan, for example, are parts of their own separate and they are also, members of the sovereign state of Iraq which is itself a polity, albeit one which is much less specific and, as a result, much less cohesive. It is therefore possible for an individual to belong to more than one polity at a time, thomas Hobbes was a highly significant figure in the conceptualisation of polities, and in particular of states. Hobbes considered notions of the state and the body politic in his most notable work, in previous centuries, body politic was understood to mean the physical person of the sovereign, king or dictator in monarchies and despotisms, and the electorate in republics. In present times, it may refer to representation of a group. Cabinets in liberal democracies are chosen to represent the body politic, politeia Political system Dictionary of the History of Ideas, analogy of the body politic
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
The Civic Culture
The Civic Culture or The Civic Culture, Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations is a 1963 political science book by Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba. The book is credited with popularizing the political culture sub-field and is considered to be the first systematic study in this field, in the text Almond and Verba examine the democratic systems in five countries, the United States, Mexico and the United Kingdom. They interviewed about a thousand individuals in each country on their views of government, as they define it, the civic culture is based on communication and persuasion, a culture of consensus and diversity, a culture that change but it. They identify three political structures, participant and parochial and they consider political culture to be the element that connects individual attitudes with the overall political system structure. Critics expressed skepticism over the accuracy of depicting a culture based upon individual interviews and that the approach was ethnocentric and more prescriptive than objective and empirical
Christian Welzel is a German political scientist at the Leuphana University Lueneburg and Director of Research at the World Values Survey Association. Christian Welzel obtained his Magister Artium degree in Political Science and Economic History at the Saarland University in 1991, for his monograph Democratic Elite Change, The Renewal of East German Elites from the Perspective of Democratic Sociology he was awarded a PhD with distinction in 1996. He worked as a Senior Research Fellow in the department of “Institutions and Social Change” of the Social Science Research Center Berlin, in 2002, he moved to Bremen University as Associate Professor of Political Science. In 2006 Christian Welzel was promoted to Full Professor, in the same year, he became Research Professor at the Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg, Russia. Christian Welzel is responsible for the German part of the survey, which involves 2000 face-to-face interviews. ”Monographs Welzel, Freedom Rising, Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation, New York, Cambridge University Press, ISBN9781107034709.
Inglehart, Ronald & Welzel, Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy, The Human Development Sequence, New York, Cambridge University Press, ISBN9780521846950. Welzel, Fluchtpunkt Humanentwicklung, Über die Grundlagen der Demokratie und die Ursachen ihrer Ausbreitung, Westdeutscher Verlag, edited Volumes Dalton, Russel J. & Welzel, The Civic Culture Transformed. From Allegiant to Assertive Citizens, Cambridge University Press, Christian, Patrick, Ronald & Welzel, Democratization, Oxford University Press, ISBN9780199233021. Inglehart, Welzel, Measuring Effective Democracy, A Defense, International Political Science Review,33, 41–62, Christian, Measuring Effective Democracy, The Human Empowerment Approach, Comparative Politics,43, 271–289, doi,10. 5129/001041511795274931. Welzel, Christian and Patriarchy, How Robust is Muslim Support for Patriarchal Values, International Review of Sociology,21, 249–275, doi,10. 1080/03906701.2011.581801. Welzel, Inglehart, Values, Welzel, How Selfish are Self-Expression Values.
A Civicness Test, Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology,41, 152–174, Ronald, Christian, Changing Mass Priorities, The Link between Modernization and Democracy, Perspectives on Politics,8, 551–567, doi,10. 1017/S1537592710001258. Welzel, Inglehart, Democratization as Human Empowerment, Journal of Democracy,19, 126–140, doi,10. 1353/jod.2008.0009. Welzel, Democratization as an Emancipative Process, European Journal of Political Research,45, 871–896, doi,10. 1111/j. 1475-6765.2006.00637. x. Welzel, Inglehart, Deutsch, Social Capital, Voluntary Associations, Journal of Civil Society,1, doi,10. 1080/17448680500337475. Inglehart, Welzel, Political Culture and Democracy, Analyzing Cross level Linkages, Comparative Politics,36, 61–79, Ronald, Pippa, Christian, Gender Equality and Democracy, Comparative Sociology,1, 235–264
Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and the political ideologies grouped around both. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production. Likewise, some communists defend both theory and practice, while others argue that historical practice diverged from communist principles to a greater or lesser degree, according to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece. At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, in the medieval Christian church, for example, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on ownership of property. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Later, following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism emerged as a political doctrine, in the early 19th century, Various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. But unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the emphasis with a rational. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, in its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels, in 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to power of Lenins Bolsheviks. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority, the event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement.
Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development, however, was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule, the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenins Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Great Purge of 1937–1938 was Stalins attempt to destroy any possible opposition within the Communist Party and its leading role in the Second World War saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and Communist parties played a role in many independence movements
Participation (decision making)
Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions – and ideally exert influence – regarding political, management or other social decisions. Participatory decision-making can take place along any realm of social activity, including economic, management. For well-informed participation to occur, it is argued that some version of transparency, e. g. radical transparency, is necessary but not sufficient. It has argued that those most affected by a decision should have the most say while those that are least affected should have the least say in a topic. Participation activities may be motivated from an administrative perspective or a citizen perspective on a governmental, from the administrative viewpoint, participation can build public support for activities. It can educate the public about an agencys activities and it can facilitate useful information exchange regarding local conditions. Furthermore, participation is often legally mandated, from the citizen viewpoint, participation enables individuals and groups to influence agency decisions in a representational manner.
