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Politics of Mali

Until the military coup of March 22, 2012 and a second military coup in December 2012 the politics of Mali took place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mali is head of state with a Presidentially appointed Prime Minister as the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Mali a "hybrid regime" in 2019. Under Mali's 1992 constitution, the president is chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces; the president is elected to 5-year terms by direct popular vote. He is limited to two terms; the president appoints the prime minister as head of government. The president chairs the Council of Ministers, which adopts a proposals for laws submitted to the National Assembly for approval of them; the National Assembly has 160 members, elected for a five-year term, 147 members elected in single-seat constituencies and 13 members elected by Malians abroad.

The National Assembly is the sole legislative arm of the government. Representation is apportioned according to the population of administrative districts. Election is direct and by party list; the term of office is 5 years. The Assembly meets for two regular sessions each year, it debates and votes on legislation proposed either by one of its members or by the government and has the right to question government ministers about government actions and policies. Eight political parties, aggregated into four parliamentary groups, are represented in the Assembly. ADEMA holds the majority. Mali's constitution provides for a multi-party democracy, with the only restriction being a prohibition against parties based on ethnic, regional, or gender lines. In addition to those political parties represented in the National Assembly, others are active in municipal councils. Mali's legal system is based on codes inherited at independence from France. New laws have been enacted to make the system conform to Malian life, but French colonial laws not abrogated still have the force of law.

The constitution provides for the independence of the judiciary. The Ministry of Justice supervises both law enforcement and judicial functions; the Supreme Court has both judicial and administrative powers. Under the constitution, there is a separate constitutional court and a high court of justice with the power to try senior government officials in cases of treason. Administratively, Mali is divided into eight regions and the capital district of Bamako, each under the authority of an elected governor; each region consists of five to nine districts, administered by Prefects. Cercles are divided into communes, which, in turn, are divided into quarters. A decentralisation and democratisation process began in the 1990s with the establishment of 702 elected municipal councils, headed by elected mayors, appointed officials have been replaced with elected officials, which culminates in a National council of local officials. Other changes included greater local control over finances, the reduction of administrative control by the central government.

Mali is member of ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Official portal of the Government of Mali Official portal of the President of Mali Government Decree 4-141, May 2004 - Official list of the Ministers and Ministries of the Government of Mali, at the official portal of the President of Mali

Langeled pipeline

The Langeled pipeline is an underwater pipeline transporting Norwegian natural gas to the United Kingdom. Before the completion of the Nord Stream pipeline, it was the longest subsea pipeline in the world; the project was launched under the original name Britpipe. In October 2003, Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil and Statoil signed agreements to supply natural gas through the Britpipe; the pipeline's construction began in 2004. The largest part of the pipeline was installed by a pipe-laying ship of Acergy. Other pipe-laying ships, which were used, are Solitaire of Allseas, Saipem 7000 of Saipem; the pipeline was opened in two stages. The southern section began piping gas on 1 October 2006, the northern section opened in October 2007; the official opening of the project was held in London on 16 October 2006 by then-Prime Minister Tony Blair and his Norwegian counterpart, Jens Stoltenberg. The pipeline runs 1,166 kilometres through the North Sea from the Nyhamna terminal in Norway via the Sleipner Riser platform in the North Sea to Easington Gas Terminal in England.

The pipeline is designated to bring natural gas from the Ormen Lange gas process terminal to the UK, but through the connector at Sleipner Riser it provides an opportunity to send gas through Gassco's existing network to continental Europe. The annual capacity of the Langeled pipeline is 25.5 billion cubic metres. That equates to some 20% of Britain's peak gas demand. With the energy content of natural gas at 39 MJ per normal cubic meter, the capacity energy flux is 31.5 GW. The Langeled pipeline supplements the Vesterled system with annual capacity about 12 bcm, which runs from Heimdal Riser platform in the North Sea to St. Fergus in Scotland; the project cost £1.7 billion. The Nyhamna-Sleipner Riser leg has a diameter of 1,067 millimetres and can operate with a pressure of 250 bar. At Sleipner Riser the Langeled has a connection to the existing Gassled transport system; the Sleipner Riser-Easington leg has a diameter of 1,118 millimetres, which makes it the largest submarine pipeline in the North Sea.

