Brexit is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. Following a referendum held on 23 June 2016 in which 51.9 per cent of those voting supported leaving the EU, the invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union started a two-year process, due to conclude with the UK's exit on 29 March 2019, a deadline, extended to 31 October 2019. Withdrawal has been advocated by Eurosceptics, both left-wing and right-wing, while pro-Europeanists, who span the political spectrum, have advocated continued membership; the UK joined the European Communities in 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath, with continued membership endorsed by a referendum in 1975. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated by the political left, with the Labour Party's 1983 election manifesto advocating full withdrawal. From the 1990s, opposition to further European integration came from the right, divisions within the Conservative Party led to rebellion over the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.
The growth of the UK Independence Party in the early 2010s and the influence of the cross-party People's Pledge campaign have been described as influential in bringing about a referendum. The Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron pledged during the campaign for the 2015 UK General Election to hold a new referendum—a promise which he fulfilled in 2016 following pressure from the Eurosceptic wing of his party. Cameron, who had campaigned to remain, resigned after the result and was succeeded by Theresa May, his former Home Secretary, she called a snap general election less than a year but lost her overall majority. Her minority government is supported in key votes by the Democratic Unionist Party. On 29 March 2017, the Government of the United Kingdom invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. May announced the government's intention not to seek permanent membership of the European single market or the EU customs union after leaving the EU and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of 1972 and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.
Negotiations with the EU started in June 2017. In November 2018, the Draft Withdrawal Agreement and Outline Political Declaration, agreed between the UK Government and the EU, was published; the House of Commons voted against the deal by a margin of 432 to 202 on 15 January 2019, again on 12 March with a margin of 391 to 242 against the deal. On 14 March 2019, the House of Commons voted for the Prime Minister, Theresa May, to ask the EU for such an extension of the period allowed for the negotiation; the broad consensus among economists is that Brexit will reduce the UK's real per capita income in the medium term and long term, that the Brexit referendum itself had damaged the economy. Studies on effects since the referendum show a reduction in GDP, trade and investment, as well as household losses from increased inflation. Brexit is to reduce immigration from European Economic Area countries to the UK, poses challenges for UK higher education and academic research; as of March 2019, the size of the "divorce bill"—the UK's inheritance of existing EU trade agreements—and relations with Ireland and other EU member states remains uncertain.
The precise impact on the UK depends on. In the wake of the referendum of 23 June 2016, many new pieces of Brexit-related jargon have entered popular use. Article 50 Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union is a procedure in treaty that sets out how member states can leave the Union, with a two-year timetable for leaving. Article 50 was triggered by Prime Minister Theresa May at the end of March 2017. Backstop A term referring to the government's proposal to keep Northern Ireland in some aspects of the European Union Customs Union and of the European Single Market to prevent a hard border in Ireland, so as not to compromise the Good Friday Agreement. In principle, it is a temporary measure while the United Kingdom identifies and develops a technology that operates customs and other controls as between the UK and the EU, without any evident border infrastructure, there must be compliance with section 10 of the European Union Act 2018, on "Continuation of North-South co-operation and the prevention of new border arrangements."Blind/ Blindfold Brexit Coined in September 2018 to describe a scenario where the UK leaves the EU without clarity on the terms of a future trade deal.
EU and British negotiators would have until 31 December 2020 to sign off on a future trade deal, during which time the UK will remain a member of the EU, but with no voting rights. Brexit Brexit is a portmanteau of "British" and "exit". Grammatically, it has been called a complex nominal; the first attestation in the Oxford English Dictionary is a Euractiv blog post by Peter Wilding on 15 May 2012. It was coined by analogy with "Grexit", attested on 6 February 2012 to refer to a hypothetical withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone. At present, Brexit is impending under the EU Treaties and the UK Acts of Parliament, the current negotiations pursuant thereto. Canada plus/ Canada model This is shorthand for a model where the United Kingdom leaves the European Union and signs a free trade agreement; this would allow the UK to control its own trade policy as opposed to jointly negotiating alongside the European Union, but would require rules of origin agreements to be reached for UK–EU trade. It is this would lead to trade be
Millbank is an area of central London in the City of Westminster. Millbank is located by south of Westminster. Millbank is known as the location of major government offices, Burberry headquarters, the Millbank Tower and prominent art institutions such as Tate Britain and the Chelsea College of Art and Design; the area derives its name from a watermill owned by Westminster Abbey that once stood at a site close to present day College Green. Norden's survey, taken during the reign of Elizabeth I in 1573, records the existence of such a mill although much of the area that comprises Millbank today, was referred to by Samuel Pepys and others as Tothill Fields. Described as a place of plague pits and a "low, marshy locality" suitable for shooting snipe in the nearby "bogs and quagmires". After Cromwell's victory at the Battle of Worcester in September 1651, some 4,000 defeated Royalists were imprisoned at Tothill Fields prior to being sold as slaves to merchants trading with Africa and the West Indies.
