A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Henri is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, reigning since 7 October 2000. He is the eldest son of Grand Duke Jean and Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, a first cousin of Philippe, the king of the Belgians. Prince Henri was born on 16 April 1955, at the Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg as the second child and first son of Prince Jean, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg and his wife, Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, his father was the eldest son of Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg by her husband, Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. His mother was an only daughter of King Leopold III of Belgium by Astrid of Sweden; the prince's godparents were the Prince of Liège and Princess Marie Gabriele, countess of Holstein-Ledreborg. Henri has four siblings: Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria, Prince Jean of Luxembourg, Princess Margaretha of Liechtenstein and Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg. On 12 November 1964, when Henri was nine, his grandmother's abdication and his father's subsequent accession as grand duke made him heir apparent.
As the grand duke's eldest son, he automatically took the title of Hereditary Grand Duke. Henri was educated in Luxembourg and in France, where he obtained his baccalaureate in 1974 after which he undertook military officer training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, England on the Standard Military Course 7, he studied political science at University of Geneva and the Graduate Institute of International Studies, graduating in 1980. While studying in Geneva, Henri met the Cuban-born María Teresa Mestre y Batista, a political science student, they married in Luxembourg on 4 February/14 February 1981 with the previous consent of the grand duke, dated 7 November 1980. The couple has five children and four grandchildren: The Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, born 11 November 1981, married Belgian Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy on 19 and 20 October 2012 in Luxembourg. Prince Félix Léopold Marie Guillaume of Luxembourg, born 3 June 1984, married German Claire Margareta Lademacher on 17 September 2013 and 21 September 2013.
The couple has one daughter and one son: Princess Amalia Gabriela Maria Teresa of Nassau, born 15 June 2014 Prince Liam Henri Hartmut of Nassau, born 28 November 2016 Prince Louis Xavier Marie Guillaume of Luxembourg, born 3 August 1986, who married Luxembourgian Tessy Antony on 29 September 2006 in Gilsdorf and separated in January 2017. They couple has two sons: Prince Gabriel Michael Louis Ronny of Nassau, born 12 March 2006 Prince Noah Etienne Guillaume Gabriel Matthias Xavier of Nassau, born 21 September 2007 Princess Alexandra Joséphine Teresa Charlotte Marie Wilhelmine of Luxembourg, born 16 February 1991 Prince Sébastien Henri Marie Guillaume of Luxembourg, born 16 April 1992 Prince Henri became heir apparent to the Luxembourg throne on the abdication of his paternal grandmother, Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, on 12 November 1964. From 1980 to 1998, he was a member of the Council of State. On 4 March 1998, Prince Henri was appointed as lieutenant representative by his father, Grand Duke Jean, meaning that he assumed most of his father's constitutional powers.
On 7 October 2000 following the abdication of his father, Henri acceded as grand duke of Luxembourg and took the constitutional oath before the Chamber of Deputies that day. On 2 December 2008 it was announced that Grand Duke Henri had stated he would refuse to give his "assent" to a new law on euthanasia, passed earlier in the year by the Chamber of Deputies. Under the constitution the grand duke "sanctions and promulgates the laws" meaning the need for the grand duke's sanction or "approval" was required in order for laws to take effect. In the absence of clarity on the long-term implications for the constitutional position of the grand duke posed by such a refusal, it was announced by Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker that a constitutional amendment would be brought forward amending the constitution; the Luxembourg royal house had tried to block a decision by parliament only once before, when Grand Duchess Marie-Adelaide refused to sign an education bill in 1912. The ultimate solution was that the grand duke would be declared unable to perform his duty temporarily.
