Party for Socialism and Liberation
The Party for Socialism and Liberation is a communist party in the United States established in 2004 after a split in the Workers World Party. Peta Lindsay and Yari Osorio were PSL's 2012 presidential ticket. Gloria La Riva and Eugene Puryear ran for President and Vice President on the PSL ticket in 2008 and 2016. In 2016, PSL received more than nine times the number of votes than in the 2012 Presidential Election; the PSL was formed when the San Francisco branch and several other members left WWP in June 2004, announcing that "the Workers World Party leadership is no longer capable of fulfilling mission" of building socialism. The party's goal is to lead a revolution paving the way towards socialism, under which a "new government of working people" would be formed; the PSL proposes many radical changes to be implemented by this government. In the political sphere, all elected representatives should be recallable, securing freedom of speech for the working class and the elimination of corporate influence from politics.
The party's program states: "Achieving developed socialism, a goal that has not yet been achieved anywhere, will open the way to communism and the end of class society". Concerning economics, the PSL would among other measures prohibit the exploitation of labor for private profit, implement a working week of 30 hours and eradicate poverty through the introduction of a basic income guarantee; the PSL would grant the right of self-determination to what it considers oppressed nations of the United States, including "African Americans, Puerto Rican and other Latino national minorities, the Hawaiian nation, Pacific Islander and other oppressed peoples who have experienced oppression as a whole people under capitalism". It would grant independence to Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands and the Mariana Islands, which it considers colonies; the PSL has a positive view of the Soviet Union, describing the October Revolution as "the single biggest event that shaped global politics in the 20th century".
The PSL acknowledges that the New Economic Policy of Vladimir Lenin led "to a re-polarization of social classes in the countryside". The PSL blames the reforms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev for the fall of the Soviet Union; the PSL mourned the death of former Cuban President Fidel Castro. While critical of the current Chinese government, the PSL acknowledges China's contributions to socialism and anti-imperialist struggle and it views the Chinese Revolution favorably; the PSL supports the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela. It has endorsed activities that called for the release of the Cuban Five—deemed political prisoners by supporters—and called for the extradition of Luis Posada Carriles from the United States; the PSL voiced solidarity with Nepal upon the overthrow of the monarchy and the 2008 election of Pushpa Kamal Dahal. In the Leninist tradition, the PSL supports the right of nations to self-determination, it has been outspoken in condemning its role in the Middle East. The PSL led demonstrations against the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in July 2006 and supports the right of return for Palestinians.
The PSL co-operates with other organizations across the United States in the anti-war movement and is a member of the steering committee of the Act Now to Stop War and End Racism Coalition. As one of the most active members of the coalition, the PSL has gained notice for forging ties with Arab and Muslim American groups such as the Muslim American Society, Al-Awda and the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee; the PSL advocates for the end of the United States military presence in Iraq and Syria and the closure of all United States foreign military bases. The party's main publication is the monthly newspaper, Liberation News, which replaced a quarterly magazine and Liberation; the PSL outlines its political perspective, including its assessment of the current international and domestic situation, in the pamphlet Who We Are, What We Stand For. The party owns its own printing company, PSL Publications, through which it has published multiple printed books such as Socialists and War: Two Opposing Trends by members Mazada Majidi and Brian Becker and an e-book, released through Amazon titled A Woman's Place Is in the Struggle by members Ana Maria Ramirez, Anne Gamboni, Gloria La Riva and Liz Lowengard.
The PSL's publication company is headquartered at their West Coast office in San Francisco, California. The PSL now broadcasts a weekly podcast from their Chicago office called Crashing the System. List of political parties in the United States plsweb.org – official website. AnswerCoalition.org – official site. Liberation News. Liberation School
Florida's 6th congressional district
Florida's 6th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida. The district stretches from the southern Jacksonville suburbs to New Smyrna Beach, it includes the city of Daytona Beach. From 2003 to 2013 the district stretched from the St. Johns River and Jacksonville, sweeping through North Central Florida, encompassing portions of Gainesville and Ocala, meandered down to the northern tip of the Greater Orlando area in Lake County, it included all of Bradford and Gilchrist counties and portions of Alachua, Duval, Lake and Marion counties. The district is represented by Republican Michael Waltz; the district contains over 525,000 registered voters, of whom just over 39% are Democratic, while more than 41% identify as Republican. As of September 2018, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Florida's 6th congressional district who are still alive; the most recent representative to die was Bill Young on October 18, 2013. Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Florida's 5th congressional district
Florida's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida. It extends along Florida's northern boundary from Jacksonville to Tallahassee; the district includes all of Baker, Hamilton, Madison counties and portions of Columbia, Duval and Leon counties. It is a minority-majority district; as defined by the state legislature in 2013, the 5th district ran from Jacksonville to Orlando. Before 2013, similar territory was included the 3rd district. From 2002 to 2013 the district comprised all of Citrus and Sumter counties and most of Lake and Pasco counties and portions of Marion and Polk counties; the district included northern exurbs of Tampa and western exurbs of Orlando within the high-growth Interstate 4 Corridor. This iteration of the 5th district is now contained in the 11th district; the district is represented by Democrat Al Lawson. Florida's 3rd Congressional District was renumbered to 5th Congressional District but was little changed in the redistricting process in 2012, still winding from Orlando in the south to central Jacksonville in the north.