Facilities at the prison camp on the marshy ground were so poor that 1,200 prisoners were recorded as having died in the primitive conditions. Prior to the development of Millbank Prison in 1816, the area was sparsely covered with residential houses, but did feature a distillery by the river owned by a Mr. Hodge and numerous small almshouses and pest houses for the poor, criminally inclined and sick. Baltic Wharf, a site just to the north of Vauxhall Bridge, was for much of the 19th century the location of a Henry Castle & Son, a ship breaking and timber merchant. Numerous wooden ships of the line of the Royal Navy were dismantled at this location, their ornate figureheads displayed on the gates and perimeter of the yard walls. Millbank's general appearance today dates from the 1930s, when the area was extensively rebuilt to repair damage caused by the 1928 Thames flood disaster, following the collapse of a 25-metre-long section of the Thames Embankment. Millbank shares the name of the main road along the north bank of the River Thames, extending northwards from Vauxhall Bridge to Abingdon Street, just south from Parliament Square.
There are parliamentary offices situated across this road, notably No.7, built as the headquarters of British American Tobacco. The road was created as part of the Thames Embankment in the mid 19th century and lies above a large interceptor sewer; the former Royal Army Medical College, situated at Millbank, is the site where the vaccine for typhoid was first developed, in the late 19th century, was where the world's first modern prison was established. The listed site has since been renovated as a purpose built arts college for the Chelsea College of Art and Design in 2005; the Tate Britain art gallery is directly opposite near the end of Vauxhall Bridge, providing a distinct arts presence in the area. The headquarters of the British chemicals giant ICI was located at Imperial Chemical House on Millbank before it relocated to Manchester Square situated in London; the headquarters for the Northern Ireland Office, MI5 and Thames House are nearby. On 18 December 1973, the Provisional Irish Republican Army exploded a bomb on Thorney Street at 8:50am.
The bomb resulted in over 50 people injured, including two seriously. Millbank Studios reside in the area as an independent broadcast company, owned by ITV; the studio is situated opposite the Houses of Parliament. The BBC Parliament broadcasting channel is situated nearby. No.4 is the location used by broadcasters for producing coverage of the Westminster area, including the BBC, Sky News and ITV. RTÉ News and Current Affairs have their London bureau at the same location. Neighbouring College Green is used as a setting for interviewing politicians outdoors. Millbank Estate is a large but regarded Grade II-listed red-brick housing estate that gives the area behind Tate Britain a distinct character; the estate was built between 1897 and 1902, the bricks being recycled from Millbank Prison, which had closed in 1890. The 17 buildings, comprising one of London's earliest social housing schemes, are named after distinguished painters such as Turner, Millais, etc; the estate has 562 flats, all managed on behalf of Westminster City Council by MEMO, the largest tenant management organisation in Westminster.
The estate's management board is elected annually from the resident population. Half of the estate's flats are private leaseholds, the other half are rented from Westminster City Council; the estate's buildings are maintained by a regular works program. In 1914-16 architects John W. Simpson and Maxwell Ayrton designed and built 4 Millbank, a six-story Neoclassical office building for the Offices of the Crown Agents for the Colonies; this structure has since been converted into multi-let office building with a central, glass-roofed atrium. Hide Tower is a 20-storey building of 162 flats with an extensive garden, a mini-golf facility and a community hall; when built it was the tallest all residential building in Europe. A quarter of the accommodation is rented; the name was derived from an old English land measure. Millbank Tower is a large, modernistic office complex between the River Thames, Millbank Estate and Tate Britain Gallery, it has a public garden. Before the 1997 General Election, the Labour Party acquired two floors of the building as its headquarters.
