Tea Party movement
The Tea Party movement is an American fiscally conservative political movement within the Republican Party. Members of the movement have called for lower taxes, for a reduction of the national debt of the United States and federal budget deficit through decreased government spending; the movement supports small-government principles and opposes government-sponsored universal healthcare. The Tea Party movement has been described as a popular constitutional movement composed of a mixture of libertarian, right-wing populist, conservative activism, it has sponsored multiple protests and supported various political candidates since 2009. According to the American Enterprise Institute, various polls in 2013 estimate that over 10 percent of Americans identified as part of the movement; the Tea Party movement was launched following a February 19, 2009 call by CNBC reporter Rick Santelli on the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange for a "tea party," several conservative activists agreed by conference call to coalesce against Obama's agenda and scheduled series of protests.
Supporters of the movement subsequently have had a major impact on the internal politics of the Republican Party. Although the Tea Party is not a party in the classic sense of the word, some research suggests that members of the Tea Party Caucus vote like a farther right third party in Congress. A major force behind it was Americans for Prosperity, a conservative political advocacy group founded by businessmen and political activist David H. Koch, it is unclear how much money is donated to AFP by David and his brother Charles Koch. By 2019, it was reported that the conservative wing of the Republican Party "has shed the tea party moniker"; the movement's name refers to the Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773, a watershed event in the launch of the American Revolution. The 1773 event demonstrated against taxation by the British government without political representation for the American colonists, references to the Boston Tea Party and costumes from the 1770s era are heard and seen in the Tea Party movement.
The Tea Party movement focuses on a significant reduction in the scope of the government. The movement advocates a national economy operating without government oversight. Movement goals include limiting the size of the federal government, reducing government spending, lowering the national debt and opposing tax increases. To this end, Tea Party groups have protested the Troubled Asset Relief Program, stimulus programs such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, cap and trade environmental regulations, health care reform such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and perceived attacks by the federal government on their 1st, 2nd, 4th and 10th Amendment rights. Tea Party groups have voiced support for right to work legislation as well as tighter border security, opposed amnesty for illegal immigrants. On the federal health care reform law, they began to work at the state level to nullify the law, after the Republican Party lost seats in congress and the Presidency in the 2012 elections.
It has mobilized locally against the United Nations Agenda 21. They have protested the IRS for controversial treatment of groups with "tea party" in their names, they have formed Super PACs to support candidates sympathetic to their goals and have opposed what they call the "Republican establishment" candidates. The Tea Party does not have a single uniform agenda; the decentralized character of the Tea Party, with its lack of formal structure or hierarchy, allows each autonomous group to set its own priorities and goals. Goals may conflict, priorities will differ between groups. Many Tea Party organizers see this as a strength rather than a weakness, as decentralization has helped to immunize the Tea Party against co-opting by outside entities and corruption from within. Though the groups participating in the movement have a wide range of different goals, the Tea Party places its view of the Constitution at the center of its reform agenda, it urges the return of government as intended by some of the Founding Fathers.
It seeks to teach its view of the Constitution and other founding documents. Scholars have described its interpretation variously as originalist, popular, or a unique combination of the two. Reliance on the Constitution is inconsistent. Adherents cite it, yet do so more as a cultural reference rather than out of commitment to the text, which they seek to alter. Two constitutional amendments have been targeted by some in the movement for full or partial repeal: the 16th that allows an income tax, the 17th that requires popular election of senators. There has been support for a proposed Repeal Amendment, which would enable a two-thirds majority of the states to repeal federal laws, a Balanced Budget Amendment, to limit deficit spending; the Tea Party has sought to avoid placing emphasis on traditional conservative social issues. National Tea Party organizations, such as the Tea Party Patriots and FreedomWorks, have expressed concern that engaging in social issues would be divisive. Instead, they have sought to have activists focus their efforts away from social issues and focus on economic and limited government issues.