Article 34 of the constitution was subsequently amended to remove the term "assent". Leaving the relevant provision to read "The Grand Duke promulgates the laws..." As a result, his signature is still needed but is clear that his signature is automatic and that he/she has no freedom of decision. The head of state no longer has to "sanction" laws for them to take effect; as the head of a constitutional monarchy, Grand Duke Henri's duties are representative. However, he retains the constitutional power to appoint the prime minister and government, to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, to promulgate laws and to accredit ambassadors. Grand Duke Henri is commander-in-chief of the Luxembourg Army, in which he holds the rank of general, he is an honorary major in the British RAF Regiment. One of the grand duke's main functions is to represent Luxembourg in the field of foreign affairs. In May 2001, Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duch
A monarchy is a form of government in which a single person holds supreme authority in ruling a country performing ceremonial duties and embodying the country's national identity. Although some monarchs are elected, in most cases, the monarch's position is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In these cases, the royal family or members of the dynasty serve in official capacities as well; the governing power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to partial and restricted, to autocratic. Monarchy was the most common form of government until the 20th century. Forty-five sovereign nations in the world have monarchs acting as heads of state, sixteen of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. Most modern monarchs are constitutional monarchs, who retain a unique legal and ceremonial role, but exercise limited or no political power under the nation's constitution. In some nations, such as Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Eswatini, the hereditary monarch has more political influence than any other single source of authority in the nation, either by tradition or by a constitutional mandate.
The word "monarch" comes from the Greek language word μονάρχης, monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchy refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are quite rare; the form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric. The Greek term monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus; the monarch in classical antiquity is identified as "king" or "ruler" or as "queen". From earliest historical times, with the Egyptian and Mesopotamian monarchs, as well as in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion, the king held sacral functions directly connected to sacrifice, or was considered by their people to have divine ancestry; the role of the Roman emperor as the protector of Christianity was conflated with the sacral aspects held by the Germanic kings to create the notion of the "divine right of kings" in the Christian Middle Ages. The Chinese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period.
Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, some monarchies were abolished in favour of such assemblies in Rome, Athens. In Germanic antiquity, kingship was a sacral function, the king was directly hereditary for some tribes, while for others he was elected from among eligible members of royal families by the thing; such ancient "parliamentarism" declined during the European Middle Ages, but it survived in forms of regional assemblies, such as the Icelandic Commonwealth, the Swiss Landsgemeinde and Tagsatzung, the High Medieval communal movement linked to the rise of medieval town privileges. The modern resurgence of parliamentarism and anti-monarchism began with the temporary overthrow of the English monarchy by the Parliament of England in 1649, followed by the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789. One of many opponents of that trend was Elizabeth Dawbarn, whose anonymous Dialogue between Clara Neville and Louisa Mills, on Loyalty features "silly Louisa, who admires liberty, Tom Paine and the USA, lectured by Clara on God's approval of monarchy" and on the influence women can exert on men.
Much of 19th-century politics featured a division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism. Many countries abolished the monarchy in the 20th century and became republics in the wake of either World War I, World War II, the Palestine War, or the Cold War. Advocacy of republics is called republicanism. In the modern era, monarchies are more prevalent in small states than in large ones. Monarchies are associated with political or sociocultural hereditary reign, in which monarchs reign for life and the responsibilities and power of the position pass to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family, future monarchs are trained for their expected future responsibilities as monarch. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. While most monarchs have been male, many female monarchs have reigned in history.
Rule may be hereditary in practice without being considered a monarchy: there have been some family dictatorships, some political families in many democracies. The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of leadership; some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected, or appointed by some body for life or a defined period, but once appointed they serve as any other monarch. Four elective monarchies exist today: Cambodia, Malaysia and th
2004 Luxembourg general election
General elections were held in Luxembourg on 13 June 2004, alongside European Parliament elections. The ruling Christian Social People's Party of Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker won the election, increasing its number of seats to its highest since before 1989 and its share of the vote to levels not seen since the 1959 election; as expected, the CSV won a plurality of seats, adding 5 new deputies, continued as the majority partner in the coalition government. However, the junior partner changed from the liberal Democratic Party, which lost 5 seats, to the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, which gained one seat; the Greens slightly increased their representation, whilst the Alternative Democratic Reform Party lost ground. The election coincided with the 2004 European Parliament election. A The percentage of votes is not related to the number of votes in the table, as voters could cast more votes in some constituencies than others, is instead calculated based on the proportion of votes received in each constituency.
