November 2016 Haitian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Haiti on 20 November 2016, after having been postponed several times. The elections were overseen by the Provisional Electoral Council, were held using the two-round system, with a second round scheduled for 29 January 2017 if no candidate received an absolute majority of the votes in the first round. However, on 27 November election officials announced that, according to preliminary results, Jovenel Moïse had won the election in the first round with more than 50% of the vote. Voter turnout was 18.11%. Jovenel Moïse assumed office on 7 February 2017; as a result of the massive protests after the 2015 election, the runoff scheduled to be held on 27 December 2015 was postponed several times, with the last one scheduled to be held in October 2016. However, the Conseil Electoral Provisoire announced on 5 April 2016 that fresh elections would be held on 9 October with a possible runoff on 8 January 2017; the first round planned for 9 October was subsequently postponed due to the passage of Hurricane Matthew.
The President of Haiti is elected using the two-round system, with a second round held if no candidate wins a majority of the vote in the first round. A total of 27 candidates ran for president, but only six campaigned and were seen as serious contenders: Edmonde Supplice Beauzile, Jean-Henry Céant, Jude Célestin, Jean-Charles Moïse, Jovenel Moïse, Maryse Narcisse; each of the six, except for Beauzile, "have had strong ties to one or more of the former elected presidents: Michel Martelly, René Préval and Jean-Bertrand Aristide." Supporters of Maryse Narcisse claimed early reports indicated a close race between her and Jovenel Moïse. While counting was still ongoing, both Moïse's Haitian Tèt Kale Party party and Narcisse's Fanmi Lavalas party claimed victory, although official results were not yet issued and the CEP's cautioned against making such claims. Jovenel Moïse won more than double the votes of any other candidate and more than half of all votes, avoiding the need for a second round.
The United States, Haiti's largest international donor, welcomed the holding of elections. U. S. Department of States spokesman John Kirby said following the first round that the U. S. viewed the elections "as an important step toward returning Haiti to fill constitutional rule and addressing the serious challenges the country faces," but noted that the election had some "isolated incidents of violence and intimidation."
Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
The Haitian passport is issued to citizens of Haiti for international travel. To obtain a Haitian passport, one must furnish proof thereof; the Haitian Constitution does not allow people who were born in Haiti but who changed their nationality to obtain Haitian passports. The front cover bears the Coat of arms of Haiti embossed in silver. And'Republic of Haiti Passport in French and Haitian Creole, the two official languages of the Haiti. Between 1937 and 1942, a Haitian passport and Haitian citizenship could be obtained without visiting the country. About 100 Eastern European Jews used this method to escape Europe. At about this time, United States officials became aware of a'passports for sale' racket carried out with the complicity of the Haitian government. In return for a substantial loan from a Swiss bank, 100 genuine signed passports were made available for sale in Germany for $3,000 each. In 2011, the launch of biometric or epassports was announced; as of 1 January 2017, Haitian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 50 countries and territories, ranking the Haitian passport 86th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley visa restrictions index.
Visa requirements for Haitian citizens
René Garcia Préval was a Haitian politician and agronomist who twice served as President of Haiti, from February 7, 1996, to February 7, 2001, again from May 14, 2006, to May 14, 2011. He was Prime Minister from February 1991 to October 11, 1991. Préval was the first elected head of state in Haitian history to peacefully receive power from a predecessor in office, the first since independence to serve a full term in office, the first to be elected to non-successive full terms in office, the first to peacefully hand over power, the first former prime minister to be elected president. Préval promoted privatization of government companies, agrarian reform, investigations of human rights abuses, his presidencies were marked by domestic tumult and attempts at economic stabilization, with his latter term saw the destruction wrought by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Préval was born on 17 January 1943 in Port-au-Prince and was raised in his father's hometown of Marmelade, a village town in the Artibonite department.
He studied agronomy at the College of Gembloux and the University of Leuven in Belgium and studied geothermal sciences at the University of Pisa in Pisa, Italy. He left Haiti with his family in 1963. Préval's father, an agronomist had risen to the position of Minister of Agriculture in the government of Général Paul Magloire, the predecessor of Duvalier. Leaving Haiti because his political past presented him as a potential opponent, Preval's father found work with UN agencies in Africa. After spending five years in Brooklyn, New York working as a restaurant waiter, Préval returned to Haiti and obtained a position with the National Institute for Mineral Resources. In 1988, he opened a bakery in Port-au-Prince with some business partners. While operating his company, he continued to be active in political circles and charity work, such as providing bread to the orphanage of Salesian Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, with whom he developed a close relationship. After the election of Aristide as president in 1990, Préval served as his Prime Minister from February 13 to October 11, 1991, going into exile following the September 30, 1991 military coup.