Still, many groups like Glenn Beck's 9/12 Tea Parties, TeaParty.org, the Iowa Tea Party and Delaware Patriot Organizations do act on social issues such as abortion, gun control, prayer in schools, illegal immigration. One attempt at forming a list of what Tea Partiers wanted Congress to do resulted in the Contract from America, it was a legislative agenda created by conservative activist Ryan Hecker with
2012 United States presidential election
The 2012 United States presidential election was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. The Democratic nominee, President Barack Obama, his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, were elected to a second term, they defeated the Republican ticket of former Governor Mitt Romney of Massachusetts and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin. As the incumbent president, Obama secured the Democratic nomination with no serious opposition; the Republicans experienced a competitive primary. Romney was competitive in the polls and won the support of many party leaders, but he faced challenges from a number of more conservative contenders. Romney clinched his party's nomination in May, defeating Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, several other candidates; the campaigns focused on domestic issues, debate centered around sound responses to the Great Recession. Other issues included long-term federal budget issues, the future of social insurance programs, the Affordable Care Act, Obama's marquee legislative program.
Foreign policy was discussed, including the phase-out of the Iraq War, military spending, the Iranian nuclear program, appropriate counteractions to terrorism. The campaign was marked by a sharp rise in fundraising, including from nominally independent Super PACs. Obama defeated Romney, winning a majority of both the Electoral College. Obama won 51.1% of the popular vote compared to Romney's 47.2%. Obama was the first incumbent since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 to win reelection with fewer electoral votes and a lower popular vote percentage than had been won in the previous election, was the first two-term president since Ronald Reagan to win both his presidential bids with a majority of the nationwide popular vote. In 2011, several state legislatures passed new voting laws pertaining to voter identification, with the stated purpose of combating voter fraud. Florida, Ohio and West Virginia's state legislatures approved measures to shorten early voting periods. Florida and Iowa barred all felons from voting.
Kansas, South Carolina, Tennessee and Wisconsin state legislatures passed laws requiring voters to have government-issued IDs before they could cast their ballots. This meant that people without driver's licenses or passports had to gain new forms of ID. Obama, the NAACP, the Democratic Party fought against many of the new state laws. Former President Bill Clinton denounced them, saying, "There has never been in my lifetime, since we got rid of the poll tax and all the Jim Crow burdens on voting, the determined effort to limit the franchise that we see today", he was referring to Jim Crow laws passed in southern states near the turn of the twentieth century that disenfranchised most blacks from voting and excluded them from the political process for more than six decades. Clinton said the moves would disenfranchise core voter blocs that trend liberal, including college students and Latinos. Rolling Stone magazine criticized the American Legislative Exchange Council for lobbying in states to bring about these laws, to "solve" a problem that does not exist.
The Obama campaign fought against the Ohio law, pushing for a petition and statewide referendum to repeal it in time for the 2012 election. In addition, the Pennsylvania legislature proposed a plan to change its representation in the electoral college from the traditional winner-take-all model to a district-by-district model; as the governorship and both houses of its legislature were Republican-controlled, the move was viewed by some as an attempt to reduce Democratic chances. With an incumbent president running for re-election against token opposition, the race for the Democratic nomination was uneventful; the nomination process consisted of primaries and caucuses, held by the 50 states, as well as Guam, Puerto Rico, Washington, D. C. U. S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Democrats Abroad. Additionally, high-ranking party members known as superdelegates each received one vote in the convention. A few of the primary challengers surpassed the president's vote total in individual counties in several of the seven contested primaries, though none made a significant impact in the delegate count.
Running unopposed everywhere else, President Obama cemented his status as the Democratic presumptive nominee on April 3, 2012, by securing the minimum number of pledged delegates needed to obtain the nomination. Candidates with considerable name recognition who entered the race for the Republican presidential nomination in the early stages of the primary campaign included Representative and former Libertarian nominee Ron Paul, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, who co-chaired John McCain's campaign in 2008, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, the runner-up for the nomination in the 2008 cycle, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich; the first debate took place on May 5, 2011, in Greenville, South Carolina, with businessman Herman Cain, former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum participating. Another debate took place a month with Newt Gingrich, Mitt Romney, former Utah Governor Jon Huntsman, Rep. Michele Bachmann participating, Gary Johnson excluded.