Its pressure is 155 bar. The owner of the Langeled pipeline is Gassled; the operator for Langeled is Gassco and technical service provider is Statoil. Statoil runs the gas export project; the principal funding of the project was provided by the syndicated loan structured by ABN AMRO and subscribed by several banks, among them Barclays Bank, Royal Bank of Scotland, Defoe Fournier & Cie. Interconnector BBL Pipeline Frigg UK System Snøhvit Langeled, Statoil website Langeled, Gassco website

Deuce (musician)

Aron Erlichman, better known by his stage name Deuce, is an American rapper, music producer and guitarist. Brought to fame as a producer, singer-songwriter and one of the founding members of rap rock band Hollywood Undead, Deuce has since moved on to solo work through the label "Five Seven Music", a branch of Eleven Seven Music, he is involved in a movement with fellow rapper Truth called "Nine Lives". Deuce released his debut album of the same name on April 24, 2012, which sold 11,425 copies in its first week. Deuce has collaborated with artists Marc Bosserman, Ronnie Radke and Blood on the Dance Floor. Deuce began creating rock-based music under his birth name of Aron Erlichman, early in 2005. In 2005, he released four tracks—"Franny", "Surface Air", "Breaking Through", "Sometimes"—from his first EP called The Aron EP on Broadjam, an Internet sharing site for opinions and ratings, where he gained little recognition, he co-founded Hollywood Undead with Jorel Decker and Jeff Phillips, sang clean vocals and produced instrumentals for the band, until his departure in early 2010.

In early February 2012, three more pre-Hollywood Undead tracks were released and surfaced, including "Far Away", "Fallen Stone", "Dreams". Deuce co-founded the band Hollywood Undead as a vocalist and producer with close friend Jorel Decker; the band began their musical career with the creation of the rap-rock song "The Kids", promoted by Jeffree Star. Deuce adopted and recorded songs with the band under the pseudonym "Tha Producer" due to his role in production but shortened this pseudonym to "Deuce" not long after. At the time of Deuce's departure, Hollywood Undead had gained success with Swan Songs, which peaked at number 22 on the Billboard 200 in its first week. A few EPs were released, the Swan Songs B-Sides EP and the Swan Songs Rarities EP in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, Hollywood Undead released their first live album, Desperate Measures, which peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200. In late 2009, Deuce left due to differences within the band members; the first song he wrote following his departure was a song titled "Story of a Snitch" about Hollywood Undead, the'snitch' being about Hollywood Undead member J-Dog, with the lyrics consisting of obscenities and insults directed towards Hollywood Undead making claims such as he was kicked out of the band and that members of the band were "tryin' to spit just like me but they don't have it".

In an interview with YouTube interviewer Bryan Stars, Hollywood Undead members Johnny 3 Tears and Da Kurlzz were asked why Deuce had left the band, revealing that he was not working well with the band and that they had to "bend over backwards to accommodate Deuce in a lot of ways..." and that he held them back on their song writing quality." Deuce in a different interview with Bryan Stars however stated that the band were in fact jealous of his leading role in the band and that he was responsible for the band's current position. Hollywood Undead stated that Deuce required a personal assistant, revealed to be Jimmy Yuma, now Deuce's guitarist and lyricist, Yuma replied that Deuce paid him himself, not the band, to set equipment up and to tour with him. Deuce commented that on one tour, the band was waiting for him in order to fly to their next destination and blamed it on Deuce for being late. During an interview with JackedUp Radio, Deuce states that one of the disputes he had with Hollywood Undead was over having a personal Twitter account.