On December 6, 2009, Preval married Elisabeth Débrosse Delatour — one of his economic advisors and widow of Leslie Delatour, the former governor of Haiti's central bank. Preval's first and second marriages, to Guerda Benoit and Solange Lafontant both ended in divorce. In 1996, Préval was elected as president with 88 % of the popular vote. Upon his 1996 inauguration, Préval became the second democratically elected head of state in the country's 191-year history as an independent nation. In 2001, he became the first elected President of Haiti to leave office as a result of the natural expiration of an uninterrupted term; as president, Préval instituted a number of economic reforms, most notably the privatization of various government companies. By the end of Préval's term, unemployment rates had fallen. Préval instituted a program of agrarian reform in Haiti's countryside, his presidency, was marked by fierce political clashes with a parliament dominated by opposition party members and an vocal Fanmi Lavalas which opposed the structural adjustment and privatization program of Préval's government.
Préval was a strong supporter of investigations and trials related to human rights violations committed by military and police personnel. He dissolved the parliament in 1999 and ruled by decree for the duration of the final year of his presidency. Préval ran again as the Lespwa candidate in the presidential election of 2006; the election took place after two years of international peacekeeping. Partial election results, released on February 9, indicated that he had won with about 60% of the vote, but as further results were released, his share of the vote slipped just below the 50% required majority to be elected outright – thus making a run-off necessary. Several days of popular demonstrations in favour of Préval followed in Port-au-Prince and other cities in Haiti. Préval claimed that there had been fraud among the vote counts, demanded that he be declared the winner outright of the first round. Protesters paralyzed the capital with burning barricades and stormed a luxury hotel — Hotel Montana, located in the affluent suburb of Pétion-Ville — to demand results from Haiti's nearly week-old election as the ex-President Préval fell further below the 50% needed to win the presidency.
On February 16, 2006, Préval was declared the winner of the presidential election by the Provisional Electoral Council with 51.15% of the vote, after the exclusion of "blank" ballots from the count. Préval was sworn in following Haiti's legislative run-off vote in April; when he was sworn in, Préval emphasized the importance of unity, saying that division was Haiti's "main problem" and that Haitians had to "work together". On May 17, he nominated Jacques-Édouard Alexis, who had served as Prime Minister during Préval's first term, as Prime Minister again. After taking office, Préval signed an oil deal with Venezuela and traveled to the United States and France. Préval drew much of his support from Haiti's poorest people. However, many of the poor demanded that the former President Aristide be allowed to return and that civil enterprise workers fired by the Latortue government be reinstated; this caused increasing tension in the slums of Port-au-Prince. Préval promised to build a massive road system which would boost trade and transportation around the country.
Haiti under Préval cooperated dipl
2006 Haitian general election
The 2006 elections in Haiti, to replace the interim government of Gérard Latortue put in place after the 2004 Haiti rebellion, were delayed four times after having been scheduled for October and November 2005. The elections took place on February 7, 2006, with turnout of around 60%. All 99 seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Haiti and all 30 seats in the Senate of Haiti were contested. Run-off elections for the Chamber of Deputies of Haiti were held on 21 April 2006, with around 28% turnout. According to official statistics, René Préval of the Lespwa coalition led the count for President with 48.8% of the vote, less than the 50% needed to be declared elected on the first round. Préval spoke of fraud, voting bags and marked ballots found in a garbage dump triggered street protests by his supporters; the United Nations Mission in Haiti spoke of an "apparent grave breach of the electoral process". On 16 February, following meetings between the electoral council and the interim government, it was agreed that blank ballots would be excluded from the percentage calculations, resulting in a total vote for Preval of 51.1%.
A second round of voting for President was thus avoided. The election process saw many controversies, including threats to boycott by one of the major political parties, ongoing political violence, one candidate being declared ineligible despite a Supreme Court decision; the elections took place as Haiti was under the occupation of MINUSTAH, a multi-national U. N. force established by the Security Council which started operations in June 2004. On election day, due to many organizational problems, a shortage of election workers, missing ballots, long line-ups, the voting hours were extended by at least two hours. There are many reasons. Due to a lack of funding, election officials were not able to meet the voter registration deadline set for early August. In addition there was considerable unrest in parts of Haiti the Port-au-Prince slums where there were attacks on the new government, where the U. N. and the Haitian National Police have been accused of committing massacres and targeted killings of anti-occupation protesters and organizers.
