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Politics of Fiji

The politics of Fiji take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. Fiji has a multiparty system with the Prime Minister of Fiji as head of government; the executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Fiji; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Following the 2006 Fijian coup d'état, the power was subsumed by the military. Nominal head of state Ratu Josefa Iloilo abrogated the Constitution of Fiji and dismissed all Courts, after the Court of Appeal ruled that the post-coup Bainimarama government was illegal. A new Constitution was promulgated in September 2013, a general election was held in September 2014, won by Bainimarama's FijiFirst Party; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Fiji as a "hybrid regime" in 2018. Fiji's Head of State is the President, he is elected by Parliament of Fiji after nomination by the Prime Minister or the Leader of the Opposition, for a three-year term. Although his role is an honorary one, modelled after that of the British Monarchy, the President has certain "reserve powers" that may be used in the event of a national crisis.

In practice, attempts by the President to assert the reserve powers have proved problematic. In 2000, in the midst of a civilian coup d'État against the elected government, President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara announced on 27 May that he was assuming executive authority, but was evidently forced to resign two days by the military Commander, Commodore Frank Bainimarama; the President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Actual executive power is in the hands of the cabinet, presided over by the Prime Minister; the Prime Minister is elected under the 2013 Constitution of Fiji. Under the former constitution, abrogated at the behest of the Military-backed interim government in 2009, the Prime Minister was formally appointed by the President, but had to be acceptable to a majority of the House of Representatives. In practice, this reduced the President's role to little more than a formality, with the position automatically going to the leader of the political party or coalition that controlled a majority of seats.

There were times, when there was no clear majority in the House of Representatives. The parliamentary election of 1992 was inconclusive, the position of the largest party, the Soqosoqo ni Vakavulewa ni Taukei, was further undermined by subsequent defections. On such occasions, the President had to take on the role of an arbitrator. After consulting with all the parliamentary factions, he would appoint as Prime Minister the person he judged to be the most acceptable to the majority in the House of Representatives. If no such person could be found, the President was required to order a new election. Another situation requiring Presidential intervention arose following the 1999 election; the People's Coalition won a landslide victory. Some of the smaller parties in the coalition expressed unease at the prospect of Mahendra Chaudhry, the Labour Party leader and an Indo-Fijian, becoming Prime Minister, saying that he would be unacceptable to indigenous Fijian voters that they represented. President Mara, persuaded them to accept Chaudhry as Prime Minister.

The cabinet, consisting of around ten to twenty five Ministers, is formally appointed by the President on the nomination of the Prime Minister. According to the former 1997 constitution, the cabinet was supposed to reflect the political composition of the House of Representatives, with every party holding more than 8 seats in the House entitled to proportionate representation in the cabinet. In practice, this rule was never implemented. In 1999, Chaudhry refused to give Ministerial posts to the Soqosoqo ni Vakavulewa ni Taukei, saying that its demands were unacceptable. From 2001 to 2004, Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase, whose coalition dominated by his Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua had narrowly won the 2001 election, refused to include the Fiji Labour Party in his cabinet, avoided implementing several subsequent Supreme Court verdicts ordering him to do so by appealing each successive verdict, until the Labour Party announced late in 2004 that it was no longer interested in joining the cabinet.

Under the 2013 Constitution, the Cabinet is no longer required to reflect the political composition of Parliament. Under the 2013 Constitution, Fiji's Parliament is unicameral, its 50 members are elected for four-year terms by Party-list proportional representation, with the entire country voting as a single constituency. To win election to Parliament, a political party must win five percent of the total valid vote nationwide. Fiji's system differs from that of many other countries using the party-list system, however, in that voters do not vote for a party, as such, but for an individual candidate; each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate. The votes for all candidates on a party ticket are pooled, their aggregate as a percentage of the total valid vote determining the number of seats in Parliament to which their party is entitled; the eligible number of candidates from a political party are elected in the order of the number of votes they received individually. In the 2014 elections, for example, the FijiFirst Party polled 59.2 percent of the valid vote.