The CSV won pluralities in all four districts. However, the CSV won a better-than-average increase in their vote share in Luxembourg City and Centre wiping out the DP's advantage and winning 2 deputies in that circonscription alone; the CSV's vote remaining constant across all circonscriptions: The CSV won pluralities across all of the country, winning more votes than any other party in 111 of the country's 118 communes. The LSAP won pluralities in five communes in the industrial Red Lands: Differdange, Kayl, Schifflange; the DP won the northern communes of Schieren and Préizerdaul
Etienne Schneider is a Luxembourg politician and economist of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party. He was a municipal councillor in Kayl from 1995 to 2005, from 1997 to 2004, he was secretary general of the parliamentary group of the LSAP in Parliament, he was elected first alderman of the municipality of Kayl in 2005, a mandate he held until May 2010. Schneider was appointed Minister of the Economy and Foreign Trade on 1 February 2012. In the government formed following the 2013 Luxembourg general election he is Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Economy, he continued to hold these offices following the 2018 Luxembourg general election, where he became the health minister too. From 2013 to 2018, he served as Minister for Defence. Following the 2018 Luxembourg general election, he became the first gay politician to be reelected for the office of deputy minister. Born in Dudelange, Schneider completed his secondary schooling at the Lycée Technique d'Esch-sur-Alzette before studying at the ICHEC Brussels Management School and at the University of Greenwich in London where he graduated in business and finance in 1995.
In 1995, Schneider became a councilor in Kayl, a post he maintained until 2005, subsequently becoming first alderman until 2010. In 1997, he was appointed secretary general of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party until he became chairman of the board of the electricity utility Cegedel, subsequently becoming chairman and Managing Director of the German energy company, the creation of, credited to him. Schneider was a research assistant at the European Parliament in Brussels between 1995 and 1996. In the Kayl municipal elections in 2005 he was elected as first alderman of the municipality which post he occupied till May 2010. During 1997, he worked in Brussels as a project leader with NATO. In 2010, he became chairman and managing director of Luxembourg's Société Nationale de Crédit et d'Investissement but resigned all his business appointments when he became Minister of the Economy and Foreign Trade in February 2012, replacing Jeannot Krecké. In this capacity he co-chaired the Superior Committee for Research and Innovation.
His tasks as minister involved private sector research and implementation of the bill of 5 June 2009 relating to assistance in the field of research. Although Schneider was frontrunner as the leader for the LSAP in the general election on 20 October 2013, he received only 19,683 votes, far fewer than Jean Asselborn an LSAP candidate, who had 38,257. In the new coalition, he has been appointed Deputy Prime Minister of the Economy, he is gay, married his husband Jérôme Domange in 2016. As Minister of Economy Schneider has expressed his support for the space program taking place to mine near-Earth asteroids in a statement mentioning the environmental benefits for mining off Earth, he continued to hold these offices following the 2018 Luxembourg general election, where he became the health minister too. From 2013 to 2018, he served as Minister for Defence. Following the 2018 Luxembourg general election, he became the first gay politician to be reelected for the office of deputy minister. Bettel-Schneider Ministry Biography at the Luxembourg government website
2013 Luxembourg general election
Early general elections were held in Luxembourg on 20 October 2013. The elections were called after Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker, at the time the longest serving head of government in the European Union, announced his resignation over a spy scandal involving the Service de Renseignement de l'Etat; the review found Juncker deficient in his control over the service. The elections saw Juncker's Christian Social People's Party lose three seats, but remain the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies with 23 of the 60 seats. After a spy scandal involving the SREL illegally wiretapping politicians, the Grand Duke and his family, allegations of paying for favours in exchange for access to government ministers and officials leaked through the press, Prime Minister Juncker submitted his resignation to the Grand Duke on 11 July 2013, upon knowledge of the withdrawal of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party from the government and thereby losing its confidence and supply in the Chamber of Deputies.