A total of thirteen debates were held before the Iowa caucuses. The first major event of the campaign was the Ames Straw Poll, which took place in Iowa on August 13, 2011. Michele Bachmann won the straw poll. Pawlenty withdrew from the race after a poor showin
2000 United States presidential election
The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the Governor of Texas and the eldest son of the 41st President George H. W. Bush, won the election by defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president, it was the fourth of five presidential elections in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote, is considered one of the closest elections in US history. Vice President Gore secured the Democratic nomination with relative ease, defeating a challenge by former Senator Bill Bradley. Bush was seen as the early favorite for the Republican nomination and, despite a contentious primary battle with Senator John McCain and other candidates, secured the nomination by Super Tuesday. Bush chose former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney as his running mate, while Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his; the left-wing Green Party nominated a ticket consisting of political activists Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke.
Both major party candidates focused on domestic issues, such as the budget, tax relief, reforms for federal social insurance programs, although foreign policy was not ignored. Due to Clinton's sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky and subsequent impeachment, Gore avoided campaigning with Clinton. Republicans denounced Clinton's indiscretions. On election night, it was unclear who had won, with the electoral votes of the state of Florida still undecided; the returns showed that Bush had won Florida by such a close margin that state law required a recount. A month-long series of legal battles led to the contentious, 5–4 Supreme Court decision of Bush v. Gore, which ended the recount. With the end of the recount, Bush won Florida by a margin of or 537 votes; the Florida recount and subsequent litigation resulted in a major post-election controversy, various individuals and organizations have speculated about who would have won the election in various scenarios. Bush won 271 electoral votes, one more than was necessary for the majority, despite Gore receiving 543,895 more votes.
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate; the party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College. President Bill Clinton, a Democrat and former Governor of Arkansas, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment.
In accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at 12:00 noon EST on January 20, 2001. Democratic candidates Al Gore, Vice President of the United States Bill Bradley, former U. S. Senator from Connecticut Al Gore from Tennessee was a consistent front-runner for the nomination. Other prominent Democrats mentioned as possible contenders included Bob Kerrey, Missouri Representative Dick Gephardt, Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone, famous actor and director Warren Beatty, who declined to run. Of these, only Wellstone formed an exploratory committee. Running an insurgency campaign, Bradley positioned himself as the alternative to Gore, a founding member of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council. While former basketball star Michael Jordan campaigned for him in the early primary states, Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas"; the focus of his campaign was a plan to spend the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the middle-class, along with campaign finance reform and gun control.
Gore defeated Bradley in the primaries because of support from the Democratic Party establishment and Bradley's poor showing in the Iowa caucus, where Gore painted Bradley as aloof and indifferent to the plight of farmers. The closest Bradley came to a victory was his 50–46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. On March 14, Al Gore clinched the Democratic nomination. None of Bradley's delegates were allowed to vote for him, so Gore won the nomination unanimously at the Democratic National Convention. Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman was nominated for vice president by voice vote. Lieberman became the first Jewish American to be chosen for this position by a major party. Gore chose Lieberman over five other finalists: Senators Evan Bayh, John Edwards, John Kerry, House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen. Delegate totals: Vice President Albert Gore Jr. 4328 Abstentions 9 Republican candidates John McCain, Senator from Arizona Alan Keyes, former U. S. ECOSOC Ambassador from Maryland Steve Forbes, businessman from New Jersey Gary Bauer, former Undersecretary of Education from Kentucky (withd
Richard Earl Mourdock is an American politician who served as treasurer of the state of Indiana from 2007 to 2014. Running with the support of the Tea Party movement, he defeated six-term incumbent U. S. Senator Richard Lugar in the May 2012 Republican primary election, he lost the November 6, 2012, general election for Lugar's seat to Democratic Congressman Joe Donnelly. Mourdock was born in Wauseon, the son of Dolores Elaine and David Lee Mourdock, he grew up in Ohio. His father worked as an Ohio State Highway Patrol trooper. Richard graduated from Wynford High School in Bucyrus in 1969, earned a Bachelor of Science in natural systems from Defiance College in 1973 and a Master of Arts in geology from Ball State University in 1975. After completing his education, Mourdock took a position as a field geologist with AMAX Coal Company and was working as Surface Mine Geology Project Coordinator the time of his departure from the company in 1979. From 1979 to 1984, Mourdock was employed by Standard Oil of Ohio as a senior geologist and became chief geologist for the company.
