La Condamine is the central Ward in the Principality of Monaco. Its landmarks include Port Hercules, the Rainier III Nautical Stadium, the Princess Antoinette Park. Condamine dates from the Middle Ages, means cultivable land
Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature; some monarchies have a weak or symbolic legislature and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, which itself is a federation of such monarchies – a federal monarchy. In Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Gupta and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called "Devaraja" and "Chakravartin", exercised absolute power over the empire and people. Throughout Imperial China, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven. In pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Korea under the Joseon dynasty and short-lived empire was an absolute monarchy. In the Ottoman Empire, many sultans wielded absolute power through heavenly mandates reflected in their title, the "Shadow of God on Earth". Throughout much of European history, the divine right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by divine right, that their subjects had no rights to limit their power. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle. Charles I's attempt to enforce episcopal polity on the Church of Scotland led to rebellion by the Covenanters and the Bishops' Wars fears that Charles I was attempting to establish absolutist government along European lines was a major cause of the English Civil War, despite the fact that he did rule this way for 11 years starting in 1629, after dissolving the Parliament of England for a time.
By the 19th century, the Divine Right was regarded as an obsolete theory in most countries in the Western world, except in Russia where it was still given credence as the official justification for the Tsar's power until February Revolution in 1917. There is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, while historians such as Roger Mettam dispute the concept of absolutism. In general, historians who disagree with the appellation of absolutism argue that most monarchs labeled as absolutist exerted no greater power over their subjects than any other non-absolutist rulers, these historians tend to emphasize the differences between the absolutist rhetoric of monarchs and the realities of the effective use of power by these absolute monarchs. Renaissance historian William Bouwsma summed up this contradiction: Nothing so indicates the limits of royal power as the fact that governments were perennially in financial trouble, unable to tap the wealth of those ablest to pay, to stir up a costly revolt whenever they attempted to develop an adequate income.
Though some historians doubt if he had, Louis XIV of France is said to have proclaimed "L'état, c'est moi". Although criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis' reign should be considered'absolute', given the reality of the balance of power between the monarch and the nobility; the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the supreme judicial authority, he could condemn people to death without the right of appeal. It was both his duty to stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to annul them. One of his steps in creating an absolute monarchy in France was to build the Palace of Versailles, where he lived with many of his nobles and other important people, in order to control and watch over them. Absolutism was underpinned by a written constitution for the first time in Europe in 1665 Kongeloven of Denmark-Norway, which ordered that the Monarch "shall from this day forth be revered and considered the most perfect and supreme person on the Earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having no judge above his person, neither in spiritual nor temporal matters, except God alone".
This law authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm. In Brandenburg-Prussia, the concept of absolute monarch took a notable turn from the above with its emphasis on the monarch as the "first servant of the state", but it echoed many of the important characteristics of Absolutism. Frederick William, known as the Great Elector, used the uncertainties of the final stages of the Thirty Years' War to consolidate his territories into the dominant kingdom in northern Germany, whilst increasing his power over his subjects
Visa policy of Monaco
Monaco does not have a visa policy of its own and the Schengen Visa policy applies. Although Monaco is not part of the European Union, or the Schengen Agreement, its territory is part of the Schengen Area by virtue of its customs Union with France as a result of the "Convention on Good Neighbourly Relations of 18 May 1963 on the entry and establishment of foreigners in Monaco" between France and Monaco; the 1963 convention was adapted to allow Monaco to be administered within the Schengen Area as if it were part of France. The entry and stay of foreigners in Monaco is defined by the Ordinance n. 3.153 of 19 March 1964 concerning the conditions of entry and residence of foreigners in the Principality. Both French and Monégasque authorities carry out checks at Monaco's heliport. Visa policy for holders of diplomatic and service passports in the Schengen area is not unified; the visa policy of Monaco for holders of diplomatic and service passports is identical to the visa policy of France and differs from other Schengen countries.