The £1 million annual rent, however
The Andrew Marr Show
The Andrew Marr Show is an hour-long British television programme broadcast on BBC One on Sunday mornings from 10 am. It is presented by Andrew Marr the BBC's Political Editor; the host interviews political figures and others involved in the current events of the week. It replaced the long-running Breakfast with Frost programme when David Frost decided to retire in 2005; the programme begins with a review of the Sunday papers, for which Marr is joined by two or three different guests each week. It features BBC News and BBC Weather updates; the programme shares a studio with Sunday Politics, Newsnight and HARDtalk, BBC World News, GMT, Impact and Focus On Africa. Launched on 11 September 2005 as Sunday AM, the show was renamed The Andrew Marr Show for the new series in September 2007. Editor Barney Jones's last show was on 18 January 2015; the editor is Rob Burley. The title sequence was a pastiche of the television series The Prisoner; the programme moved to New Broadcasting House in September 2012.
The Andrew Marr Show features one Cabinet-level UK minister, a representative from the Opposition, one big-name, non-political guest and two or three celebrities or journalists to review the Sunday papers. A guest live music act closes the programme. Since 2009, notable guests have included: Tom Jones, Dmitry Medvedev, Morgan Tsvangirai, Jay-Z, Tony Hayward, Bob Geldof, Anthony Hopkins, Nicole Kidman, Russell Crowe, Ban Ki-moon, Michael Caine, Kevin Rudd David Cameron and Theresa May; the Andrew Marr Show averages around 2 million viewers an episode, representing a 30% audience share. Guest presenters replaced in August by a BBC News bulletin; the guest presenters have included: Zeinab Badawi, Sophie Raworth, Fiona Bruce, Stephanie Flanders, Huw Edwards, Martha Kearney, Emily Maitlis, James Landale and Jeremy Vine. In January 2013, Marr was replaced by guest presenters. Marr appeared as a guest on the show on 14 April to speak about Margaret Thatcher's legacy, spoke about the incident and his recovery.
Paralysis of the left side of his body was evident, but his speech was unaffected, he expressed determination to return to the presenter's role. Marr conducted pre-recorded interviews with David Miliband and David Cameron for the editions of 14 and 21 July and returned to the main presenter's role after the series' summer break in September. From January until June, there was no fixed cover presenter; the guest presenters who appeared included. From 9 June and Raworth became the regular presenters and began to alternate presenting duties each week. Vine presented the final programme before Marr's return on 28 July, confirming Marr's return for the new series on 1 September. Vine sat in again on 15 December due to family commitments. In September 2009 the BBC received hundreds of complaints over the questioning of Prime Minister Gordon Brown, after Andrew Marr questioned Brown on the health of his eyes, whether he used prescription painkillers, during a long and wide-ranging interview. Marr asked the question: "A lot of people in this country use prescription painkillers and pills to help them get through.
Are you one of them?" Brown replied: "No. I think this is the sort of questioning, all too entering the lexicon of British politics."Public figures and politicians had a range of views on the line of questioning. Ben Bradshaw and Lord Mandelson, both members of Brown's Cabinet, criticised the questioning, with Mandelson saying it showed "personal intrusiveness" and alleged the question was based on false rumours being spread by "extreme right wing" bloggers. Others took a different line – historian David Starkey told Question Time "we have a right to know" adding that Brown's recent behaviour had "suggest this is a man not in control", former Home Secretary Charles Clarke suggested that Brown's health might have been a reason for the Prime Minister to stand down and that within the context of a long interview, it was reasonable to ask Mr Brown about his health; the editor of the show, Barney Jones, defended the questioning in October 2009, saying: "We felt that with a general election looming and with former and current cabinet ministers warning of electoral defeat unless the party turned round its current position, a robust interview centred on the economy and the Prime Minister's leadership was appropriate.