Juncker urged the Grand Duke for the immediate dissolution of parliament and the calling of a snap election. The 60 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by proportional representation in four multi-member constituencies. Voters could vote for a party list or cast multiple votes for as many candidates as there were seats. Seat allocation was calculated in accordance with the Hagenbach-Bischoff quota. Voting was compulsory for all citizens between the age of 18 and 75, whilst those over 75 and citizens living abroad were the only ones allowed to vote by post. Failure to vote could have resulted in a fine of between €100 and €250. Nine parties contested the election, of which five won seats in the Chamber of Deputies at the last election: the Christian Social People's Party, the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, the Democratic Party, the Greens, the Alternative Democratic Reform Party, The Left. Two extra-parliamentary parties ran: the Communist Party and Pirate Party Luxembourg. In addition, the Party for Full Democracy, headed by independent deputy Jean Colombera contested the election.
All parties that ran in the election submitted lists in all constituencies. NB: Each ballot contains multiple votes; the total shown above includes invalid ballots. 203,557 valid ballots were cast. As in 2004 and 2009, the CSV won pluralities in each of Luxembourg's four circonscriptions. However, the CSV's performance declined in all circonscriptions from 2009; the CSV held up the best in Centre. The CSV's sharpest decline was in Nord, where the party lost 5.91%. It nonetheless held a 10% lead over DP in Nord. Overall, despite a relative decline, the CSV retained a comfortable lead in all circonscriptons, both in votes and in seats. Following the elections, the Democratic Party, the Socialist Workers' Party and the Greens began initial talks about forming a coalition, pushing the Christian Social People's Party into the opposition for the first time since 1979. On 25 October, Xavier Bettel, the leader of the Democratic Party and mayor of Luxembourg City, was named formateur by the Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
The negotiations were finished by 29 November, as planned. The new Bettel-Schneider Ministry was sworn in on 4 December
2009 Luxembourg general election
General elections were held in Luxembourg on 7 June 2009, together with the 2009 election to the European Parliament. All sixty members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected for five years; the polls were topped by the Christian Social People's Party, which built upon its high number of seats to achieve a commanding victory, with the highest vote share and number of seats of any party since 1954. Incumbent Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker, longest serving head of government in the European Union, renewed the coalition agreement with Deputy Prime Minister and Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party leader Jean Asselborn and formed the Juncker-Asselborn Ministry II, sworn-in on 23 July 2009. Seven parties ran candidates in all four circonscriptions, of which, five were represented in the Chamber of Deputies: the Christian Social People's Party, the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, the Democratic Party, the Greens, the Alternative Democratic Reform Party. Two parties that were not represented ran: The Left and the Communist Party.
In addition, the Citizens' List, headed by current independent deputy Aly Jaerling, ran in two constituencies. As in 2004, the CSV won pluralities in each of Luxembourg's four circonscriptions, pluralities in nearly all of Luxembourg's communes. Only four communes didn't register pluralities for the CSV. Wiltz in the north and Dudelange and Rumelange in the southern Red Lands voted for the LSAP; the CSV's performance improved most markedly in Centre, where it increased its vote from 35.5% to 38.6%. In Centre, the CSV received twice as many votes as the Democratic Party in, only ten years after the DP won a plurality by over 2%, it gained one extra seat in Centre, another in Est. The CSV's large margin of victory guaranteed that it would form the government once again, with Jean-Claude Juncker appointed as formateur and to remain as Prime Minister. Before the election, Europe's longest-serving head of government, had told his party that he intended to step down as Minister for Finances, to be replaced by Luc Frieden.
This brought into question his chairmanship of the Europe-wide Eurogroup, which he had chaired since 2005. However, he has since stated that he would remain in charge of monetary policy and relations with the European Central Bank; the CSV was in a strong enough position to form a coalition with any one of three parties: LSAP, the DP, the Greens. However, the DP and Greens had both ruled out the possibility of a coalition with the CSV, leaving only the previous coalition partners, LSAP, in the running; the CSV and LSAP formed a coalition agreement, with Juncker as Prime Minister and Jean Asselborn as Deputy Prime Minister, with the new government forming on 23 July