In addition to nations whose all citizens are visa exempt, holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Algeria, Bahrain, Cabo Verde, Dominican Republic, Gabon, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United States and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belize, China, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Senegal and Vietnam do not require a visa. Foreigners that desire to stay for a period longer than 3 months in Monaco require a resident permit; when visiting Monaco, there is passport control except. Visitors may get souvenir passport stamps at a state tourism office. Visa requirements for Monégasque citizens Visa policy of the Schengen Area List of diplomatic missions of Monaco Foreign relations of Monaco
Monarchy of Monaco
The Sovereign Prince or Princess of Monaco is the reigning monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. All reigning princes and princesses have taken the name of the House of Grimaldi, although some have belonged to other families in the male line; the present reigning prince is Albert II. Monaco, along with Liechtenstein and Vatican City, is one of only three states in Europe where the monarch still plays an active role in day-to-day politics; the Prince or Princess of Monaco exercises his or her authority in accordance with the Constitution and laws. He or she represents the Principality in foreign relations and any revision, either total or partial, of the Constitution must be jointly agreed to by the Prince and the National Council. Legislative power is divided between the Prince who initiates the laws, the National Council which votes on them. Executive power is retained by the Prince; the Minister of State and the Government Council are directly responsible to the Prince for the administration of the Principality.
Judiciary powers belong to the Prince. The present Constitution states that the Prince has full authority in the courts and tribunals which render justice in his or her name. Pursuant to Article 16 of the 1962 Constitution, the Sovereign Prince confers orders and other distinctions as the fons honorum of the Principality of Monaco; the Prince is styled His Serene Highness. Although used only formally, the Prince bears several other hereditary titles, some of which are bestowed on his relatives or their spouses; some of these titles have merged with the Crown of Monaco as a result of the Grimaldi family's acquisition of various fiefs. Most were granted or recognised by the Kingdom of France or the Papal States and could only pass through the male line. Thereafter, some of these titles were implicitly re-created as distinctly Monegasque titles; the father of Prince Rainier III was Pierre Grimaldi, Duke of Valentinois, né Count Pierre de Polignac, whose legitimate male-line descendants remain remotely in the line of succession for the French dukedom of Polignac).
The current Prince's complete titles and styles are, in precedent order of rank: Sovereign Prince of Monaco Duke of Valentinois Duke of Estouteville Duke of Mazarin Duke of Mayenne Prince of Château-Porcien Marquis of Baux Marquis of Chilly-Mazarin Marquis of Guiscard Marquis of Bailli Count of Polignac Count of Carladès Count of Ferrette, Belfort and Rosemont Count of Torigni Count of Longjumeau Count of Clèdes Baron of Calvinet Baron of Buis Baron of La Luthumière Baron of Hambye Baron of Altkirch Baron of Saint-Lô Baron of Massy Seigneur of Issenheim Seigneur of Saint-Rémy Sire of Matignon "Prince of Monaco" is a title given to legitimate members of the princely family of Monaco. It is distinct from the ruling Prince's title "Sovereign Prince of Monaco" Albert II, or with the title of the heir apparent or presumptive to the throne Hereditary Prince Jacques. Charlene, Gabriella and Stephanie, are given Princess titles, as the wife and daughters of a sovereign prince. List of rulers of Monaco List of Monégasque consorts Line of succession to the Monegasque throne
House of Grimaldi
The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, of the Principality of Monaco. The Grimaldi dynasty is a princely house originating in Italy, founded by the Genoese leader of the Guelphs, Francesco Grimaldi, who in 1297 took the lordship of Monaco along with his soldiers dressed as Franciscans. In that principality his successors have reigned to the present day. During much of the Ancien Regime the family spent much of its time in the French court, where from 1642 they used their French title of Duke of Valentinois; the current head of the family is Albert II of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and successor of Prince Rainier III and the princess consort Grace of Monaco Grace Kelly. The Grimaldis descend from a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades, he may have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in 1133. In turn Grimaldo became a consul in 1160, 1170 and again in 1184, his numerous descendants led maritime expeditions throughout the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, soon the North Sea.
They became one of the most powerful families of Genoa. The Grimaldis feared that the head of a rival Genoese family could break the fragile balance of power in a political coup and become lord of Genoa, as had happened in other Italian cities, they entered into a Guelphic alliance with the Fieschi family and defended their interests with the sword. But the Guelfs were banned from the City in 1271, took refuge in their castles in Liguria and Provence, they signed a treaty with Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence to retake control of Genoa, to provide mutual assistance. In 1276, they accepted a peace under the auspices of the Pope, which however did not put an end to the civil war. Not all the Grimaldis chose to return to Genoa, as they preferred to settle in their fiefdoms, where they could raise armies. In 1299, the Grimaldis and their allies launched a few galleys to attack the port of Genoa before taking refuge on the Western Riviera. During the following years, the Grimaldis entered into different alliances that would allow them to return to power in Genoa.