Upon signing with A&M/Octone with Hollywood Undead in 2008, Deuce states that he was signed as a solo artist. He released his first four-track EP, The Two Thousand Eight EP, which contained songs "The One", "Gravestone", "Hollyhood Vacation" and "Deuce Dot Com", all of which would four years be remastered and released within his début album, the latter of the two being bonus tracks; the EP received little success. Shortly after Deuce was evicted from the band, the EP disappeared from iTunes. Deuce accused the label of breaching the original contract terms and sued the company under this accusation. Deuce discovered a loophole that revealed he was permitted to produce remixes and mixtape-style songs using the instrumentals of other musicians, so long as he did not incur a profit. In September 2010, Deuce made his first official live performance as a solo artist at California's Epicenter music festival, opening for Eminem, Blink-182, Bush, Rise Against, others. In September 2011, The Call Me Big Deuce EP was released as the first collective release of material by American singer-rapper Deuce as an independent solo-artist.

The mixtape consists of 14 released songs compiled into one download at the artist's newly launched website, as most of the songs were released at random times and file-sharing websites between 2005 and 2011. The mixtape was released in order to promote the first album and contains verses over instrumentals by 50 Cent, Tupac Shakur, B.o. B and Jay-Z; the mixtape did not contain the released songs "Freaky Now", "Surface Air" and "Now You See My Life", which would be released with his debut album a year later. "Now You See My Life" would be remixed to contain a verse from rapper Skee-Lo, replacing Deuce's s

Renaissance Dallas Hotel

The Renaissance Dallas Hotel is a 30-story, 137.47 m skyscraper hotel in Dallas, Texas. The hotel, with floors, has 514 guest rooms and was completed in 1983; the Renaissance Hotel stands as the 24th-tallest building in the city. The building was designed by architect Dahl Braden Chapman; the Renaissance Dallas Hotel used to hold the world's second largest free-standing chandelier in the world. It was just replaced in 2011; the hotel is known for its distinctive elliptical shape and diagonal roofline. The slanted roofline provides for a large curtain wall; this shelters the building's open-air rooftop swimming pool, one of the highest pools in Dallas. The building's unique design led to it being prominently featured in a cover image of a 1984 issue of National Geographic. List of tallest buildings and structures in Dallas Official website

Bomber (album)

Bomber is the third studio album by the band Motörhead, released on 27 October 1979, on Bronze Records, their second with the label. By 1979, Motörhead had been together for four years and had amassed a loyal following in both punk and heavy metal circles. After recording an album for United Artists that the label shelved, the band released its eponymous debut LP in 1977, but it was with 1979's Overkill that the band hit their stride; the title track landed in the UK Top 40 and, after appearing again on Top of the Pops, the band returned to the studio that summer with legendary producer Jimmy Miller to record what would become Bomber. However, the band did not have the opportunity to work up the songs on the road, as they had with their previous album. Joel McIver quotes singer and bassist Lemmy in his book Overkill: The Untold Story of Motörhead: ".. I wish we'd played the songs onstage first, like we did with the Overkill album, if we could've played them for three weeks on the road it would have been less slick.....

Listen to the way we play them live and compare that to the album.." Nonetheless, Bomber would peak at No. 12 on the UK albums chart, their strongest showing up to that point. During the recording of this album, Jimmy Miller was under the influence of heroin, at one point disappearing from the studio and being found asleep at the wheel of his car; the album features the band's first anti-heroin song – "Dead Men Tell No Tales." Miller had produced some of the Rolling Stones most heralded work from 1968 to 1973 but, after struggling through the sessions for 1973's Goats Head Soup, had been shown to the door. In the documentary The Guts and the Glory, drummer Phil "Philthy Animal" Taylor marvels: ".. We used to think that we were bad at being late, but he would be, half a day late, or more late, you know, his excuses were marvellous.." In his autobiography White Line Fever Lemmy states: ".. Overkill was supposed to be something of a comeback album for Jimmy Miller, what it turned out to be for him.