When votes for small parties polling less than the five-percent threshold were excluded, this entitled FijiFirst to 32 of the 50 seats. These were filled by the 32 FijiFirst candidates who polled the highest number of votes as individuals. Prior to the adoption of the 2013 Constitut

Egalitarian equivalence

Egalitarian equivalence is a criterion of fair division. In an egalitarian-equivalent division, there exists a certain "reference bundle" Z such that each agent feels that his/her share is equivalent to Z; the EE fairness principle is combined with Pareto efficiency. A PEEEA is an allocation, both Pareto efficient and egalitarian-equivalent. A set of resources are divided among several agents such that every agent i receives a bundle X i; every agent i has a subjective preference relation ⪰ i, a total order over bundle. These preference relations induce an equivalence relation in the usual way: X ∼ i Y iff X ⪰ i Y ⪰ i X. An allocation is called egalitarian-equivalent if there exists a bundle Z such that, for all i: X i ∼ i Z An allocation is called PEEEA if it is both Pareto-efficient and egalitarian-equivalent; the EE criterion was introduced by Elisha Pazner and David Schmeidler in 1978. The main fairness criterion in economics has been envy-freeness. EF has the merit that it is an ordinal criterion --- it can be defined based only on individual preference-relations.

However, EF might be incompatible with Pareto efficiency. In particular, in a standard economy with production, there may be no allocation, both PE and EF. EE, like EF, is an ordinal criterion --- it can be defined based only on individual preference-relations. However, it is always compatible with PE --- a PEEEA always exists in production economies. Pazner and Schmeidler informally describe a PEEEA as follows: "Consider the case where there are two consumers and two commodities. Suppose that each consumer is given half the total endowments; this egalitarian distribution will in general not be PE. Consider the ray in commodity space that goes from the origin through the vector of aggregate endowments; the egalitarian distribution is represented by each man being given the same bundle along this ray. If the egalitarian distribution is not PE moving each man up along the ray yields distributions of utilities that are still feasible, since the starting utility distribution is in the interior of the utility possibility set.

In particular, if we move each man up along the commodity ray in the same manner, we shall hit a utility distribution that lies on the utility possibility frontier. This means that there exists a Pareto-efficient allocation, equivalent from the viewpoint of each consumer to the hypothetical distribution along the ray that would give to each consumer the same bundle; this PE allocation is thus equivalent to the egalitarian distribution in the hypothetical economy... The resulting set of allocations is what we call the set of Pareto-efficient and egalitarian-equivalent allocations, it is a restriction of the Pareto set of the economy to those allocations having the specified equity property that their underlying utility levels distribution could have been generated by some egalitarian economy.". As a special case, assume that there is a finite number of homogeneous divisible goods. Let W be a certain bundle. For every r ∈, let r W be the bundle in which the amount of each good is r times its amount in W.

Suppose the preference-relation of each agent i is represented by a utility function V i, calibrated such that: V i = r. A special case of an EE allocation is an allocation in which, for all i: V i = r In other words, all agents have the same calibrated utility. In this case, the Pareto-efficient EE allocation coincides with the maximin allocation - the allocation that maximizes the minimum utility. Note that the maximin principle depends on numeric utility. Therefore, it cannot be used directly with ordinal preference-relations; the EE principle is ordinal, it suggests a particular way to calibrate the utilities so that they can be used with the maximin principle. In the special case in which W is the bundle of all resources, an egalitarian-equivalent division is called an equitable division. Herve Moulin describes this special case of the EE rule as follows: "The EE solution equalizes across agents the utilities measured along the "numeraire" of the commo

St├ęphan Tremblay

Stéphan Tremblay is a former politician in Quebec, Canada. Tremblay was a member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1996 to 2002, a member of the National Assembly of Quebec from 2002 to 2006, he was born in Quebec. He won a by-election in 1996 and succeeded Lucien Bouchard as Member of Parliament for the Lac-Saint-Jean electoral district. Tremblay was affiliated with the Bloc Québécois, he was re-elected in the 2000 elections. In 2002, he left federal politics and won a provincial by-election on June 17, 2002 as a Parti Québécois candidate, he represented the riding of Lac Saint-Jean in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region. Tremblay was re-elected to the MNA in the 2003 election, he served as the opposition critic for environment until his resignation in 2006. In 1998, he removed his green upholstered chair from the Canadian House of Commons and returned with it to his Quebec riding in protest of the gaps between the rich and the poor, he returned the chair a week later. In August 2004, Tremblay was injured when the small plane he was flying crashed near Alma, Quebec after hitting Hydro-Québec's high-voltage power lines..