In 1984, Mourdock accepted a position with Koester Companies in Indiana. For sixteen years, Mourdock served as Vice President of the company's coal subsidiary and became Vice President of Business Development for the parent company. In addition, Mourdock served as a trustee for the company's employee stock ownership plan. After leaving Koester, Mourdock founded and ran his own environmental consulting business, R. E. Mourdock & Associates. Mourdock ran in 1988, 1990 and 1992 for the U. S. House of Representatives, seeking to represent Indiana's 8th congressional district. In 1988, he was defeated in the Republican primary. In 1990 and 1992, he won the Republican nomination but was defeated by Democrat Frank McCloskey in the general election, 55–45% and 53–45%, respectively. From 1995 to 2002, Mourdock served two terms as an elected member of Vanderburgh County Board of Commissioners, the county's executive governing body. In 2002, Mourdock sought the Republican nomination for Indiana Secretary of State—a position chosen at the party's convention.
In the three-way contest and fellow conservative Mike Delph split the conservative vote, with the result that the more moderate Todd Rokita won the nomination In 2004, Mourdock unsuccessfully sought a seat on the Vanderburgh County Council. In 2006, he ran for Indiana treasurer, winning most of the counties in the northern portion of the state, defeating Michael W. Griffin, 52%–48%. Mourdock began his first four-year term in February 2007. In 2009, in his role as state treasurer, he sued to stop the federal bailout of Chrysler, contending that the bailout plan violated U. S. bankruptcy law by giving more funds to unsecured creditors than it did secured creditors including three Indiana pension funds. Though the suit was unsuccessful, it helped Mourdock gain national recognition. Mourdock was re-elected in November 2010 against naval officer Pete Buttigieg, 62%–38%, receiving more than 1,000,000 votes. Mourdock resigned from his position as treasurer on August 2014, effective immediately. Governor Mike Pence appointed chief financial officer and chief operating officer of the Indiana Finance Authority Daniel Huge to serve as interim treasurer.
Mourdock's resignation came on the last day that state employees could retire before cuts to pension benefits took effect in September 2014. On February 22, 2011, Mourdock announced he would challenge incumbent U. S. Senator Richard Lugar in the 2012 Republican primary. At the announcement, Mourdock criticized Lugar for his support of the auto bailouts, his votes in favor of the DREAM Act and the START treaty and his opposition to earmark reform, he said Indiana needed a senator who would return home to hold town halls, not "a globe-trotting Senator", like Lugar. Mourdock criticized Lugar's record on bipartisanship, his authorship of the 1991 Nunn-Lugar Act to secure and dismantle weapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union, the 2006 expansion of the legislation to cover conventional weapons stockpiles and secure loose nukes, he called Lugar "President Obama's favorite Republican", referring to an October 2008 MSNBC article titled, "Barack Obama's favorite Republican?", which had described Lugar as a "loyal Republican" while reporting on a 10-day international trip Lugar and then-Senator Obama had taken in 2005 to inspect weapons sites.
At the time he announced his candidacy, Mourdock released a list of 12 Republican state central committee members and 67 GOP county chairs who endorsed him. He spoke at over two dozen local tea party gatherings across Indiana where he gained name recognition and support. At a 2011 local tea party convention in Greenfield, Mourdock received 96 of the 97 straw poll votes cast. In the week before the primary, political action groups such as FreedomWorks, the NRA, National Right to Life, 45 local tea party groups held a get-out-the-vote rally for Mourdock, attended by 500 tea party members along with Reverend C. L. Bryant and FOX News political commentator Michelle Malkin. Mourdock addressed the rally praising the support he had been given by FreedomWorks and similar groups, adding that the tea party movement was much alive "showing up to work for campaigns."During the primary campaign, tea party-backed organizations such as Liberty News Network and America ReFocused campaigned door to door, sent out mailers and helped sponsor TV and radio ads.