However, the inability to register voters in the time allocated was the primary reason for the extensions. There was concern that only 800-900 voting stations would be placed throughout Haiti, in comparison to the many thousands of stations that existed during the previous election. On January 25, 2006, Haiti's election authorities announced that no voting stations would be placed in Cité Soleil, an impoverished area which holds between three and six hundred thousand residents and has been controlled by informal armies professing allegiance to Aristide. Elections in Haiti were scheduled to take place starting on October 9, 2005 with the municipal election, followed by national elections on November 13, 2005, a second round on December 18. In August the electoral council decided to move the municipal elections to an undetermined date in late December to allow for more focus to be placed on meeting the November 6 date for presidential elections. On September 7 the dates were again changed, this time for the presidential elections.
The first round of voting was moved back to November 20 and the second round on January 3, 2006. On November 18 the date for presidential and legislative elections were postponed for the third time. On November 25, the date was set again, making this the fourth time total; the election is being postponed yet again but a date has not yet been announced, although February 7, 2006 is reported to be the date for the first round. The municipal elections which were set to be held on December 11, 2005, have been postponed to March 5, 2006; when announced they will be the fifth set of election dates for a new government since July. The hand-over of power to the elected government was set for February 7, 2006, but this date has been pushed back, without an official new date being given; the first round of elections for president and parliament was held on 7 February 2006. Runoff elections for Chamber of Deputies of Haiti were held on April 21. Two opinion polls were taken in November 2005; the first to be released was the poll taken by CID Gallup, a Latin American polling group with close ties to U.
S. based Gallup. The second polling was taken by a political consulting firm, The Democracy Group, on behalf of the National Organization for the Advancement of Haitians, a group for the restoration of democracy in Haiti, of which Dumarsais Siméus is a member. CID-Gallup NOAH-TDG Thirty five presidential candidates appeared in the ballot. Among the more known figures were René Préval, a former prime minister and president, a Lavalas member. Préval is a former president of Haiti who served from 1996 to 2000, he is the second president of Haiti to leave office due to the natural expiration of his term. Préval was in exile during the latter years of the dictatorship of Jean-Claude Duvalier but returned to work in charitable organizations after Duvalier's fall, he served as Prime Minister under Aristide during his first term, until the military coup d'état that overthrew Aristide in 1991. In 1996 he was elected president under the Fanmi Lavalas party and served out his term ending in 2001. Under his previous administration Préval was a big reformer, most notably in the privatization of government com
Arrondissements of Haiti
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in Haiti. As of 2015, the 10 departments of Haiti were divided into 42 arrondissements. Arrondissements are further divided into communal sections; the term arrondissement can be translated into English as district. A more etymologically precise, but less allegorical, definition would be encirclements, from the French arrondir, to encircle; because no single translation adequately conveys the layered sense of the word, the French term is used in English writing. The Arrondissements are listed below, by department: Dessalines Gonaïves Gros-Morne Marmelade Saint-Marc Cerca-la-Source Hinche Lascahobas Mirebalais Anse d'Hainault Corail Jérémie Anse-à-Veau Baradères Miragoâne Acul-du-Nord Borgne Cap-Haïtien Grande-Rivière-du-Nord Limbé Plaisance Saint-Raphaël Fort-Liberté Ouanaminthe Trou-du-Nord Vallières Môle-Saint-Nicholas Port-de-Paix Saint-Louis-du-Nord Arcahaie Croix-des-Bouquets Gonâve Léogâne Port-au-Prince Bainet Belle-Anse Jacmel Aquin Les Cayes Chardonnières Côteaux Port-Salut Code Postal Haitien Haiti-Référence 7320.
