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Politics of Lesotho

Politics of Lesotho takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Lesotho is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of Parliament, the Senate and the National Assembly; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The Lesotho Government is a constitutional monarchy; the Prime Minister, Tom Thabane, has executive authority. The King serves a ceremonial function. According to the constitution, the leader of the majority party in the assembly automatically becomes prime minister. Parliament has two chambers; the National Assembly has 120 members, elected for a five-year term, 80 in single-seat constituencies and 40 by proportional representation. The Senate has 33 nominated members; the Lesotho Congress for Democracy won the majority in parliament in the 23 May 1998 general elections, leaving the once-dominant Basotho National Party and Basotholand Congress Party far behind in total votes.

Although international observers as well as a regional commission declared the elections to have reflected the will of the people, many members of the opposition have accused the LCD of electoral fraud. The 1998 elections were the third multiparty elections in Lesotho's history; the LCD, BNP, BCP remain the principal rival political organizations in Lesotho. Distinctions and differences in political orientation between the major parties have blurred in recent years. After political riots following the disputed 1998, an all-party forum called the Interim Political Authority was formed to level ground for the next poll, it proposed the restructuring of the Independent Electoral Commission, which happened and the change of the model from pure First-Past-the-Post System to Mixed Member Proportional Representation. In the 25 May 2002 general elections, the ruling Lesotho Congress for Democracy was re-elected by majority, winning all but one of the 80 constituency-based seats. 40 compensatory seats under the Proportional Representation were shared among nine opposition parties.

LCD was re-elected in the 2007 elections but lost power after the 2012 elections to a coalition headed by the All Basotho Convention. The constitution provides for an independent hierarchical judicial system; the judiciary is made up of the High Court of Lesotho, the Court of Appeal, magistrate's courts, traditional courts which exist predominantly in rural areas. There is no trial by jury; the constitution protects basic civil liberties, including freedom of speech and the press. The Court of Appeal consists of a President and 6 justices of Appeal; the High Court has unlimited original jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters, as well as appellate jurisdiction from the lower courts and comprises a Chief Justice and other puisne judges. Parallel to the High Court is the Labour Court, a specialist court dealing with industrial and labour matters. Magistrates Courts are presided over by judicial officers employed as civil servants, they are not courts of record. The Chief Justice and Justices of the Court of Appeal are appointed by the King on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Puisne judges of the High Court are appointed by the King on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission. High Court judges may retire any time after attaining the age of 75 but may be removed from office by the King for malfeasance or infirmity. Chief Justices c. 1968–>1970 Hendrik Rudolf Jacobs 1974–1975 Joas Tseliso Mapetla 1976–?1986 Taufik Suliman Cotran 1987–1991 Brendan Peter Cullinan <1994–2002 Joseph Lebona Kheola 2002–2004 Mahapela Lelohla 2004 Baptista Molai 2013 Tseliso Monaphathi 2014-date Nthomeng Majara For administrative purposes, Lesotho is divided into 10 districts, each headed by a district secretary and a district military officer appointed by the central government and the RLDF, respectively. The districts are: Berea, Butha-Buthe, Mafeteng, Mohales Hoek, Qacha's Nek, Thaba-Tseka Lesotho is member of ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO K. Matlosa Electoral System Design and Conflict Mitigation: the Case of Lesotho // Democracy and Human Security


Schenkenschanz is a small community in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, incorporated into the town of Kleve in 1969. Schenkenschanz is site of the former Schenkenschans fortress, of significance in the Dutch Revolt. Schenkenschanz is a village within home to about 100 inhabitants. Most of its 38 hectares is not protected against part of a nature preserve. Schenkenschanz is located about 5 km north of the center of Kleve; until 1972 it could only be reached by ferry service across the nearby old Rhine arm, while today the Kleve-Griethausen bridge provides a road connection. The area of Schenkenschanz is subject to the influence of the Rhine river due to flooding, formation of islands and changes in the course of the river. Schenkenschanz had military significance when it was the point that split the Rhine river into two arms, the southern Waal and the northern Nederrijn. Flooding by the Rhine in 1995 forced a complete evacuation of the village. After the Dutch Republic had declared its independence from Spain in 1581, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester commissioned Maarten Schenck van Nydeggen to erect a fortress at the Waal/Nederrijn fork in 1586.