Mourdock's largest contributor was the Club for Growth which accounted for 40% of all outside spending, contributing $2.2 million. According to campaign finance records, some of Mourdock's other top donors and the respective amounts they have contributed are the NRA, $491
John Nathan Hostettler in an American politician who served in the United States House of Representatives from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 2007, representing the Indiana's 8th congressional district. He lost his reelection bid for a seventh term to Democratic challenger Brad Ellsworth in the 2006 midterm election, ending a twelve-year congressional career. In 2010, he was a Republican candidate for the open U. S. Senate seat in the state of Indiana held by retiring Senator Evan Bayh. On December 3, 2009, Hostettler announced his candidacy for the U. S. Senate, but lost the primary to former Senator Dan Coats. Hostettler was born in as the eighth of ten children, he is of Irish descent. He grew up in rural Posey County near the Wabash rivers. After graduating from North Posey High School in 1979, he enrolled in Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering in 1983. That year, Hostettler married his high school sweetheart, Elizabeth Ann Hamman.
They live in Blairsville, an unincorporated suburban community near Evansville, have four children. He is a longtime member and former deacon of Westwood General Baptist Church in Evansville. Prior to his service in Congress, Hostettler was a power plant performance engineer with Southern Indiana Gas & Electric Company. Hostettler became part of the 104th Congress, the first Republican majority in the House in 40 years. In subsequent years, Hostettler depended on his base of fellow social and fiscal conservatives to keep him in office. While southern Indiana has been traditionally Democratic, the 8th has always had a strong social conservative tint. Hostettler's campaign was distinctive in several respects. One of Hostettler's assets in his run for Congress was his distinctive "Red Army" or "Army of Red Volunteers." Parades and similar events would feature people of varying backgrounds wearing red t-shirts with white lettering that stated "Hostettler for Congress". Hostettler family members were involved in campaign efforts.
Karen Hammonds, Hostettler's sister, was his office manager and a campaign coordinator. Being one of ten children, his brothers and sisters have assisted in campaign efforts. Media has attributed this as an area of success and influence that helped Hostettler achieve six straight victories. Hostettler signed the Contract with America, but he told an Evansville Courier & Press reporter the day he signed it he did not support two provisions: a balanced budget amendment and term limits, he was one of 40 Republicans in the House to vote in March 1995 against a constitutional amendment to set 12-year term limits for Representatives. In 2002, Hostettler met in Washington with eleven breast cancer survivors from Indiana who were seeking support for more research funding. According to the women, during the meeting Hostettler spent time "outlining possible links between abortion and breast cancer." There is no known link between breast abortion. In June 2005, Democratic Representative David Obey introduced a measure to declare congressional opposition to "coercive proselytizing" at the United States Air Force Academy after cadets complained that some of their evangelical Christian superior officers had pressured them about their religious beliefs.
During debate on the measure on the House floor on June 20, 2005, Hostettler said: "Like a moth to a flame the Democrats can't help themselves when it comes to denigrating and demonizing Christians." Democrats threatened to censure Hostettler for his comment. Debate did not resume. In the aftermath of the June 2006 arrests of 17 alleged terrorist bomb-plotters in and around Toronto, Hostettler warned that Toronto was a "breeding ground for Islamic terrorists and that the United States will be under threat as long as passports are not required of all Canadians crossing the border." Hostettler served on the Judiciary Committee. In 1999, Hostettler was appointed vice-chairman of the Armed Services Research and Development Subcommittee for the 106th Congress. In 2003, Hostettler was appointed the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, Claims, he served as chairman of the Congressional Family Caucus, was a member of the conservative Republican Study Committee.