From 1973 to 1993 the erstwhile 3rd district was based in Orange County, including Walt Disney World and most of Orlando. The peculiar shape of the 3rd Congressional District dates from reapportionment done by the Florida Legislature after the 1990 U. S. Census; the 1993–2012 3rd Congressional District was geographically distinctive. Starting from the southern part of the district, it included the Pine Hills area of the Orlando-Kissimmee Metropolitan Area with small pockets of African-American neighborhoods in the cities of Sanford, Gainesville and the larger African American communities of Jacksonville. Connecting these areas were regions which are sparsely populated—either expansive rural areas or narrow strips which are only a few miles wide. Barack Obama received 73% of the vote in this district in the 2008 Presidential election. On July 11, 2014, Florida Circuit Court Judge Terry Lewis ruled that this district, along with the neighboring District 10, had been drawn to favor the Republican party by packing black Democratic voters into District 5.
On August 1, Judge Lewis gave Florida's state legislature an Aug. 15 deadline to submit new congressional maps for those two districts.5th District Representative Corrine Brown issued a statement blasting Lewis's decision on the district map as "seriously flawed," and Congressional Black Caucus Chairwoman Marcia Fudge sent a worded letter to Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Chairman Steve Israel complaining about the party’s support for the lawsuit challenging Florida's district maps. Brown said that "we will go all the way to the United States Supreme Court, dealing with making sure that African Americans are not disenfranchised." Florida House Redistricting Chairman Richard Corcoran, a Republican, said that "consideration of political data is required" to ensure that district boundaries would not be so shifted as to not allow African-Americans a chance to elect representatives of their choice. On appeal, the Florida Supreme Court approved a redrawn version of District 5 on December 2, 2015.
That plan went into effect for the 2016 elections. The Florida Supreme Court states in its final opinion: "With a black share of registered Democrats of 66.1%, the black candidate of choice is to win a contested Democratic primary, with a Democratic registration advantage of 61.1% to 23.0% over Republicans, the Democratic candidate is to win the general election." As of January 2017, there are five former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Florida's 5th congressional district who are living at this time. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Republican Party of Florida
The Republican Party of Florida is the official organization for Republicans in the state of Florida. Several of Florida's governors and U. S. senators were Republican after the Civil War during the Reconstruction era. Afterwards, Florida's state politics were dominated by Democrats until Richard Nixon's Southern Strategy, which took advantage of white objections to the advances of the American Civil Rights Movement resulted in a regional political realignment for the south. In 1967, Claude R. Kirk, Jr. was the first Republican governor elected in the state since the 19th century reconstruction era. And after Nixon's victory in 1968, the state only voted Democratic in presidential elections in 1976 1996, 2008 and 2012; the presidential election in 2000 was decided by a margin of 537 votes out of 6 million cast, giving George W. Bush the presidency over Al Gore; the Florida Senate was still dominated by Democrats until 1992, when a majority of Republicans was elected. The Florida House of Representatives turned Republican after the November 1996 election.
Since the number of Democrats in both chambers have continued to drop. The Florida Legislature became the first legislature in any of the states of the former confederacy to come under complete Republican control when the Republicans gained control of the House and Senate in the 1996 election. However, in the 2006 election the Democrats gained seats in the State House, the first instance of this occurring since the early 1980s; the most Republican region of the state is the northern third, which contains the large cities of Pensacola and Jacksonville. The Tampa Bay region is Democratic, although it has become much more competitive in recent electoral cycles. While North Florida and the Panhandle have voted Democratic at the local level, both are solid Republican strongholds in presidential elections. In the 2014 election, the Republican nominee for Governor was Governor of Florida Rick Scott, he defeated the Democratic nominee, the Former Governor of Florida, Charlie Crist, once elected as a Republican.
The current Chairman of the Republican Party of Florida is Joe Gruters, a newly elected member to the Florida Senate, elected by RPOF members in January 2019. The Republican National Committee is responsible for promoting Republican campaign activities, it is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. Senator Mel Martinez of Florida is the Republican Party's former General Chairman. Ronna McDaniel is the current Chairman of RNC; the chairman of the RNC is chosen by the President when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the Party's state committees. The RNC, under the direction of the party's presidential candidate, supervises the Republican National Convention, raises funds, coordinates campaign strategy. On the local level there are similar state committees in every state and most large cities and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body.