Stéphan Tremblay – Parliament of Canada biography "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec

Valentine Flood

Valentine Flood, M. D. was an Irish anatomist and physician who died of typhus while treating fever victims in County Tipperary during the Great Irish Famine. Flood was born in about the year 1800 in Dublin. Flood entered William Dease's private medical school in about 1818 and studied at Trinity College, Dublin, as a member of which he took the degrees of B. A. in 1820, M. B. and M. A. in 1823, M. D. in 1830. After serving the apprenticeship, at that time necessary for becoming licensed by the Irish College of Surgeons, to Richard Carmichael, he took out the letters testimonial of the college, of which he became a fellow, in 1828 or 1829 was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the school of medicine connected with the Richmond Hospital, his increasing reputation as an anatomist led to his being chosen a lecturer on anatomy in the Richmond school about 1831–2. For a few seasons he gave his undivided attention to this branch of the profession, became a favourite among the pupils; as a private teacher he commanded one of the best classes in Dublin.

Had Flood continued these pursuits, for which he was so admirably adapted, it is certain that he would have enjoyed a prosperous career. But becoming ambitious of succeeding as a general practitioner, he connected himself with one of the Dublin dispensaries about 1835, laboured incessantly among the poor of the district in which he lived. Due to his efforts to become a doctor, his classes were neglected. Having lost position both as a lecturer and a private teacher, Flood was obliged to leave Dublin, he went to London, became associated with a medical school in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square. He gave private tuition from his residence at 37 Bernard Street, Russell Square, his health became impaired, in 1846 he returned to Ireland. As early as 1828 Flood published at Dublin the first volume of a work never completed, entitled ‘The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System,’ 12mo, though not without merit, lacked lucidity of style, attracted little attention. In 1839 he issued the treatise upon which his fame will chiefly rest, ‘The Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries, Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart: together with the Physiology of the Circulation in Man and inferior Animals,’ 12mo, London, 1839.

During his connection with the Richmond school he brought out a work on ‘The Anatomy and Surgery of Femoral and Inguinal Hernia. Illustrated with eight folio plates, drawn on stone by Mr. William Lover, from dissections and designs by Dr. Flood,’ fol. London, 1843, an excellent compilation. Flood was a member of the Royal Irish Academy. During the Great Irish Famine, Flood obtained one of the appointments afforded by the Board of Health to some fever sheds at Tubrid, in the county of Tipperary. In the course of his work he contracted typhus, of which he died on 18 October 1847. A stone was erected to his memory by the clergy of both denominations, the principal members of the relief committee at Tubrid; the Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries, Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart: together with the Physiology of the Circulation in Man and inferior Animals Full text of publication at Internet Archive This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Flood, Valentine". Dictionary of National Biography.

London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Adonis blue

The Adonis blue is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in the Palearctic ecozone, it may be found in chalk downland, in warm sheltered spots, flying low over vegetation, seeking females that are rich chocolate brown in color. The male has brilliantly-colored wings; the male has the upper side wings a brilliant sky blue, with a fine black line round the edge and a white margin. The female is chocolate brown with a few blue scales near the base, with orange spots, bordered by blue scales, around the edge of the hind wing; the fringes are chequered both sexes. The underside is brownish grey with orange crescent spots; the wingspan is about 3 cm.. The caterpillar reaches 1.6 centimetres in length, has a dark green body with dark spines, yellow bands along the back and sides. L. bellargus Rott.. Of the size of icarus but the male above of a light and glittering sky-blue: the female dark brown, with a red submarginal band and on the forewing a black discocellular spot; the underside bears some resemblance to that of coridon, as the rings of the ocelli are large and contrast conspicuously with the brown ground, dark in the female.

Central and Southern Europe, as well as Anterior Asia as far as Kurdistan. — Of aberrations in the upperside we mention first the light blue and strongly glossy ab. adonis Hbn. The opposite development is found in ab. pallida Tutt, duller and more lilac than ordinary bellargus. Ab. suffusa Tutt has the suffused blue shaded with plumbeous, which lessens the brilliancy of the colour, ab. ceronus Esp. are females whose upperside is dusted with blue. — polonus Z. is found only in certain districts East Prussia, Syria und Spain. — females with the red submarginal band of the upperside broad are ab. latefasciata Schultz — In Algeria flies a form which has a magnificent glossy blue upperside, is somewhat larger than Central European specimens and has distinct black spots before the distal margin of the hindwing above. In Europe occur specimens with traces of some submarginal dots an the hindwing above, without the other characters of punctifera. If such dots are present on the forewing, we have ab. puncta Tutt.

