What's Bootsy Doin'?

What's Bootsy Doin'? is a 1988 album by Parliament-Funkadelic bassist Bootsy Collins. The album was released by Columbia Records and was his first album after a six-year hiatus from the music scene; the album reunites Collins with former P-Funk players Bernie Worrell, Fred Wesley and Gary "Mudd Bone" Cooper, features newcomers including Mico Wave and Godmoma. What's Bootsy Doin'? was released in Japan in the form of a limited edition metal box, dubbed "Syber-Funk Model". Included was a booklet entitled "Cult Beat Shock" which gives an overview of other dance-oriented performers on the Columbia record label. "Party On Plastic" 3:57 "Subliminal Seduction" 3:31 "Leakin'" 4:16 "Shock-It-To-Me" 4:57 "1st One 2 The Egg Wins" } 4:21 "Love Song" 3:33 " Kissin' U" 4:18 "*-ing The Love Gun" 3:45 "Yo-Moma-Loves-Ya" 5:22 "Save What's Mine For Me" 4:17 Axe Molesters & Guitar Slayers: Ron "Attitude" Jennings, Catfish Collins, Stevie "No Wonder" Salas, Bootsy Collins Computer Smashers & Keyboard Slashers: Trey "Goldfish" Stone,Wes Boatman, Mico Wave, Bootsy Collins Unfairlight Sample Wars: Bootsy Collins Skin Thrashers & Bun Smashers, Drum Beaters & Rhythm Cheaters:Bootzilla & Bootsy Collins Still'Horny Horns': Fred Wesley, Maceo Parker, Kush Griffith, Rick Gardner Horn Arrangements: Fred Wesley & Bootsy Collins String Arrangements: Fred Wesley, Wes Boatman String Solo on "Shock-It-To-Me": Billy Bang All Drum Programming & Bootsy Wave-U-Lator: Mico Wave Computer Talk: Boot-Tron Space Basses & Low End Chasers: Bootsy Collins, Casper & Bootzilla Lead Vocalization & Heavy Metal Aluminum Conversation: Casper, Luv-Gun,Bootzilla, Sugar Crook, Baby Leroy and Bootsy Collins Front Ground Vocal Improvisation: Gary "Mudbone" Cooper, Sly Fox Additional Vocals & Musicians: P-Nut Johnson, Vicky Vee, Tony Feldman,George Clinton, Taka Boom, Mallia Franklin, Carolyn Stanford, Anita Walker, Cynthia Girty, Bernard Fowler, Eddie Martinez, Nicky Skopelitis, Bernie Worrell Extra Rappers, Clappers, & Finger Snappers: "Billy J" William Johnson,"Oounchworm" Sharir Forman, "Pretty Fatt", Yolanda Frazier, Mico Wave, Yo-Mama Collins, Uncle Tom & Uncle Al

Foundation species

In ecology, the term foundation species is used to refer to a species that has a strong role in structuring a community. A foundation species can occupy any trophic level in a food web; the term was coined by Paul K. Dayton in 1972, who applied it to certain members of marine invertebrate and algae communities, it was clear from studies in several locations that there were a small handful of species whose activities had a disproportionate effect on the rest of the marine community and they were therefore key to the resilience of the community. Dayton’s view was that focusing on foundation species would allow for a simplified approach to more understand how a community as a whole would react to disturbances, such as pollution, instead of attempting the difficult task of tracking the responses of all community members simultaneously; the term has since been applied to range of organisms in ecosystems around the world, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aaron Ellison et al. introduced the term to terrestrial ecology by applying the term foundation species to tree species that define and structure certain forest ecosystems through their influences on associated organisms and modulation of ecosystem processes.

A study conducted at the McKenzie Flats of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico, a semiarid biome transition zone, observed the result of loss of a variety of different dominant and codominant foundation species of plants on the growth of other species. This transition zone consists of two Chihuahuan Desert species, black grama and creosote bush, a shortgrass steppe species, blue grama; each species dominates an area with a specific soil environment. Black grama dominates sandy soils, while blue grama dominates in soils with high clay content, creosote bush dominates fine-textured soil with surface gravel; this study noted that responses to the loss of foundation species is dependent on a variety of different factors from the ability of a species to recover to the climate conditions of the ecosystem to the patterns in dominance and explored the possible reasons for the outcomes of the study. The results indicated that in areas with just one dominant foundation species, its loss caused a shift in dominance to a mixed dominant community.

For example, the creosote bush dominated shrubland saw a shift in dominance to 32% by other shrubs, 26% by perennial grasses, 22% by perennial forbs following the removal of creosote bush. Another finding was that regardless of the community type and the species removed, the loss of foundation species resulted in an overall increase in black grama supporting the notion that the outcome is affected by recovery ability of species removed or loss. Another study observed the effects of loss of foundation eastern hemlocks in a forest ecosystem. Eastern hemlocks are a foundation species in eastern North American forests, but have been threatened by the accidental introduction of woolly adelgid; this study observed the effects that a loss in eastern hemlocks would have on the populations of arthropods, such as ants and spiders, since these species are known indicators of environmental change. The results found that in areas of hemlock removal, there was an overall increase and influx of arthropod species.

Researchers suggested that this was due to an increase in open habitats from the loss of the hemlocks. The results of this hemlock study corroborated with those from the previous McKenzie Flats study discussed in that the loss of foundation species led to a proliferation of species diversity in the affected area; these results seem to contradict a long-standing belief that foundation species play a vital role in communities and ecosystems by creating habitats for organisms, suggesting that in some circumstances they bottleneck species diversity. Foundation species play a vital role in structuring a community; the presence of a foundation species has the ability to either reduce or increase species diversity depending on its particular role in a specific ecosystem. The studies discussed highlighted examples in which foundation species limited species diversity in similar and differing taxa. Keystone species Indicator species Flagship species Ecological facilitation