The Republican House and Senate caucuses have separate fund strategy committees. The National Republican Congressional Committee assists in House races, the National Republican Senatorial Committee in Senate races, they each raise over $100 million per election cycle, play important roles in recruiting strong state candidates. The Republican Governors Association is a discussion group that funds state races; the membership of the Republican Party is made up of fiscal conservatives, social conservatives and members of the Religious Right. The Republican Party is strong on defense and the more conservative and economically libertarian of the two major parties in the state of Florida; the party supports lower taxes and limited government in some economic areas, although it does support government intervention in other areas. Republicans favor free-market policies supporting business, economic liberalism, limited regulation as the best means of fostering economic prosperity; as such, most Republicans tend to ascribe to Reaganomics, an economic theory, popularized by Ronald Reagan which holds that reduced income tax rates increase GDP growth and thereby generate more revenue for the government from the taxes on the extra growth.
"A rising tide raises all boats". Opposition to the increases in the minimum wage stems from counterproduction on the economy- minimum wage increases unemployment and discourages business. While Republicans believe that the private sector is more effective in helping the poor than government, they nonetheless agree that there should be a "safety net" to assist the less fortunate. Rather than involve the government in the distribution of aid, many Republicans support giving government grants to faith-based and other private charitable organizations to supplant welfare spending. Additionally, most Republicans believe that limits on eligibility and benefits must be in place to ensure the safety net is not abused. Republicans are opposed to a single-payer universal health care system, such as that found in Canada or in most of Europe, sometimes referring to it as "socialized medicine" and are in favor of the current personal or employer based system of insurance, supplemented by Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid, which covers 40% of the poor.
Republicans are opposed by labor unions and have supported various legislation on the state and federal levels, including right-to-work legislation and the Taft-Hartley Act which gives workers the right not to participate in unions, as opposed to a closed shop which prohibits workers
Alfred James Lawson Jr. is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for Florida's 5th congressional district, serving since 2017; the district stretches across most of the border with Georgia, including most of the majority-black areas between Tallahassee and Jacksonville. A Democrat, Lawson served in the Florida Legislature for 28 years, rising to the rank of "Dean of the Senate" prior to his election to the U. S. House of Representatives. From 2000 to 2010, Lawson served Florida Senate, representing the 6th District, where he was elected to serve as the Democratic Leader. From 1982 to 2000, he was a member of the Florida House of Representatives. Lawson was born in Midway and attended Havana Northside High School where he was a standout athlete in basketball and track, he went on to become a basketball star at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, where he earned a bachelor's degree in political science. After a brief stint as a professional basketball player with the Indiana Pacers and Atlanta Hawks, Lawson returned to Tallahassee where he landed a job at Florida State University as an assistant basketball coach where he helped take the Seminoles to the Elite Eight of the NCAA tournament.
Lawson earned his Master of Public Administration from Florida State University. Lawson ran for the Democratic nomination in Florida's 2nd congressional district in 2010, challenging seven-term incumbent Allen Boyd. Lawson narrowly lost to Boyd in the Democratic primary, Boyd lost to Republican newcomer Steve Southerland in the general election by more than 12 percentage points. Lawson ran again for the seat in 2012, won the Democratic nomination against Blue Dog-endorsed state Rep. Leonard Bembry, he lost to incumbent Republican nominee Steve Southerland in the general election by less than 6 points. A lawsuit challenging the Florida congressional district map radically changed the 5th district. For the past quarter century, the district and its predecessors had covered most of the majority-black precincts from Jacksonville to Orlando; the new map, changed the district to an east-west configuration stretching across all or part of eight counties from Tallahassee to downtown Jacksonville. The redrawn district included Lawson's home in Tallahassee, Lawson announced he would run for the 5th on December 15, 2015, setting up a battle against Corrine Brown, the only congresswoman the district had known since its creation in 1993.
On paper, the district's demographics appeared to be against Lawson. While the district now included most of Tallahassee, the capital and its suburbs only accounted for 32 percent of the district's population, while the Jacksonville area accounted for 61 percent. However, his bid received a significant boost in July 2016, when Brown was indicted on federal corruption charges, he defeated Brown in the Democratic primary—the real contest in this Democratic district—on August 30, 2016. He defeated Republican Glo Smith in the general election on November 8 with 64% of the vote. Rep. Lawson was sworn in on January 3, 2017. Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on Nutrition Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk ManagementUnited States House Committee on Financial Services Diversity and Inclusion Housing, Community Development and Insurance Consumer Protection and Financial Institutions Congressional Black Caucus Following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Lawson expressed frustration with the lack of action on gun regulation and placed blame on lobbying organizations, saying "the stranglehold of the gun lobby has gone on long enough".