The former Home Secretary, Charles Clarke, suggested this month that health might be a reason for the Prime Minister to stand down and within the context of a long interview about policy it was reasonable to ask Mr Brown about his health. The issue of his health and whether it affects his ability to perform the onerous job of leading the party and the country was pertinent, has been raised with other Prime Ministers in the past." Andrew Marr himself, appearing at the Leveson Inquiry in May 2012, defending the question as "reasonable", but regretted asking it, because it dominated newspaper headlines rather than the more serious policy points covered in the interview. Marr said: "I felt we got a lot out of that interview, with some important concessions made on the economy and other things, but the headlines were all about the pills question. It wasn’t worth it." Asked if that meant he did not feel the question itself was inappropriate, he answered: "Correct." Marr noted that Brown did not seem annoyed by the ques
BBC Breakfast is a British Breakfast television programme on BBC One and BBC News channels. The simulcast is presented live from the BBC Television Centre before moving to MediaCityUK in 2012; the programme contains a mixture of news, weather and feature items and is broadcast 365 days a year. Breakfast Time was the first BBC breakfast programme, with Ron Neil as producer, it was conceived in response to the plans of the commercial television company TV-am to introduce a breakfast television show. Breakfast Time's first broadcast was on 17 January 1983 and was presented by Frank Bough, Selina Scott, Nick Ross and Russell Grant; the atmosphere of the set was intended to encourage a relaxed informality. Breakfast Time lasted 150 minutes being transmitted between 6.30 am and 9 am—moving to a 6.50 am to 9.20 am slot on 18 February 1985. A bomb detonated at 2:54 a.m. on 12 October 1984 in the Grand Hotel, with the purpose to kill Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet, who were staying at the hotel for the Conservative Party conference meant that Nick Ross presented Breakfast Time on his own, as live coverage came in from Brighton.
Ron Neil, the programme's first editor, departed from the programme and on 10 November 1986 a more conventional news focus was introduced featuring a news desk, presenters in smart dress and a time-reduced programme broadcast that began at 7 am and ended any time between 8.30 am and 8.55 am. Presenters included John Stapleton, Jeremy Paxman and Sally Magnusson. On 2 October 1989, the programme was renamed BBC Breakfast News, followed a more authoritative tone with a set modelled on the conventional desk style found with main news bulletins, started at 6.30 am. The programme had been planned to start in September but was postponed due to the set not being ready; the first episode was presented by Jill Dando. In January 1993, both programmes moved to the 6th floor N2 studio in a set used for the One and Nine o'clock news. Again composer, George Fenton reworked the theme tune for the Silicon Graphics CGI, where for title sequences were designed in-house by the BBC, with the set built by Television Production Design Ltd, the business news coverage extended to an hour-long programme in its own right, beginning at 6:00 am.
Breakfast News started at 7:00 am. A further revamp occurred in June 1997 when BBC was dropped from the logo and opening sequence becoming just Breakfast News. On 2 October 2000 the merging of the separate breakfast programmes of BBC One and BBC News 24 into one single simulcast called BBC Breakfast started, with the first show hosted by Sophie Raworth and Jeremy Bowen; the studio was replaced with a new set in 2003. Since April 2006, the BBC News channel has screened rolling news coverage from 8.30 am while Breakfast continues on BBC One until 9.15 am. In April 2008, BBC News 24 was renamed "BBC News", as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's news output, complete with a new studio and presentation. On 2 May 2006, Breakfast moved into studio N6 at Television Centre with other BBC One news programmes that required a larger set design that included walls of Barco video screens; the original screen scenes of cirrus clouds on a blue sky were changed as a result of viewer comments that'it looked too cold'—their replacement was with orange squares of the same design as those appearing in the programme's new title sequence, which were designed to hide any joins or faults between the screens, obvious.