The different types of political participation depends on the motivation, when a group is determined to work to solve a community problem, there can be led marches to work for candidates. Most immigrant racial groups have higher motivation since there is an increase in dispersion and are faster growing racial groups. Sherry Arnstein discusses eight types of participation in A Ladder of Citizen Participation, often termed as Arnsteins ladder, these are broadly categorized as, Citizen Power, Citizen Control, Delegated Power, Partnership. Robert Silverman expanded on Arnsteins ladder of participation with the introduction of his citizen participation continuum. In this extension to Arsteins work he takes the groups that drive participation into consideration, Silvermans continuum distinguishes between grassroots participation and instrumental participation. Archon Fung presents another classification of participation based on three key questions, Who is allowed to participate, and are representative of the population.
What is the method of communication or decision-making, and how much influence or authority is granted to the participation. Other ladders of participation have been presented by D. M, connor and Femers, A. Dorcey et al. The American Political Science Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy has found that those with higher socioeconomic status participate at higher rates than those with lower status, youth from disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to report participation in school-based service or service-learning than other students. Participation in the sector has been studied as a way to improve business related processes starting from productivity to employee satisfaction. A cultural variation of participation can be seen through the actions of Indigenous American Cultures, Participation draws from two aspects and commitment to their community and family
Elite, is a term that originates from Latin eligere. In political and sociological theory for a group of powerful people that controls a disproportionate amount of wealth. Insofar as national events are decided, the elite are those who decide them. Mills states that the elite members recognize other members mutual exalted position in society. As a rule, hey accept one another, understand one another, marry one another, tend to work and to think and it is a well-regulated existence where education plays a critical role. These memberships in turn pave the way to the prominent social clubs located in all major cities, the Military Circle, In Mills time a heightened concern about warfare existed, making top military leaders and such issues as defense funding and personnel recruitment very important. Most prominent corporate leaders and politicians were strong proponents of military spending and these two groups tended to be mutually supportive. Unlike the ruling class, a formation based on heritage and social ties.
According to Mills, the power elite rose from the reorganization of the propertied classes into the more or less unified stratum of the corporate rich. Domhoff further clarified the differences in the two terms, The upper class as a whole does not do the ruling, Power elite is a term used by American sociologist C. Wright Mills to describe a relatively small, loosely connected group of individuals who dominate American policymaking. The basis for membership of a power élite is institutional power, one study of power élites in the United States under President George W. Bush identified 7,314 institutional positions of power encompassing 5,778 individuals. A study of U. S. Ethnicity White Anglo-Saxons dominate in the power élite, with Protestants representing about 80 percent of the top business leaders, education Nearly all the leaders have a college education, with almost half graduating with advanced degrees. About 54 percent of the leaders and 42% of the government élite graduated from just 12 prestigious universities with large endowments.
Social clubs Most holders of top positions in the power élite possess exclusive membership in one or more social clubs. About a third belong to a number of especially prestigious clubs in major cities like London, New York City, Boston. In the 1970s an organized set of policies promoted reduced taxes, especially for the wealthy, starting with legislation in the 1980s, the wealthy banking community successfully lobbied for reduced regulation. Doing so would hopefully alleviate various destructive conditions affecting large numbers of affluent citizens. Mills determined that there is a core of the power elite involving individuals that are able to move from one seat of institutional power to another
Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, opposed to liberalism and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought changes to the nature of war, the state. The advent of war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. A military citizenship arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war, Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature, and views political violence and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, the descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th century fascist movements.
The Italian term fascismo is derived from fascio meaning a bundle of rods and this was the name given to political organizations in Italy known as fasci, groups similar to guilds or syndicates. According to Mussolinis own account, the Fascist Revolutionary Party was founded in Italy in 1915, in 1919, Mussolini founded the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in Milan, which became the Partito Nazionale Fascista two years later. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity, a rod is easily broken. Similar symbols were developed by different fascist movements, for example, political scientists, and other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism. Each interpretation of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions too wide or narrow, according to many scholars, fascism—especially once in power—has historically attacked communism and parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the far right. Roger Griffin describes fascism as a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a form of populist ultranationalism.
Griffin describes the ideology as having three components, the rebirth myth, populist ultra-nationalism and the myth of decadence. Fascism is a revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal, and in the last analysis. Fascist Philosophies vary by application, but remain distinct by one theoretic commonality, all traditionally fall into the far-right sector of any political spectrum, catalyzed by afflicted class identities over conventional social inequities. John Lukacs, Hungarian-American historian and Holocaust survivor, argues there is no such thing as generic fascism. He claims that National Socialism and Communism are essentially manifestations of populism, Fascism was influenced by both left and right and anti-conservative and supranational, rational and anti-rational