Lawson supports restriction on assault weapons. In 2017, Lawson voted no on the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2017, which would require all states to recognize concealed carry permits issued in other states. Additionally, those with concealed carry permits would be permitted to carry concealed weapons in school zones. Lawson voted no on the Veterans Second Amendment Protection Act, which would have allowed veterans who are considered "mentally incompetent" to purchase ammunition and firearms unless declared a danger by a judge. List of African-American United States Representatives Congressman Al Lawson official U. S. House website Campaign website Al Lawson at Curlie Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress Appearances on C-SPAN
The Florida Legislature is the Legislature of the U. S. State of Florida, it is organized as a bicameral body composed of an upper chamber, the Senate, a lower chamber, the House of Representatives. Article III, Section 1 of the Florida Constitution, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted; the Legislature is composed of 160 State Legislators. The primary purpose of the Legislature is to amend or repeal existing laws; the Legislature meets in the Florida State Capitol building in Tallahassee. Members of the Senate are referred to as Senators and members of the House of Representatives are referred to as Representatives; because this shadows the terminology used to describe members of Congress and the news media, using The Associated Press Stylebook refer to Legislators as State Senators or State Representatives to avoid confusion with their Federal counterparts. The Senate is the upper house of the State Legislature, its members are elected on a partisan basis for four-year terms.
The Senate consists of 40 members elected from single-member election districts. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures through the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin upon their election; the Senate Chamber is located in the State Capitol building. As of 2018, Republicans hold the majority in the State Senate with 23 seats; the House of Representatives is the lower house of the State Legislature. Its members are elected on a partisan basis for two-year terms; the House of Representatives consists of 120 members who are elected from single-member election districts. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures through the federal decennial census. Representatives' terms begin upon their election; the House of Representatives Chamber is located in the State Capitol building. As of 2018, Republicans hold the majority in the State House of Representatives with 71 seats, Democrats hold 46 seats. There are three vacancies due to resignations.
Article III, of the Florida Constitution, defines the terms for State Legislators. Legislators take office upon election; the Constitution requires State Senators from odd-numbered districts to be elected in the years that end in numbers of which are multiples of four. Senators from even-numbered districts are required to be elected in even-numbered years the numbers of which are not multiples of four. To reflect the results of the U. S. Census and the redrawing of district boundaries, all seats are up for election in redistricting years, with some terms truncated as a result. Thus, senators in even-numbered districts were elected to two-year terms in 2012, senators in odd-numbered districts will be elected to two-year terms in 2022. All terms were truncated again in 2016, with all 40 Senate seats up for election, due to court-ordered redistricting. Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for terms of two years in each even-numbered year. On November 3, 1992 77 percent of Florida voters backed Amendment 9, the Florida Term Limits Amendment, which amended the State Constitution, to enact eight year term limits on federal and state officials.
Under the Amendment, former members can be elected again after a two-year break. In 1995, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state level term limits remain; each legislator shall be at least twenty-one years of age, an elector and resident of the District from which elected and shall have resided in the state for a period of two years prior to election. Each year during which the Legislature meets constitutes a new Legislative Session. Legislators start Committee activity in September of the year prior to the Regular Legislative Session; because Florida is a part-time legislature, this is necessary to allow legislators time to work their bills through the Committee process, prior to the Regular Legislative Session. The Florida Legislature meets in a 60-day Regular Legislative Session each year. Regular Legislative Sessions in odd-numbered years must begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Under the State Constitution, as of 1998, the Legislature can begin even-numbered year Regular Legislative Sessions on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March, or such other date as may be fixed by law.
Prior to 1991, the Regular Legislative Session began in April. Senate Joint Resolution 380 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment that shifted the starting date of Regular Legislative Session from April to February. Subsequently, Senate Joint Resolution 2606 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment shifting the start date to March, where it remains; the reason for the "first Tuesday after the first Monday" requirement stems back to the time when Regular Legislative Session began in April. Regular Legislative Session could start any day from April 2 through April 8, but never on April 1 – April Fool's Day. In recent years, the Legislature has opted to start in January in order to allow lawmakers to be home with their families during school spring breaks, to give more time ahead of the legislative elections in the Fall. On the fourteenth day following each General Election, the Legislature meets for an Organizational Session to organize and select officers. Special Legislative Sessions may be called by the Governor, by a joint proclamation of the Senate President and House Speaker, or by a three-fifths vote of all Legislators.
During any Special Session the Legislature may only address legislative business, within the
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art