The screens displayed visuals needed for story content: different backgrounds and still photographs. More the set had a generic visual style that could be used for other programmes, such as the national news bulletins, without much additional physical change; the programme celebrated its 20th anniversary on 17 January 2003. On 28 January 2008, Breakfast returned to the TC7 studios, where Breakfast Time had been based following its move from the BBC Lime Grove Studios. On 2 March 2009, Breakfast relaunched with a new studio background; the backdrop resembled that of the BBC News channel. In May 2009 as part of costcutting the live broadcasts of the business news from the London Stock Exchange were dropped. In July 2010, the BBC announced; the BBC announced that with the April 2012 move to Salford, co-presenter Sian Williams and sports presenter Chris Hollins preferred not be included in the move to the North of England. Williams left Breakfast on 15 March 2012. On 12 December 2011, the first of several presenter changes was announced.
Louise Minchin would, with the studio move to Salford, join the other main presenters of BBC Breakfast: Bill Turnbull, Susanna Reid and Charlie Stayt. Carol Kirkwood, on 26 March 2012, would remain in London presenting weather. Sports presenters Mike Bushell and Sally Nugent and business presenter Steph McGovern would locate to Salford; the first Breakfast edition from Salford occurred on Tuesday 10 April 2012. London-based newspapers have reported extensive criticism of the BBC move, but a decrease in audience has not occurred with the retention of an approximate average of 1.5 million viewers. The 2012 Summer Olympics prompted BBC Breakfast to temporarily broadcast from an interim studio near the Olympic Park in Stratford. During the games, former presenters Sian Williams and Chris Hollins returned to lead the morning programme, in addition to Bill Turnbull and BBC Sport presenter Hazel Irvine; the show ended its temporary London return with broadcasting from the BBC News Channel's studio on the morning f
Beyond 100 Days
Beyond 100 Days known as 100 Days and 100 Days+, is a current affairs programme that has aired on BBC World News since the inauguration of President Donald Trump. It focuses on the current US Administration, global politics and news from around the world with attempted punches of irreverent wit and fun; the programme is presented by Christian Fraser live from London. Fraser presents from Brussels and presented from the BBC Singapore Studio for a week during the 2018 North Korea–United States summit. Kay and Fraser presented from London and Windsor for a week in May 2018 during the wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle; the programme debuted in 2017 as 100 Days and aired daily to document the first one hundred days of US president Donald Trump in administration. After the first 100 days of President Trump's presidency passed, the programme continued. Beyond 100 Days was an edition of World News Today; the programme airs on other networks. It premiered on 2 January 2018 on PBS stations in the United States.
It appears that it has been cancelled on PBS after the introduction of an hour long Amanpour & Company program debuted the week of September 10, 2018. It airs on BBC Four. Beyond 100 Days doesn't air for four weeks in August and for two weeks in December when Westminster and Congress are in recess. Beyond 100 Days is one of few BBC News programmes, available on BBC iPlayer for more than 24 hours domestically. Beyond 100 Days is an hour-long programme, traditionally airing at 19:00 GMT weekdays on the BBC News Channel in the UK, at 14:00 EST weekdays on BBC World News; every episode is opened by Katty Kay who introduces herself and introduces Christian Fraser before reading the headlines. Kay's memorable opening has been repeated in the programme through all its broadcasts: Interviews are carried out both in the Washington studio and the London studio, with Kay and Fraser contributing to each other's interviews over the speaker. Regular contributors to the programme include Ron Christie, a Republican strategist who served as a former adviser to George W. Bush, BBC North America editor and relief presenter Jon Sopel, deputy UK political editor John Pienaar and political correspondents Rajini Vaidyanathan, Adam Fleming and Iain Watson.
Beyond 100 Days at BBC Programmes Beyond 100 Days at BBC Programmes
BBC World News
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel. It has the largest audience of any channel, with an estimated 99 million viewers weekly in 2015/16, part of the estimated 265 million users of the BBC's four main international news services. Launched on 11 March 1991 as BBC World Service Television outside Europe, its name was changed to BBC World on 16 January 1995 and to BBC World News on 21 April 2008; the service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, DW, France 24 and RT. It broadcasts news bulletins, lifestyle programmes and interview shows. Unlike the BBC's domestic channels, BBC World News is owned and operated by BBC Global News Ltd. part of the BBC's commercial group of companies, is funded by subscription and advertising revenues, not by the United Kingdom television licence. It is not owned by BBC Studios; the channel started as BBC World Service Television and was a commercial operation. The British government refused to fund to the new television service using grant-in-aid.