This time, it was the turn of the Spinola family, to be exiled from the city. During this period, both the Guelphs and Ghibellines took and abandoned the castle of Monaco, ideally located to launch political and military operations against Genoa. Therefore, the tale of Francis Grimaldi and his faction — who took the castle of Monaco disguised as friars in 1297 — is anecdotal. In the early 14th century, the Aragonese raided the shores of Provence and Liguria, challenging Genoa and King Robert of Provence. In 1353, the combined fleet of eighty Venetian and Aragonese galleys gathered in Sardinia to meet the fleet of sixty galleys under the command of Anthony Grimaldi. Only nineteen Genoese vessels survived the battle. Fearing an invasion, Genoa rushed to request the protection of the Lord of Milan. Several of the oldest feudal branches of the House of Grimaldi appeared during these conflicts, such as the branches of Antibes, Nice and Sicily. In 1395, the Grimaldis took advantage of the discords in Genoa to take possession of Monaco, which they ruled as a condominium.
This is the origin of today's principality. As was customary in Genoa, the Grimaldis organised their family ties within a corporation called albergo. In the political reform of 1528, the Grimaldi became one of the 28 alberghi of the Republic of Genoa, which included the Doria and Pallavicini families, to which other families were formally invited to join; the House of Grimaldi provided several doges, cabinet ministers, military officers of historical note. By convention, sovereign European houses are reckoned in the male line. Therefore, since 1731, it has been determined genealogically that it was in fact the French noble House of Goyon-Matignon that ruled as Princes of Monaco until 1949. However, one of the terms of James de Goyon de Matignon becoming Prince of Monaco jure uxoris was that he adopt the name and arms of Grimaldi so that the house would be preserved on the throne, the right of succession was through his wife Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi, who abdicated in her husband's favour; when Charlotte Louvet was legitimised in 1911 and made successor to Monaco, her husband, Count Pierre de Polignac, adopted, as a condition of the marriage, the name and arms of Grimaldi.
In this way the "Grimaldi" name and arms were continued. There is a branch of the Grimaldi family in England who believe they have more right to the throne as they are descended from an all-male line from Alessandro Maria Grimaldi, an exile from Genoa, himself a direct descendant of Otto Canella, the father of Grimaldo Canella, who started the patronymic "Grimaldi."Until 2002, a treaty between Monaco and France stated that if the reigning Prince failed to leave dynastic offspring sovereignty over the Grimaldi realm would revert to France. The 2002 agreement modified this to expand the pool of potential heirs to dynastic collaterals of the reigning Prince, guaranteeing Monegasque independence. Article I of Monaco's house law requires that the reigning Prince or Princess bear the surname of Grimaldi; the coat of arms of the House of Grimaldi is described as fusily argent and gules, i.e. a red and white diamond pattern, with no further modifiers. Albert II of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and successor of Rainier III and Grace Kelly.
Charlène de Monaco, Princess Consort of Monaco. Jacques, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, son of Albert II and Charlène. Princess Gabriella, Countess of Carladès, daughter of Albert II and Charlène. Caroline, Princess of Hanover, older si
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of the American actress Grace Kelly. Prince Albert's sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock. Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which include land in Monaco and France. Although Prince Albert does not own the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he does own shares in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality. Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he has ancestry from Italy, Britain, the United States, France, Mexico and Monaco. He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco, before being presented at the balcony of the Palace to the people of Monaco.
His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, his godfather was Prince Louis de Polignac. Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976, he was a camper and a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh, on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties and enrolled at Amherst College, in western Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics and English literature, he speaks French, English and Italian. He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Albert undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979. Prince Albert's mother was killed in a car accident in 1982 at age 52. In 2017, in In Depth interview with Graham Bensinger, the Prince stated that his mother's death was a'traumatic' event for him and the family.
He revealed that his father was never the'same man' after the loss. Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, judo, tennis, sailing, skiing and fencing, he is a patron of AS Monaco. Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City. Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, 1998 Winter Olympics. Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr. and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr. were both Olympic medalists in rowing. Albert has been the patron of the World Olympians Association since 2012.
In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi rather than his royal title. Albert did not finish it, he became a judo black belt. On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Rainier's son, Hereditary Prince Albert, would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions. On 6 April 2005, Rainier III died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II; the first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign. Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture and he made a speech.
The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront. The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, his family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea and Charlotte. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country; the evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo. Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of Monaco – of strengthening environmental awareness. Just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen in July 2005. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Monacobreen. Prince Albert II engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006; as a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole. Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.
In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monac
Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou