Culture of Egypt
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Middle Africa. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique and stable culture that influenced cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity, Christian culture. Arabic is Egypt's official language, it came to Egypt in the 7th century, the Egyptian Arabic dialect today has become the modern speech of the country. Of the many varieties of Arabic, it is the most spoken second dialect, due to the influence of Egyptian cinema and media throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Egypt's position in the heart of the Arab world has had reversed influence, adopting many words and proverbs from neighboring Arabic speaking areas such as the Maghreb area and the Mashriq. Today the daily Egyptian Arabic adopted several French, Greek, Turkish and English words to its dictionary, as well as keeping several other words from its own ancient languages such as Coptic and Demotic.
The Egyptian language, which formed a separate branch among the family of Afro-Asiatic languages, was among the first written languages and is known from the hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus. The Coptic language, the most recent stage of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church; the "Koiné" dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, was studied by Arabic scholars. In the lower Nile Valley, around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages Nobiin, but Kenuzi-Dongola; the Berber languages are represented by Siwi, spoken by about 20,000 around the Siwa Oasis. Other minorities include 60,000 Greek speakers in Alexandria and Cairo as well as 10,000 Armenian speakers. Many Egyptians believed that when it came to a death of their Pharaoh, they would have to bury the Pharaoh deep inside the Pyramid; the ancient Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the third millennium BC.
Religious literature is best known for its hymns to and its mortuary texts. The oldest extant Egyptian literature is the Pyramid Texts: the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers; the secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the'wisdom texts', forms of philosophical instruction. The Instruction of Ptahhotep, for example, is a collation of moral proverbs by an Egto seem to have been drawn from an elite administrative class, were celebrated and revered into the New Kingdom. In time, the Pyramid Texts became Coffin Texts, the mortuary literature produced its masterpiece, the Book of the Dead, during the New Kingdom; the Middle Kingdom was the golden age of Egyptian literature. Some notable texts include the Tale of Neferty, the Instructions of Amenemhat I, the Tale of Sinuhe, the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor and the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. Instructions became a popular literary genre of the New Kingdom, taking the form of advice on proper behavior; the Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any are well-known examples from this period.
During the Greco-Roman period, Egyptian literature was translated into other languages, Greco-Roman literature fused with native art into a new style of writing. From this period comes the Rosetta Stone, which became the key to unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian writing to modern scholarship; the great city of Alexandria boasted its famous Library of half a million handwritten books during the third century BC. Alexandria's center of learning produced the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint. Drep During the first few centuries of the Christian era, Egypt was the ultimate source of a great deal of ascetic literature in the Coptic language. Egyptian monasteries translated many Syriac words, which are now only extant in Coptic. Under Islam, Egypt continued to be a great source of literary endeavor, now in the Arabic language. In 970, al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo, which to this day remains the most important center of Sunni Islamic learning. In 12th-century Egypt, the Jewish Talmudic scholar Maimonides produced his most important work.
In contemporary times, Egyptian novelists and poets were among the last to experiment with modern styles of Arabic-language literature, the forms they developed have been imitated. The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular. Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Many Egyptian books and films are available throughout the Middle East. Other prominent Egyptian writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist works and activism, Alifa Rifaat who writes about women and tradition. Vernacular poetry is said to be the most popular literary genre amongst Egyptians, represented most by Bayram el-Tunsi, Ahmed Fouad Negm, Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. About 75% of Egypt's population is Muslim, with a Sunni majority. About 22% of the population is Coptic Christian. Sunni Islam sees Egypt as an important part of its religion due to not only Quranic verses mentioning the country, but due to the Al-Azhar University, one of the earliest of the world universities, the longest functioning.
It was created as a school for religion works. The Egyptians were one of th
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil El-Sisi is an Egyptian politician, the sixth and current President of Egypt, in office since 2014. Starting February 10, 2019, Sisi began serving a one-year term as Chairperson of the African Union. Sisi was born in Cairo and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia before enrolling in the Egyptian Army's Command and Staff College. In 1992, Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College at Watchfield, Oxfordshire, in the United Kingdom, in 2006 trained at the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and as director of military intelligence. After the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and election of Mohamed Morsi to the Egyptian presidency, Sisi was appointed Minister of Defence by Morsi on 12 August 2012, replacing the Mubarak-era Hussein Tantawi; as Minister of Defence, Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Sisi was involved in the military coup that removed Morsi from office on July 3, 2013, in response to June 2013 Egyptian protests, called a revolution by its proponents.
He dissolved the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 and proposed, along with leading opposition and religious figures, a new political road map, which included the voting for a new constitution, new parliamentary and presidential elections. Morsi was replaced by Adly Mansour, who appointed a new cabinet; the interim government cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its Islamist supporters in the months that followed, on certain liberal opponents of the post-Morsi administration. On 14 August 2013, police carried out the August 2013 Rabaa massacre, killing hundreds of civilians and wounding thousands, leading to international criticism. On 26 March 2014, in response to calls from supporters to run for presidency, Sisi retired from his military career, announcing that he would run as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election; the election, held between 26 and 28 May, featured one sole opponent, Hamdeen Sabahi, saw 47% participation by eligible voters, resulted in Sisi winning in a landslide victory with more than 97% of the vote.
Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014. Sisi's government has given the Egyptian military unchecked power, some media reports have labeled him a dictator and a strongman, comparing him to Egypt's former dictators. In the 2018 presidential election, Sisi faced only nominal opposition after the military arrest of Sami Anan and his enforced disappearance afterwards, threats made to Ahmed Shafik with old corruption charges and sex tape, the withdrawal of Khaled Ali and Mohamed Anwar El-Sadat due to the overwhelming obstacles and violations made by the elections committee. Sisi was born in Old Cairo on 19 November 1954, to parents Said Hussein Khalili al-Sisi and Soad Mohamed, he grew up in Gamaleya, near al-Azhar Mosque, in a quarter where Muslims and Christians resided and in which he recalled how, during his childhood, he heard church bells and watched Jews flock to the synagogue unhindered. Sisi would enroll in the Egyptian Military Academy, upon graduating he held various command positions in the Egyptian Armed Forces and served as Egypt's military attaché in Riyadh.
In 1987 he attended Staff College. In 1992 he continued his military career by enrolling in the British Command and Staff College, in 2006 enrolled in the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, serving as the director of military intelligence and reconnaissance department, he was chosen to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and serve as the commander-in-chief and Minister of Defence and Military Production on 12 August 2012. Sisi's family originated from Monufia Governorate, he is the second of eight siblings. His father, a conservative but not radical Muslim, had a wooden antiques shop for tourists in the historic bazaar of Khan el-Khalili, he and his siblings studied at the nearby library at al-Azhar University. Unlike his brothers – one of whom is a senior judge, another a civil servant – el-Sisi went to a local army-run secondary school, where concurrently his relationship with his maternal cousin Entissar Amer started to develop.
They were married upon Sisi's graduation from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977. He attended the following courses: General Command and Staff Course, Egyptian Command and Staff College, 1987, he became Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria in 2008 and Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance. El-Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt. While a member of the Supreme Council, he made controversial statements regarding allegations that Egyptian soldiers had subjected detained female demonstrators to forced virginity tests, he is reported to have told Egypt's state-owned newspaper that "the virginity-test procedure was done to protect the gi
2018 Egyptian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Egypt between 26 and 28 March 2018, though Egyptians abroad voted from 16 to 18 March 2018. On 19 January, incumbent President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi formally announced he would run for a second and final term. A runoff, if necessary, would take place 19 to 21 April outside the country and 24 to 26 April within the country. 14 human rights groups dismissed the poll as "farcical". They said the authorities had "trampled over the minimum requirements for free and fair elections", stifling basic freedoms and eliminating key challengers; the president of Egypt is elected using the two-round system. The winner will be announced on 2 April. If a run-off is needed, the final result will be announced on 1 May 2018. If only one person runs for the presidency, he or she can win with a yes vote from five percent of the eligible voters; the Civil Democratic Movement announced on 30 January 2018. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the incumbent president of Egypt. Sisi gained his office by leading the military's 2013 coup of Egypt's first democratically elected president, Mohammed Morsi, winning a sham election in 2014.
In the announcement of his candidacy he stated, "There are people I know who are corrupt, I will not allow them to come near this chair.” President Sisi has received the endorsement of 464 members of Egyptian Parliament two thirds of the body. Ghad Party chairman Moussa Mostafa Moussa, a pro-Sisi politician who had an active role in collecting nomination pledges for Sisi’s second term until 20 January, announced that he found endorsements from 26 members of parliament, as well as 47,000 signatures from the public although he declared his intention to run just a day before the deadline of the elections commission. Moussa submitted his nomination pledges and official paperwork to the commission just 15 minutes before the deadline. In an interview with Egypt Today, Mussa said that he’s not a “phony” candidate and he has “a vision that can be achieved by being part of the system.” Ahmed Shafik, former Egyptian prime minister and leader of the Egyptian Patriotic Movement and 2012 presidential candidate.
Khaled Ali, a human rights lawyer, the former head of the Egyptian Center for Economic and Social Rights and 2012 presidential candidate, announced his intention to run for the presidency on 6 November 2017. Ali withdrew on 24 January 2018 after the arrest of Sami Anan, he had been convicted of making "an obscene gesture" outside a courthouse and was in the appeal process. Sami Hafez Anan, a former Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces announced his candidacy in a Facebook video on 19 January 2018, he was arrested on 23 January after being accused by the Egyptian Armed Forces of forging his release from military service. It is illegal in Egypt for active military personnel to participate in politics. Anan retired from military service in 2012 after being removed by then-president Mohamed Morsi; the Defense Ministry claims that it has documentation that he is still a reserve member of the military. Anan's campaign manager claimed in a television interview that Anan had submitted the paperwork to request a discharge from his reserve status, said Anan had followed the precedent set by President Sisi in his 2014 run.
El-Sayyid el-Badawi, chairman of the New Wafd Party. Mortada Mansour, chairman of Zamalek Sporting Club. Anwar Essmat Sadat, expelled MP, chairman of the Reform and Development Misruna Party, former chairman of the Egyptian House of Representatives' Human Rights Committee and nephew of Anwar Sadat. Supporters of former presidential candidates Sami Hafez Anan and Khaled Ali faced difficulties in registering pledges for them. Sisi exerted pressure on former presidential candidates. According to Foreign Policy: "The March vote will in no way confirm President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s popularity among the Egyptian people; this election campaign is an extension of the internal power struggle among the military and the regime’s security services, it has nothing to do with democratic mechanisms worthy of the name." Following the elections, it was reported that large number of spoilt ballot papers more than a million, involved voters crossing out both names and writing that of football player Mohamed Salah
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the Egyptian government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Egypt. On 17 July 2014 Sameh Shoukry was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. In the 19th century, the Ministry was one of the divans established by Muhammad Ali Pasha, known as the'founder of modern Egypt'; the aim of the Ministry was to organize Egypt's internal, external affairs, was concerned with trade, commerce. It became the Divan of Foreign Affairs, was concerned with trade, citizen's affairs, it continued to function after the Muhammad Ali’s reign, it was one of the fundamental divans of the state. It was concerned with abolishing slavery, following up international treaties. During the era of Sa'id Pasha, Isma'il Pasha, there were some modifications in the Ministry, due to the increasing presence of the Europeans in Egypt. Due to the change of rule in Egypt in 1878, the absolute jurisdictions given to rulers were diminished, the divans were replaced by portfolios.
During this period, the foreign portfolio was headed by prominent figures such as Boutros Ghali, who spent the longest period in office from 1894–1910. The foreign portfolio was put to an end after the declaration of the British Protectorate over Egypt in 1914. After Egyptian independence was recognised by the United Kingdom on 22 February 1922, the Ministry of Foreign affairs was re-established on 15 March 1922. Ahmed Heshmat Pasha, who became the first Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1923, laid the cornerstone of the organizational structure of the Ministry and took Al Bustan Palace in Bab El Louk, a palace owned by King Fuad, to be the first official headquarters to his Ministry, he divided the Ministry into four main departments, the Minister's divan, the department of political and commercial affairs, the department of consular affairs, the department of administrative affairs. In 1925, the first special decree regarding the consular system was issued, the decree regarding the system of the political positions.
Although the reestablishment of the Ministry was approved, the continuing British occupation of the country imposed restrictions on the level of the Egyptian diplomatic representation abroad. After the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, diplomatic representation of Egypt was raised to be at the same level as the diplomatic representation in London. Under the treaty, Britain recognised Egypt's right to raise its diplomatic representation to the level of "ambassador" which in turn enabled Egypt to join the League of Nations in 1937.join the League of Nations. This enabled Egyptian diplomacy to have a role in the international arena once more; the Egyptian diplomatic representation spread to many parts of the world. During this period, the Egyptian consular representation spread more than the diplomatic representation due to the large number of consuls who functioned in cities like London, Liverpool in Britain, Paris and Lyons in France, Berlin, Hamburg in Germany; the aftermath of the Second World War had a great impact on the Egyptian diplomatic performance through the structural changes made by the Egyptian Ministers at that time in order to cope with the profound changes created by the war.
After the end of the war, the Egyptian Ministers made changes to cope with the effect of the war. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 led to transformation of the organisational structure of the Ministry. On 21 September 1955, law number 453 was issued to define the role of the Foreign Ministry in implementing Egyptian foreign policy, developing foreign relations of Egypt with foreign governments, international organisations, protecting Egyptian interests abroad, issuing diplomatic passports, following up issues related to diplomatic immunities and privileges. In 1966, the Ministry set up the Institute for Diplomatic Studies. In 1979, the Egyptian Foreign Minister, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, decided to reorganise the Ministry to deal with the new circumstances following the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty, the following year, Foreign Minister Kamal Hassan, reorganised the Ministry in order to develop the internal work mechanisms, worked on enhancing the Diplomatic Institute. Hosni Mubarak became the President of Egypt on 14 October 1981, after which the Ministry went through a comprehensive reform process.
For the first time in 30 years, the law related to the Diplomatic and Consular Corps was modified. Law Number 45 for year 1982 regarding the Diplomatic and Consular Corps was issued to cope with the new prospects of the Egyptian diplomatic and consular relations, according to the two Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic and Consular Relations which Egypt joined in the 1960s. In the 1990s, a restructuring process for the Egyptian diplomatic practice took place; this process was influenced by the factors affecting the international arena such as the information and technological revolution, the increase in the role of non-governmental organisations in international relations, the emergence of economic globalisation. The Ministry is responsible for conducting the Egypt's foreign relations within the framework of the Egyptian Cabinet, it plays an essential role in collecting and evaluating political, economic and scientific information that may affect foreign relations. It is responsible for planning and implementing Egyptian foreign policy, co-ordinating with the other Egyptian ministries and institutions concerned.
After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the decision-making patterns in the Ministry underwent alteration. Such alteration depended on the nature of the relationship between the Presidential institution and the Ministry, on the sort of issues with which the decision-maker is dealing; the changes ma
Ancient Egyptian architecture
Spanning over two thousand years in total, what is called ancient Egypt was not one stable civilization, but instead a civilization in constant change and upheaval split into periods by historians. Ancient Egyptian architecture is not one style, but a set of styles with commonalities used during each period of ancient Egyptian history; the most well known example of ancient Egyptian architecture are the Egyptian pyramids. Due to location, most ancient Egyptian buildings were built of mud brick and limestone—readily available materials—by slaves. Monumental buildings were built via the post and lintel method of construction, many buildings were aligned astronomically. Columns were adorned with decorated capitals which were made to resemble plants important to Egyptian civilization, such as the papyrus plant. Ancient Egyptian architectural motifs have influenced present-day architecture, reaching the wider world first during the Orientalizing period and again during the nineteenth century Egyptomania.
Due to the scarcity of wood, the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brick and stone limestone, but sandstone and granite in considerable quantities. From the Old Kingdom onward, stone was reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used for royal palaces, the walls of temple precincts and towns, for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes; the core of the pyramids consisted of locally quarried stone, sand or gravel. For the casing stones were used that had to be transported from farther away, predominantly white limestone from Tura and red granite from upper Egypt. Ancient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the damp banks of the Nile river, it was left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction. If the bricks were intended to be used in a royal tomb like a pyramid, the exterior bricks would be finely chiselled and polished. Many Egyptian towns have disappeared because they were situated near the cultivated area of the Nile Valley and were flooded as the river bed rose during the millennia, or the mud bricks of which they were built were used by peasants as fertilizer.
Others are inaccessible, new buildings having been erected on ancient ones. However, the dry, hot climate of Egypt preserved some mud brick structures. Examples include the village Deir al-Madinah, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun, the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Many temples and tombs have survived because they were built on high ground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed of stone. Thus, our understanding of ancient Egyptian architecture is based on religious monuments, massive structures characterized by thick, sloping walls with few openings echoing a method of construction used to obtain stability in mud walls. In a similar manner, the incised and flatly modeled surface adornment of the stone buildings may have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Although the use of the arch was developed during the fourth dynasty, all monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the spaced columns.
Exterior and interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors. Many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, the buds and flowers of the lotus. Hieroglyphs spells. In addition, these pictorial frescoes and carvings allow us to understand how the Ancient Egyptians lived, wars that were fought and their beliefs; this was true when exploring the tombs of Ancient Egyptian officials in recent years. Ancient Egyptian temples were aligned with astronomically significant events, such as solstices and equinoxes, requiring precise measurements at the moment of the particular event. Measurements at the most significant temples may have been ceremonially undertaken by the Pharaoh himself; as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm.
Their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud; the base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules. At the Luxor Temple, the columns are reminiscent of papyrus bundles symbolic of the marsh from which the ancient Egyptians believed the creation of the world to have unfolded; the Giza Necropolis stands on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
This complex of ancient monuments is located some 8 kilometers inland into the desert from the old town of Giza on the Nile, some 20 kilometers southw
Egyptian Revival architecture
Egyptian revival is an architectural style that uses the motifs and imagery of ancient Egypt. It is attributed to the public awareness of ancient Egyptian monuments generated by Napoleon's conquest of Egypt and Admiral Nelson's defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1798; the size and monumentality of the façades'discovered' during his adventure cement the hold of Egyptian aesthetics on the Parisian elite. Napoleon took a scientific expedition with him to Egypt. Publication of the expedition's work, the Description de l'Égypte, began in 1809 and was published as a series through 1826. However, works of art and architecture in the Egyptian style had been made or built on the European continent and the British Isles since the time of the Renaissance; the most important example is Gian Lorenzo Bernini's obelisk in the Piazza Navona in Rome. It influenced the obelisk constructed as a family funeral memorial by Sir Edward Lovatt Pierce for the Allen family at Stillorgan in Ireland in 1717, one of several Egyptian obelisks erected in Ireland during the early 18th century.
Others may be found at County Kildare. The Casteltown Folly in County Kildare is the best known, albeit the least Egyptian-styled. Egyptian buildings had been built as garden follies; the most elaborate was the one built by Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg in the gardens of the Château de Montbéliard. It included an Egyptian bridge across which guests walked to reach an island with an elaborate Egyptian-influenced bath house. Designed by the duke's court architect, Jean Baptiste Kleber, the building had a billiards room and a "bagnio". New after the Napoleonic invasion was a sudden increase of the number of works of art and the fact that, for the first time, entire buildings began to be built to resemble those of ancient Egypt. In France and Britain this was at least inspired by successful war campaigns undertaken by each country while in Egypt. According to David Brownlee, the 1798 Karlsruhe Synagogue, an early building by the influential Friedrich Weinbrenner was "the first large Egyptian building to be erected since antiquity."
According to Diana Muir Appelbaum, it was "the first public building in the Egyptian revival style." The ancient Egyptian influence was shown in the two large engaged pylons flanking the entrance. Among the earliest monuments of the Egyptian revival in Paris is the Fontaine du Fellah in Paris, built in 1806, it was designed by François-Jean Bralle. A well-documented example, destroyed after Napoleon was deposed, was the monument to General Louis Desaix in the Place des Victoires was built in 1810, it featured a nude statue of the general and an obelisk, both set upon an Egyptian revival base. Another example of a still standing site of Egyptian Revival is the Egyptian Gate of Tsarskoe Selo, built in 1829. A street or passage named the Place du Caire or Foire du Caire was built in Paris in 1798 on the former site of the convent of the "Filles de la Charité". No. 2 Place du Caire, from 1828, is in overall form a conventional Parisian structure with shops on the ground floor and apartments above, but with considerable Egyptianizing decoration including a row of massive Hathor heads and a frieze by sculptor J. G. Garraud.
One of the first British buildings to show an Egyptian revival interior was the newspaper office of the Courier on the Strand in London. It was built in 1804 and featured a cavetto cornice and Egyptian-influenced columns with palmiform capitals. Other early British examples include the Egyptian Hall in London, completed in 1812, the Egyptian Gallery, a private room in the home of connoisseur Thomas Hope to display his Egyptian antiquities, illustrated in engravings from his meticulous line drawings in his book Household Furniture, were a prime source for the regency style of British furnishings. Egyptian revival architecture enjoyed considerable popularity in other countries as well; the first Egyptian revival building in the United States was the 1824 synagogue building of Congregation Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania It was followed by a series of major public buildings in the first half of the 19th century including the 1835 Philadelphia County Prison, Pennsylvania, United States, the 1836 Fourth District Police Station in New Orleans and the 1838 New York City jail known as the Tombs.
Other public buildings in Egyptian style included the 1844 Old Whaler's Church in Sag Harbor, New York, the 1846 First Baptist Church in Essex, the 1845 Egyptian Building of the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond and the 1848 United States Custom House in New Orleans. The most notable Egyptian structure in the United States was the Washington Monument, begun in 1848, this obelisk featured doors with cavetto cornices and winged sun disks removed; the National World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri is another example of Egyptian revival architecture and art. The South African College in the then-British Cape Colony features an "Egyptian building" constructed in 1841; the Great Synagogue was Australia's first Egyptian revival building, followed by the Hobart Synagogue, the Launceston Synagogue and the Adelaide Hebrew Congregation, all by 1850. The earliest obelisk in Australia was erected at Macquarie Place, Sydney in 1818; the expeditions that led to the discovery in 1922 of the treasure of Tutankhamun's tomb by the a
Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary based on historical context and methodological approach. Republicanism may refer to the non-ideological scientific approach to politics and governance; as the republican thinker John Adams stated in the introduction to his famous Defense of the Constitution, the "science of politics is the science of social happiness" and a republic is the form of government arrived at when the science of politics is appropriately applied to the creation of a rationally designed government. Rather than being ideological, this approach focuses on applying a scientific methodology to the problems of governance through the rigorous study and application of past experience and experimentation in governance; this is the approach that may best be described to apply to republican thinkers such as Niccolò Machiavelli, John Adams, James Madison.
The word "republic" derives from the Latin noun-phrase res publica, which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BCE following the expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus. This form of government in the Roman state collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century B. C. giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics recurred subsequently, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain; the concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britain's North American colonies, where it contributed to the American Revolution. In Europe, it gained enormous influence through the French Revolution and through the First French Republic of 1792–1804. In Ancient Greece, several philosophers and historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism. Traditionally, the Greek concept of "politeia" was rendered into Latin as res publica. Political theory until recently used republic in the general sense of "regime".
There is no single written expression or definition from this era that corresponds with a modern understanding of the term "republic" but most of the essential features of the modern definition are present in the works of Plato and Polybius. These include theories of civic virtue. For example, in The Republic, Plato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue together with personal virtue on the part of the ideal rulers. Indeed, in Book V, Plato asserts that until rulers have the nature of philosophers or philosophers become the rulers, there can be no civic peace or happiness. A number of Ancient Greek city-states such as Athens and Sparta have been classified as "classical republics", because they featured extensive participation by the citizens in legislation and political decision-making. Aristotle considered Carthage to have been a republic as it had a political system similar to that of some of the Greek cities, notably Sparta, but avoided some of the defects that affected them.
Both Livy, a Roman historian, Plutarch, noted for his biographies and moral essays, described how Rome had developed its legislation, notably the transition from a kingdom to a republic, by following the example of the Greeks. Some of this history, composed more than 500 years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, may be fictitious reconstruction; the Greek historian Polybius, writing in the mid-2nd century BCE, emphasized the role played by the Roman Republic as an institutional form in the dramatic rise of Rome's hegemony over the Mediterranean. In his writing on the constitution of the Roman Republic, Polybius described the system as being a "mixed" form of government. Polybius described the Roman system as a mixture of monarchy and democracy with the Roman Republic constituted in such a manner that it applied the strengths of each system to offset the weaknesses of the others. In his view, the mixed system of the Roman Republic provided the Romans with a much greater level of domestic tranquility than would have been experienced under another form of government.
Furthermore, Polybius argued, the comparative level of domestic tranquility the Romans enjoyed allowed them to conquer the Mediterranean. Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE. In one of these works, De re publica, Cicero linked the Roman concept of res publica to the Greek politeia; the modern term "republic", despite its derivation, is not synonymous with the Roman res publica. Among the several meanings of the term res publica, it is most translated "republic" where the Latin expression refers to the Roman state, its form of government, between the era of the Kings and the era of the Emperors; this Roman Republic would, by a modern understanding of the word, still be defined as a true republic if not coinciding entirely. Thus, Enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system because it included features like a systematic separation of powers. Romans still called their state "Res Publica" in the era of the early emperors because, on the surface, the organization of the state had been preserved by the first emperors without significant alteration.
Several offices from the Republican era, held by individuals, were combined under the control of a single person. These changes became permanent, conferred sovereignty on the Emperor. Cicero's description of the ideal state, in De re Pu