The ocelli of the underside may either be so enlarged that some become confluent, or they may become obsolete: ab. krodeli Gillm.. The specimens in which only the present basal ocelli of the forewing are absent are ab. sapphirus Meig. — Egg semiglobular, with the top some-what impressed, pale green, reticulated with white. Larva bright leaf-green, with dark dorsal stripe accompanied by small orange yellow spots, which form two subdorsal lines; until April and again in the summer on Hippocrepis and Coronilla. Pupa green or brown, with a dark stripe on the Idaek, on or close to the ground; the butterflies are on the wing in May and June and again in August, in the South a third time in September and October. They love fallow ground, young plantations and sunny slopes; when disturbed they fall with a jump into the grass. They are common at their flight-places in most districts and occur in mountains up to 7000 ft. In Britain, the Adonis Blue is at the northern extreme of its range and has always been restricted to the warmer dry calcareous grasslands of southern England.

It has suffered a huge decline in the past 200 years, has been lost from Cambridgeshire, Essex and the Chilterns. The strongholds are Dorset, Wiltshire and the Isle of Wight. Over the whole of Britain there has been a decline of over 90% in numbers of this species since 1950. German entomologist S. A. von Rottemburg described the Adonis blue in 1775 as Papilio bellargus, noting it was rare locally but came to his garden in June. The preferred habitat of the Adonis blue is calcareous grasslands with hot and dry conditions; this is because the larva feeds on horseshoe vetch, restricted to these habitats. This plant disappears after a few years when cattle graze. Sometimes human-created landforms provide refuges for the butterfly; the Adonis blue is at the most northerly edge of its range in Britain and has always been restricted to chalk grassland in the south. It has been declining over the last fifty years because its habitat has been disappearing through changing agricultural practices. There are efforts from conservation organisations and local Biodiversity Action Plans to encourage the populations of chalk-grassland butterflies through managed grazing programs.

The recent hot and dry weather associated with climate change seems to be beneficial for this species by making more habitats suitable. In 2006 it had returned to a site in the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire, where it had vanished 40 years previously. Winter is passed as a small caterpillar Habitat: Flowery hillsides on chalk and limestone Food plant: Horseshoe vetch Flight: May–September, in two broo


Irota is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary. It can be found 20 kilometres north of the town of Edelény, 180 metres above sea level in a narrow valley, its only stream, the ‘Hunters’ Creek’ runs south. Walking through the forest area which starts from the northern end of Irota, one will find the highest peak of the region at a height of 340 metres; the village was mentioned for the first time in 1320. By 1726, the population consisted both of Ruthenian speakers. Most of the inhabitants were shepherds and small farmers. In the 19th century, a local quarry was used to produce rooftiles. In 1851, Irota was home to 36 Roman Catholics, 358 Greek Catholics, 5 Calvinists, 4 Evangelicals and 8 Jews; the latest census mentions 117 inhabitants, of which 38 Roman Catholics, 70 Greek Catholics, 6 Calvinists and 3 belonging to none of these groups. Irota’s only church is Greek Catholic. Roman Catholics go to mass here as well; the current stone building, dating from 1846, was preceded by several wooden structures.

It boasts a beautiful iconostasis. In 1898, the whitewashed church interior was embellished with frescoes. Services are held on Sunday at 10.30, unless otherwise indicated. A small chapel can be found in the main street, it was built in 1925 and renovated in 1965. It is used for smaller services during the week; the mansion which once belonged to the noble Fáy family was used as headquarters for the Party Secretary, public library and consulting room for the visiting GP during the years of communism. After years of neglect and decay, it has been renovated and these days, it serves as a private residence; the houses in the village have a rectangular shape and consist of three rooms. The houses do not stand in a straight line, since people always made sure to build them in the highest point of their plot to protect them from water damage. Tourists are attracted to Irota because of its unspoilt character, the beautiful surroundings teeming with wildlife, rare plant and bird species and the pleasant village atmosphere.

The village has several guest houses and three eco-friendly lodges have been built at its edge. These have been operational since Summer 2016. Street map