- Arrondissements et communes d’Haiti Haiti Departments of Haiti Communes of Haiti
Yvon Neptune was Prime Minister of Haïti from 2002 to 2004. He was appointed by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, took office on March 15, 2002, he had served as President of the Senate from 2000 to 2002. On March 2, 2004, shortly after Aristide's removal, a mob attempted to arrest Neptune on corruption charges, but it was not successful; the mob was organized by Guy Philippe after Neptune gave an interview to Kevin Pina of KPFA Flashpoints in California and the Black Commentator, Andrea Nicastro of the Italian daily Corriere della Sera. In the interview Neptune claims he was not present when interim-president Boniface Alexandre was sworn into office, he referred to himself as a prisoner in his own office and backed Aristide's claims that he was forced out of office under duress. U. S. Marines guarding his residence killed two gunmen there. Neptune was replaced on March 12, 2004, by an unelected provisional government, led by Gérard Latortue, appointed three days earlier. On March 27, 2004, the provisional government banned Neptune from leaving the country, along with 36 other senior officials of the Aristide administration, in order to more investigate corruption allegations.
On June 27, 2004, after hearing about a warrant for his arrest on the radio, Neptune turned himself in to the Haitian police and was held without charge. According to the Haitian constitution, a hearing before a judge is required within 48 hours for anyone arrested, but Neptune was not given such a hearing. On May 4, 2005, Thierry Fagart, the chief of the human rights division at the UN's Haiti mission, called Neptune's detention illegal. On February 19, 2005, Neptune was taken into protective custody by United Nations peacekeeping forces and handed himself back to Haitian authorities after a Port-au-Prince penitentiary breakout. On April 18, 2005, Neptune began a hunger strike, refusing hospitalization and offers of medical attention abroad. On May 5 he was reported as being "near death". On June 23, Juan Gabriel Valdes - the UN's special envoy to Haïti - criticized the Haitian government's handling of Neptune and called for his release from prison. On September 14, 2005, 14 months after Neptune was first imprisoned, a formal statement of charges against him appeared.
He was accused of participating in the "La Scierie Massacre," an alleged attack by Lavalas supporters in the La Scierie neighborhood of St. Marc. Subsequent investigations, including by the United Nations, revealed the massacre to be a struggle between two armed groups, with casualties on both sides; the Haitian Appeals Court prosecutor found that there was no credible evidence of Neptune’s involvement. Lawyers at the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights said that the statement of charges "contain no indication that Mr. Neptune directly perpetuated the crimes alleged against him nor is there a defined connection between Mr. Neptune and those who are alleged to have perpetrated the crimes... The mental and factual elements necessary to establish Mr. Neptune’s responsibility…remain unclear.” In May 2006, the Haitian prosecutor recommended dropping the charges against Neptune, because there was no credible evidence to support them. After spending two years in prison and never having been tried, he was released on July 28, 2006.
The charges against him were not dropped. Hundreds of other members or supporters of the deposed Aristide administration remained in custody without trial. On April 13, 2007, the Appeals Court of Gonaives ruled that the courts had never had jurisdiction to try Neptune. Under Haiti’s Constitution, regular courts in Haiti cannot try high public officials unless they have been convicted by the High Court of Justice, a special court formed by the legislature, similar to impeachment in the United States. In September 2009, the Haitian Government served this decision on the other parties; when the appeal period elapsed a few days the dismissal of all charges became official. In April 2005, the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti, the Bureau des Avocats Internationaux and the Hastings Human Rights Project for Haiti filed a petition on Neptune's behalf with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in Washington. In July 2006, the Commission ruled that the Government of Haiti's treatment of Neptune violated his international human rights.
The Commission referred the case to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, an autonomous judicial institution of the Organization of American States based in San José, Costa Rica, for further proceedings. On May 6, 2008, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that the State of Haiti violated 11 different provisions of the American Convention on Human Rights by illegally imprisoning former Prime Minister Yvon Neptune for two years and allowing the case to drag on in the courts for two more; the IACHR ordered Haiti to end what it called Mr. Neptune’s continuing “judicial insecurity” and to pay him $95,000 in damages and costs; the Court ordered Haiti to start bringing its inhumane prisons in line with minimum international standards within two years. “From the beginning, the State failed its obligation to protect Mr. Neptune’s right to be heard by a court competent to hear the charges against him…as well as to an effective recourse,” the IACtHR said in a 60-page judgment issued publicly on June 6.
The Court denounced the State’s continued failure to bring Neptune before a qualified judge, thereby leaving him in a situation of “absolute judicial uncertainty.” The IACtHR criticized nearly every aspect of Haiti’s prosecution of Neptune, which began in June 2004 and continues today. It found Neptune’s 25-month-long detention illega