As Schenkenschans it was built as star fortress with extensive fortification works on both sides of the river representing at its time one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. It controlled the river access to the Netherlands. During the Dutch War of Independence the fortress was unsuccessfully besieged in 1599 by Spanish forces, it was however captured by them in 1635 only to succumb to the Dutch forces led by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange in the long and bitter siege of 1636. During the Franco-Dutch War French troops under Louis XIV attacked the fortress in 1672. Two years Brandenburg-Prussian troops took over, dismantled the fortress and returned the place to the Dutch in 1679. By the end of the 17th century Rhine water flowed more and more into the Waal while the Nederrijn at Schenkenschanz was sanding up; the creation of the Pannerdens Kanaal in 1701/09 repositioned the fork between the two rivers west to Millingen aan de Rijn and Schenkenschanz lost its military significance. About 1800 Schenkenschanz became French again.

After the turmoil of the Napoleonic wars, Schenkenschanz become part of the Rhine Province, Prussia at the 1816 Congress of Vienna

Taybat al-Imam

Taybat al-Imam is a town in northern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located 18 kilometers northwest of Hama. Nearby localities include Halfaya and Mhardeh to the west, Lataminah to the northwest, Mork to the north, Suran to the east, Maar Shahhur to the southeast, Qamhana to the south and Khitab to the southwest. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Taybat al-Imam had a population of 24,105 in the 2004 census, its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims. Taybat al-Imam contains the Byzantine-era Church of the Holy Martyrs that dates back to 442 CE; the church, which now serves as a museum in the center of town, consists of three naves and contains a large mosaic covering the building's entire floor. The mosaic was accidentally discovered in 1985 during road construction in the town. Between that year and 1987 it was excavated by the Jordan-based Franciscan Archaeological Institute; the mosaic is noted for both its size and for its depiction of 20 different building types, including religious and civil structures.

Other images depicted include the scene of Paradise, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the churches of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, the basilica of St. Simeon Stylites and the double towers of Qalb Lozeh, both sites in northern Syria near Aleppo; as part of the ongoing Syrian civil war, Taybat al-Imam was the scene of violent clashes between the rebel Free Syrian Army and the government's armed forces in December 2012. The clashes were part of a rebel offensive into Hama Governorate. In August 2016, rebels manages to recapture the city. On 20 April 2017, Syrian Army recaptured the city from jihadist rebels

Matthew Storton

Matthew Storton is an English rugby league footballer who plays as a second row forward for Hull Kingston Rovers in the Betfred Super League. He played for the Bradford Bulls in League 1 and the Betfred Championship. Storton was born in West Yorkshire, England, he is a product of the Bradford Bulls Academy system. He signed a professional contract with the Bulls prior to the 2018 season. 2017 - 2017 Season Storton featured in Round 12. 2018 - 2018 Season Storton featured in the pre-season friendly against Dewsbury Rams. Matthew played in Round 24 to League 1 Final, he scored against West Wales Raiders, Oldham R. L. F. C. and Hemel Stags.2019 - 2019 Season Matthew featured in the pre-season friendlies against York City Knights, Halifax R. L. F. C. Huddersfield Giants, Batley Bulldogs and Toronto Wolfpack. Storton played in Round 4 to Round 18 in Round 21 to Round 23, he played in Round 26 to Round 27. Storton featured in the 2019 Challenge Cup in Round 4 in Round 6 to Quarter Final, he scored against Swinton Lions and Rochdale Hornets.

Statistics do not include pre-season friendlies. Bulls profile


Aunat is a commune in the Aude department in the Occitanie region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aunatoises. Aunat is located some 60 km west by north-west of Perpignan and 25 km east by north-east of Ax-les-Thermes. Access to the commune is by the D20 road from Rodome in the west which passes through the village and continues east to Bessède-de-Sault; the D29 road comes from Fontanès-de-Sault in the south and passes through the length of the commune and the village before continuing north-west to join the D107 north-east of Belfort-sur-Rebenty. The commune is rugged and forested but with farmland in the valley around the village; the Ruisseau du Mouillou rises in the north-east of the commune and flows west gathering several tributaries from the north including the Ruisseau du Bernet and the Ruisseau de Valmajou before joining the Ruisseau de Romanis on the western border of the commune. List of Successive Mayors; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.