In late 1995, Hostettler was the sponsor of a bill passed by the House to repeal a District of Columbia law that allowed city workers to register domestic partners for health benefits. In January 1996, Hostettler was one of 17 Republicans who voted against a legislation supported by House Speaker Newt Gingrich that ended a federal government shutdown. After the vote, Gingrich canceled plans to visit Evansville for a fund-raising event for Hostettler. Gingrich offered to reschedule, but Hostettler turned him down, saying "I cannot allow my fund raising to be tied in any way to specific votes." That November would be Hostettler's closest re-election, against future Evansville Mayor Jon Weinzapfel. In June 2000, Hostettler was one of 10 Republicans voting against a prescription drug bill that passed the House 217–214. In June 2001, Hostettler and Congressman Walter B. Jones of North Carolina co-authored a bill, H. R. 2357, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to permit churches and other houses of worship to engage in political campaigns without losing their tax-exempt status.
In October 2002 the bill was defeated in a 178 to 239 vote in the House
2016 United States presidential election
The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana Governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U. S. Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, despite losing the popular vote. Trump took office as the 45th President, Pence as the 48th Vice President, on January 20, 2017. Trump emerged as the front-runner amidst a wide field of Republican primary candidates, while Clinton defeated Senator Bernie Sanders and became the first female presidential nominee of a major American party. Trump's populist, nationalist campaign, which promised to "Make America Great Again" and opposed political correctness, illegal immigration, many free-trade agreements, garnered extensive free media coverage. Clinton emphasized her political experience, denounced Trump and many of his supporters as bigots, advocated the expansion of President Obama's policies.
The tone of the general election campaign was characterized as divisive and negative. Trump faced controversy over his views on race and immigration, incidents of violence against protestors at his rallies, his alleged sexual misconduct, while Clinton was dogged by declining approval ratings and an FBI investigation of her improper use of a private email server. Clinton had held the lead in nearly every pre-election nationwide poll and in most swing state polls, leading some commentators to compare Trump's victory to that of Harry S. Truman in 1948 as one of the greatest political upsets in modern U. S. history. While Clinton received 2.87 million more votes nationwide, a margin of 2.1%, Trump won a majority of electoral votes, with a total of 306 electors from 30 states, including upset victories in the pivotal Rust Belt region. Trump received 304 electoral votes and Clinton garnered 227, as two faithless electors defected from Trump and five defected from Clinton. Trump is the fifth person in U.
S. history to become president while losing the nationwide popular vote. He is the first president without any prior experience in public service or the military, the oldest at inauguration and is believed by many to be the wealthiest; the United States government's intelligence agencies concluded on January 6, 2017, that the Russian government had interfered in the elections in order to "undermine public faith in the U. S. democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, harm her electability and potential presidency". President Trump criticized these conclusions, calling the issue a "hoax" and "fake news". Trump has criticized accusations of collusion between Russia and his campaign, citing a lack of evidence. Investigations regarding such collusion were started by the FBI, the Senate Intelligence Committee, the House Intelligence Committee; the Special Counsel investigation began in May 2017 and concluded in March 2019. In a letter sent to Congress on March 24, Attorney General William Barr quoted the special counsel's report in stating that "the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities."
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency seek the nomination of one of the political parties, in which case each party devises a method to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate; the party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College. President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U. S. Senator from Illinois, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to the restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment; the series of presidential primary elections and caucuses took place between February and June 2016, staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.
S. territories. This nominating process was an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee. Speculation about the 2016 campaign began immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election. On the same day, Politico released an article predicting the 2016 general election would be between Clinton and former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, while a New York Times article named New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey as potential candidates. With seventeen major candidates entering the race, starting with Ted Cruz on March 23, 2015, this was the largest presidential primary field for any political party in American history. Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Walker, Jindal and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers.
Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after whic
Libertarian Party (United States)
The Libertarian Party is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government. The party was conceived at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado in 1971 and was formed on December 11, 1971 in Colorado Springs, Colorado; the founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War and the end of the gold standard. The party promotes a classical liberal platform, in contrast to the Democratic Party's modern liberalism and progressivism and the Republican Party's conservatism. Gary Johnson, the party's presidential nominee in 2012 and 2016, states that the Libertarian Party is more culturally liberal than Democrats, more fiscally conservative than Republicans. Current fiscal policy positions include lowering taxes, abolishing the Internal Revenue Service, decreasing the national debt, allowing people to opt out of Social Security and eliminating the welfare state, in part by utilizing private charities.