He had got heavily into heroin and he had lost it for a couple of years...but months when we were working with him on Bomber, it was sadly clear that he was back on smack.." The band returned to Roundhouse Studios in London with additional recording taking place at Olympic Studios. This album caught Lemmy at his most ferocious, hitting hard at the police in "Lawman," marriage and how his father left him and his mother in "Poison," television in "Talking Head" and show business in "All the Aces." This album is the first to have a picture of the band on the cover, which all three members are inside a plane. The title track was inspired by Len Deighton's novel Bomber. On one track, "Step Down," Eddie Clarke is featured on vocals. In his memoir, Lemmy reveals that: ".. had been bitching that I was getting all the limelight, but he wouldn't do anything about it. I got sick of him complaining, so I said,'Right, you're gonna fucking sing one on this album'...he hated it, but he was a good singer, Eddie.."

During the recording of Bomber, Motörhead played the Reading Festival, performing alongside other acts like the Police and The Tourists. Adrian Chesterman illustrated the album cover depicts Lemmy,'Fast' Eddie Clarke and a bug-eyed Phil'Philthy Animal' Taylor bearing down from the gunner cockpits of a Heinkel 111 bomber in the Blitz. Fascinated by military regalia, Lemmy insisted the plane be German because: "The bad guys make all the best shit". Chesterman explains: "I suggested the Heinkel plane, they wanted this photo-realistic effect, so I designed the thing with the detached bomb coming towards you. "I worked in airbrush in black and white, which I would tint", he adds. "That’s why my work always looked doomy. To get the lighting right, I got a little Airfix kit of a Heinkel 111, made it up and sprayed it black", he took photos to get the reflection underneath. Chesterman met up with the band the next day. "They wanted the artwork within a week, I suggested meeting them at midday. I don't they were accustomed to getting up that early.

Phil had a tin of Special Brew in his hand. The pictures of them in the plane were so small, I needed passport-sized photographs, which I cut out and painted in. I had to get them to look like they were shooting machine guns. Lemmy is curling his lip up, and Phil just had that expression permanently". Despite Clarke being "a bit pissed off" at his "girly hair", Motörhead loved it; the effect was completed by a chrome Snaggletooth on the side of the plane. Such was the sleeve's impact that the band insisted on the now infamous Bomber lighting rig for their accompanying tour – a 40 ft Heinkel replica that moved from side to side over the stage; the single "Bomber" was released on 1 December 1979, five weeks after the album. The album was released on 27 October 1979 and like the single, was pressed on blue vinyl; the Bomber Tour followed, for. This lighting-rig could move backwards and forwards, side-to-side – the first to be able to do so; the album cover features art by English commercial artist, Adrian Chesterman, responsible for creating cover art for, amongst others, Chris Rea for his 1989 The Road to Hell album.

In White Line Fever, Lemmy calls Bomber "a transitional record" but admits "there are a couple of naff tracks on it, like'Talking Head.'" In 1980 interview with Sounds, Clarke compar

Henry Van Asselt

Henry Van Asselt was a Dutch immigrant to the US, one of the first to settle the area, now Seattle, Washington. He came to the area in 1847 and was the longest surviving original settler of King County, dying at age 85, he married late in life, in December, 1862, to Jane, the daughter of Jacob Maples, they had four children. He was born Hendrik van Asselt as the eldest child of Helmert van Adriana Drost. At the age of 19, Van Asselt was drafted into the army, joining the Dutch Second Battalion of Yagers, was stationed on the frontier between The Netherlands and Belgium, he served a little over three years. He hunted on local noble estates and farmed with his parents up to 1847, he sailed for America on the bark Suelhyd, from Amsterdam, after a passage of forty-nine days landed in New York, on July 17, 1847. He went to New Jersey and worked nine months for $35 proceeded from Albany, New York by canal to Buffalo, New York, thence by lakes and river to St. Louis, Missouri where he worked five months.