From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. The paternal side of Edgar Faure originated from this commune for many generations before 1850. Communes of the Aude department Aunat on the old IGN website Aunat on Google Maps Aunat on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aunat on the 1750 Cassini Map Aunat on the INSEE website INSEE

Neera Tanden

Neera Tanden is the President of the Center for American Progress, a liberal think tank in Washington, DC she has helped to build through service in prominent roles there since 2003. Tanden has worked with Bill and Hillary Clinton in various capacities over the years, is regarded as a Clinton loyalist, close friend, long-time confidante. Tanden has worked on the campaigns of several Democratic Presidential candidates, to include those of Michael Dukakis in 1988, Bill Clinton in 1992, the general election campaign of Barack Obama in 2008. Tanden advised Hillary Clinton’s successful primary campaign, unsuccessful general election campaign for President in 2016, was a senior staffer on Clinton's unsuccessful campaign for the 2008 Democratic nomination, she helped draft health care legislation for the Barack Obama administration with work on the Affordable Care Act, including but not limited to work specific to a considered public option. Neera Tanden was born on September 10, 1970, in Bedford, Massachusetts, to immigrant parents from India.

She has Raj. Her parents divorced when she was five, after which Tanden's mother was on welfare for nearly two years before obtaining a job as a travel agent, she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1992. In 1996, she received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale University, where she was Submissions Editor for the Yale Law & Policy Review; as a freshman at the University of California, Los Angeles, Tanden met her future husband Benjamin Edwards. Edwards and Tanden both volunteered on Michael Dukakis's unsuccessful run for President in 1988. Tanden worked as a precinct leader in the Bel Air district of West Los Angeles where many households had contributed to the Dukakis campaign. After graduating from Yale Law School, Tanden moved to Washington, D. C. where she has worked on domestic policy on Capitol Hill, in think tanks, for Democratic senatorial and presidential campaigns. She has written on Indian-American issues. Tanden has been regarded as a Clinton loyalist and personal friend of Hillary Clinton’s, whose career has been defined by her professional ties to the Clintons.

She worked with President Bill Clinton's campaign on new energy policies, health-care reform, as associate director for domestic policy in the Clinton White House, as senior advisor in the First Lady’s Office. In 1999 and 2000, she worked for Hillary Clinton on her successful senatorial campaign in New York, as her deputy campaign manager and issues director, where she crafted policy proposals for the campaign. After the election, Tanden served as Senator Clinton's Legislative Director from 2003 to 2005, she served as Hillary Clinton's policy director for her unsuccessful bid for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination, shaping its policy proposals. Tanden supervised debate preparation for Senator Clinton's participation in the Democratic presidential nomination debates during 2007 and 2008. Continuing her association with Hillary Clinton, Tanden was an unpaid adviser to Mrs. Clinton’s successful 2016 primary season nomination campaign and unsuccessful general election campaign in opposition to Republican candidate Donald Trump, while running the Center for American Progress.

Tanden was considered a candidate for a top White House job, had Mrs. Clinton won the presidency. After Clinton secured the Democratic nomination for president in 2016, Tanden was named to her transition team. After Barack Obama was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate, Tanden was one of a few former Clinton campaign staffers to join his team, she served as Domestic Policy Director for his successful general election campaign, where she managed all domestic policy proposals for the campaign. Tanden served in the Obama administration as senior adviser to Secretary Kathleen Sebelius of the Department of Health and Human Services, she worked on the drafting of the administration's health care legislation, including work specific to its proposed, but withdrawn public plan option, before parts of it became public law as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, negotiated with Congress and stakeholders on several provisions of the bill. She has been described as one of the “key architects” of the Affordable Care Act.

In 2003, Senator Clinton pushed for Tanden's involvement in the founding of the Center for American Progress, or CAP. Tanden worked as Senior Vice President for Domestic Policy, while serving as Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs and, starting in 2010, as Chief Operating Officer. In October of 2011, Tanden succeeded John Podesta as CAP's president. At that time, the Washington Post's Jason Horowitz described CAP as "Washington’s leading liberal think tank, an incessant advocate for a broad progressive agenda and as such a sharp thorn in President Obama’s left side." In 2016, a hacker gained access to John Podesta's private emails, some which were emails exchanged with Tanden. In one exchange, on August 11, 2015, while discussing news that Harvard University law professor Lawrence Lessig was exploring a bid for the Democratic nomination, Tanden wrote of Lessig, "I fucking hate that guy." Lessig responded to the incident by saying that while he supported whistle blowing and a pardon of Edward Snowden, Tanden should not have to be burdened with having her private emails scrutinized and that it was not in the public interest.

Tanden called the release of her personal communications, which feature her blunt private assessments, a painful experience to endure. After the 2016 election and Clinton’s loss, Tanden refocused the work of the Center for American Progress, aiming to have the think tank, its advocacy arm (the Center for American Progress Action Fund