Current cultural policy positions include ending the prohibition of illegal drugs, advocating criminal justice reform, supporting same-sex marriage, ending capital punishment and supporting gun ownership rights. Many Libertarians believe in lowering the drinking age. While it is the third largest political party in the United States by voter registration, it has no members in Congress, state legislatures, or governorships. There are 511,277 voters registered as Libertarian in the 31 states that report Libertarian registration statistics and Washington, D. C; the Libertarian Party was the party under which the first electoral vote was cast for a woman for Vice President in the 1972 United States presidential election due to a faithless elector. The first Libertarian National Convention was held in June 1972. In 1978, Dick Randolph of Alaska became the first elected Libertarian state legislator. Following the 1980 federal elections, the Libertarian Party assumed the title of being the third-largest party for the first time after the American Independent Party and the Conservative Party of New York continued to decline.
In 1994, over 40 Libertarians were elected or appointed, a record for the party at that time. 1995 saw a soaring voter registration for the party. In 1996, the Libertarian Party became the first third party to earn ballot status in all 50 states two presidential elections in a row. By the end of 2009, 146 Libertarians were holding elected offices. Tonie Nathan, running as the Libertarian Party's vice presidential candidate in the 1972 presidential election with John Hospers as the presidential candidate, was the first female candidate in the United States to receive an electoral vote; the 2012 election Libertarian Party presidential candidate, former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, received the highest number of votes—more than 1.2 million—of any Libertarian presidential candidate at the time. He was renominated for president in 2016, this time choosing former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate. Johnson/Weld shattered the Libertarian record for a presidential ticket, earning over 4.4 million votes.
Both Johnson and Green Party candidate Jill Stein received more news coverage in 2016 than third-party candidates get, with polls showing both candidates increasing their support over the last election among younger voters. Though the party has never won a seat in the United States Congress, it has seen electoral success in the context of state legislatures and other local offices. Three Libertarians were elected to the Alaska House of Representatives between 1978 and 1984 and another four to the New Hampshire General Court in 1992. Neil Randall, a Libertarian, won the election to the Vermont House of Representatives in 1998 and was re-elected until 2002, which marked the last time to date a Libertarian was elected to a state legislature. Rhode Island State Representative Daniel P. Gordon was expelled from the Republicans and joined the Libertarian Party in 2011. In July 2016 and June 2017, the Libertarians tied their 1992 peak of four legislators when four state legislators from four different states left the Republican Party to join the Libertarian Party: Nevada Assemblyman John Moore in January, Nebraska Senator Laura Ebke and New Hampshire Representative Max Abramson in May and Utah Senator Mark B.
Madsen in July. In the 2016 election cycle and Abramson did not run for re-election to their respective offices while Moore lost his race after the Libertarian Party censured him over his support of taxpayer stadium funding. Ebke was not up for re-election in 2016. New Hampshire Representative Caleb Q. Dyer changed party affiliation to the Libertarian Party from the Republican Party in February 2017. New Hampshire Representative Joseph Stallcop changed party affiliation to the Libertarian Party from the Democratic Party in May 2017. New Hampshire State Legislator Brandon Phinney joined with the Libertarian Party from the Republican Party in June 2017, the third to do so in 2017 and matching their 1992 and 2016 peaks of sitting Libertarian state legislators. In January 2018, sitting New Mexico Commissioner of Public Lands Aubrey Dunn Jr. changed party affiliation from Republican to the Libertarian Party, becoming the first Libertarian statewide officeholder in history. In 1972, "Libertarian Party" was chosen as the party's name, selected over "New Liberty Party".
The first official slogan of the Libertarian Party was "There ain't no such thing as a free lunch" (abbreviated "TANSTAAFL