At the fork of California and Oregon roads, they decided to go to Oregon, arrived at Oregon City on September 21. Near Oregon City he hired on with a farmer for two months at $75 per month began a new job making shingles, which he did until February, 1851, when he joined with Thornton and others and went to the gold mines of northern California, they spent about five and a half weeks mining when the water gave out, so they divided their gold, giving each of them about $1,000. But supplies were costly, with flour selling at $1 per pound, bacon $1.25, so he decided to return to the Willamette Valley. On the way the party of five fell in with L. M. Collins, who had a claim on the Nisqually River, Washington Territory, was traveling with Jacob and Samuel Maple. Collins convinced Van Asselt and Hendricks to join them, they spent July 4, 1851, at Oregon City proceeded, by the Tualatin Plains, to St. Helens. While crossing the river from that point Mr. Van Asselt accidentally shot himself in the shoulder and returned to St. Helens for treatment, where he remained for thirty days joined his friends on the Nisqually.

While staying with Collins he explored the surrounding country for a place to settle, but did not find anything satisfactory, so he decided to return to the Willamette Valley with his friends. Collins convinced him to look for farmland forty miles down the Sound, where the Indians were still numerous. Van Asselt and Samuel and Jacob Maples agreed to go with him, on September 12, 1851, they started their journey by canoe to the Duwamish River traveling upstream until they reached the junction of the White and Black rivers, where they found land and staked out claims. Van Asselt's claim is now part of Boeing Field; the site now occupied by Seattle was inhabited by Indians, there were no settlers within the boundaries of what is now King County. Returning to the Nisqually, Collins sold his claim there, with a scow purchased at Olympia, Washington the combined party moved their animals and effects to the new claims, where they built log cabins, becoming the first settlers in the Seattle area, they were soon followed by the settlement of the Dennys and Terrys at Alki Point, by Mr. Yesler, who erected a sawmill, which provided work for the settlers in logging, as well as in farming.

They began supplying squared timber for the San Francisco market. During the first session of federal court, held in Henry Yesler's log cookhouse on Feb. 13, 1854, Van Asselt was granted U. S. citizenship. The Indians were curious about Van Asselt, as he still used a sling on the arm, injured. Finding that he still carried lead in his shoulder from the bullet wound, they considered him protected from a shooting death, he was a good hunter and accurate with his shotgun, the combination of these circumstances made the Indians superstitious about him, so they nicknamed him "Sucway" - devil, avoided direct confrontation with him, which served him well during the ensuing Indian troubles. In September, 1855, the Indian war broke out on White River, after the killing of several settlers, those remaining fled to safety in Seattle. Confrontations continued in the area for two years. Van Asselt joined Company A of the First Regiment, Washington Territory Volunteers, formed in Seattle to fight the Indians.

When the aggression settled down and Van Asselt returned to his farm in 1857 he found all buildings and fences destroyed. He went to the Willamette Valley to work for several months to earn money. In 1860, Van Asselt donated land on which he and his neighbors built a schoolhouse, the first in King County, it has been succeeded by the Van Asselt Elementary School, built nearby in 1950. A playground is named after him. In 1862, he married a neighbor's daughter, Jane Maple, in a ceremony, attended by the local Indians, who were curious, they paraded through the cabin to see the new groom. The Van Asselts had four children: Mary, Jacob and Ella. In 1883 Van Asselt moved to Hood River and farmed for six years moved to Seattle and established a cabinetmaker's shop; the Henry Van Asselt residence in Seattle was built in 1890. It is no longer standing. From An Illustrated History of the State of Washington, by Rev. H. K. Hines, D. D; the Lewis Publishing Co. Chicago, IL. 1893: https://web.archive.org/web/20110611182000/http://content.lib.washington