The channel started broadcasting on 11 March 1991, after two weeks of real-time pilots as a half-hour bulletin once a day at 19:00 GMT. In 1995, BBC World Service Television was split into two services: BBC World started broadcasting on Monday, 16 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became a 24-hour English free-to-air international news channel. BBC Prime started broadcasting on Monday, 30 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became the BBC's light entertainment channel renamed BBC Entertainment. BBC World's on-air design was changed on 3 April 2000, bringing it closer to the look of its sister channel in the UK, known as BBC News 24, the on-air look of, redesigned in 1999; the look of both channels was made up of red and cream and designed by Lambie-Nairn, with music based on a style described as'drums and beeps' composed by David Lowe, a departure from the general orchestral nature of music used by other news programmes. On 8 December 2003 a second makeover, using the same'drums and beeps' style music but new graphics took place, although on a much smaller scale to that of 2000.
The music was changed while the main colour scheme became black and red, with studios using frosted glass and white and red colours. In 2004, the channel's slogan became Putting News First, replacing Demand a Broader View; the channel's present name -BBC World News- was introduced on 21 April 2008 as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's overall news output and visual identity. BBC World News moved to the renovated studio vacated by BBC News 24. New graphics were produced by the Lambie-Nairn design music reworked by David Lowe. BBC World News relocated to Broadcasting House from its previous home at Television Centre on 14 January 2013; this was part of the move of BBC News and other audio and vision departments of the BBC into one building in Central London. Broadcasting House was refurbished at a cost of £1 billion. A new newsroom and several state-of-the-art studios were built. Live news output originates from studios B and C in Broadcasting House with some recorded programming from Broadcasting House studio A and the BBC Millbank studio.
The BBC World News newsroom is now part of the new consolidated BBC Newsroom in Broadcasting House along with BBC World Service and UK domestic news services. The channel was broadcast in 4:3, with the news output fitted into a 14:9 frame for both digital and analogue broadcasting, resulting in black bands at the top and bottom of the screen. On 13 January 2009 at 09:57 GMT, BBC World News switched its broadcast to 16:9 format in Europe on Astra 1L satellite, Eutelsat Hot Bird 6 satellite to other broadcast feeds in the Asian region from 20 January 2009; as a result of the move to Broadcasting House, BBC World News gained high-definition studios and equipment to be able to broadcast in high-definition. On 5 August 2013, BBC World News was offered as a High Definition feed across the Middle East when it launched its international HD channel on Arabsat. Arabsat was the BBC's first distribution partner in the Middle East to offer the channel in HD. On 1 April 2015 BBC World News in English started broadcasting in high definition from the 11.229 GHz/V transponder on Astra 1KR at the 19.2°E orbital position, available free-to-air to viewers with 60 cm dishes across Europe and coastal North Africa.
BBC World News claims to be watched by a weekly audience of 74 million in over 200 countries and territories worldwide. BBC World News is most watched as a free-to-air channel; the channel is available in many parts of the world via satellite or cable platforms. In the United States, the channel is available through providers such as Cablevision, Spectrum, Verizon FiOS, AT&T U-verse; as of 2014, U. S. distribution and advertising sales for the channel are handled by AMC Networks, who are the minority partner for the BBC's entertainment channel BBC America. In addition, BBC World News syndicates its daytime and evening news programmes to public television stations throughout the U. S. maintaining a distribution partnership with Garden City, New York-based WLIW that lasted from 1998 until October 2008, when the BBC and WLIW mutually decided not to renew the contract. BBC World News subsequently entered into an agreement with Community Television of Southern California, Inc. in which Los Angeles PBS member station KCET would take over distribution rights to BBC World News America (the KCET agreement has since been extended to encompass a half-hour simulcas
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s. In 2015 World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week; the English-language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. The World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Worldwide Ltd; the service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government. The World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.
There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday; the BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme:"Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good." This address was read out five times. On 3 January 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched - in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942 the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.
Funding for these services - known administratively as the External Services of the BBC - came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.
Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011 the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced; this reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.
The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary. 650 jobs went as part of the 16% budget cut. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was located along with m