The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies. Some direct action groups, environmental movements, professional organisations have identified themselves with the movement at the local, national, or international level. Major anti-nuclear groups include Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Friends of the Earth, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Peace Action and the Nuclear Information and Resource Service; the initial objective of the movement was nuclear disarmament, though since the late 1960s opposition has included the use of nuclear power. Many anti-nuclear groups oppose nuclear weapons; the formation of green parties in the 1970s and 1980s was a direct result of anti-nuclear politics. Scientists and diplomats have debated nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945; the public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific.
In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing. Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl, West Germany; the project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s and while opposition to nuclear power continues, increasing public support for nuclear power has re-emerged over the last decade in light of growing awareness of global warming and renewed interest in all types of clean energy. A protest against nuclear power occurred in July 1977 in Bilbao, with up to 200,000 people in attendance. Following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, an anti-nuclear protest was held in New York City, involving 200,000 people.
In 1981, Germany's largest anti-nuclear power demonstration took place to protest against the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant west of Hamburg. The largest protest was held on June 12, 1982, when one million people demonstrated in New York City against nuclear weapons. A 1983 nuclear weapons protest in West Berlin had about 600,000 participants. In May 1986, following the Chernobyl disaster, an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people marched in Rome to protest against the Italian nuclear program. In the US, public opposition preceded the shutdown of the Shoreham, Yankee Rowe, Millstone 1, Rancho Seco, Maine Yankee, many other nuclear power plants. For many years after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster nuclear power was off the policy agenda in most countries, the anti-nuclear power movement seemed to have won its case; some anti-nuclear groups disbanded. In the 2000s, following public relations activities by the nuclear industry, advances in nuclear reactor designs, concerns about climate change, nuclear power issues came back into energy policy discussions in some countries.
The 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents subsequently undermined the nuclear power industry's proposed renaissance and revived nuclear opposition worldwide, putting governments on the defensive. As of 2016, countries such as Australia, Denmark, Malaysia, New Zealand, Norway have no nuclear power stations and remain opposed to nuclear power. Germany, Italy and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power. Sweden had a nuclear phase-out policy, aiming to end nuclear power generation in Sweden by 2010. On 5 February 2009, the Government of Sweden announced an agreement allowing for the replacement of existing reactors ending the phase-out policy. Globally, more nuclear power reactors have closed; the application of nuclear technology, as a source of energy and as an instrument of war, has been controversial. These issues are discussed in nuclear weapons debate, nuclear power debate, uranium mining debate. Scientists and diplomats have debated nuclear weapons policy since before the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1961, at the height of the Cold War, about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons. In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing; some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Germany; the project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s. From an anti-nuclear point of view, there is a threat to modern civilization from global nuclear war by accidental or deliberate nuclear strike.
Some climate scientists estimate that a war between two countries that resulted in 100 Hiroshima-size atomic explosions would cause significant loss of life, in the tens of millions from climatic effects alone and disabled future generation. Soot thrown up into the atmosphere could blanket the earth, causing food chain disruption in what is termed a nuclear winter. Many anti-nuclear weapons groups cite the 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuc
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant
Vermont Yankee was an electricity generating nuclear power plant, located in the town of Vernon, Vermont, in the northeastern United States. It generated 620 megawatts of electricity at full power; the plant was a boiling water reactor, designed by General Electric. It operated from 1972 until December 2014, when its owner Entergy shut down the plant. In 2008, the plant provided 71.8% of all electricity generated within Vermont, amounting to 35% of Vermont's electricity consumption. The plant is on the Connecticut River, upstream of the Vernon, Vermont Hydroelectric Dam and used the reservoir pool for its cooling water. In March 2012, the plant's initial 40-year operating license was scheduled to expire. Vermont Yankee's continued operations were complicated by the Vermont state legislature's enactment of a law providing the state legislature authority to determine the continued operation of the plant, in addition to the federal government. Entergy requested a new state certificate of public good, but the Vermont legislature voted in February 2010 against renewed permission to operate.
In January 2012, Entergy won a court case, invalidating the state's veto power on continued operations. On August 28, 2013, Entergy announced that due to economic factors Vermont Yankee would cease operations in the fourth quarter of 2014; the plant was shut down at 12:12 pm EST on December 29, 2014. Since the 1970s, there have been many anti-nuclear protests about Vermont Yankee, including large protests after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, on the date of the original operating license expiry in March 2012. Vermont Yankee is a BWR-4 Boiling water reactor, it provided 71.8% of all electricity generated in Vermont in 2008 and met 35% of the overall electricity requirements of the state. It was designed and constructed for 500 MW electrical output. In 2006, it was upgraded to 620 MW electrical output; the reactor produces 1912 MW of heat, converted to electricity at 32% efficiency. In comparison, the average residential power demand for all of Vermont in 2012 was 239 MW; the nearby Northfield Mountain hydroelectricity facility was built to balance the supply from Yankee.
The reactor core held up to 89 control rods. The spent fuel pool is licensed to contain up to 3353 spent fuel assemblies. In 1978, the Vermont Yankee reactor was the subject of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. an important United States Supreme Court administrative law case which ruled that courts cannot impose procedures upon the NRC as this exceeds their power of judicial review. On July 31, 2002, Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC purchased the plant from Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation for $180 million. Entergy received the reactor complex, nuclear fuel and related real estate, as well as the liability to decommission the plant and related decommissioning trust funds of $310 million; the acquisition included a 10-year power purchase agreement under which three of the former owners committed to purchase a portion of the electricity produced by the reactor at a cost of 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. On May 6, 2006 Vermont Yankee achieved its power of 1,912 MWth because of an NRC approved Extended Power Uprate.
The power increase was carried out in steps to allow collection of data on the reactor's steam dryer at various power levels, in accordance with the NRC imposed power ascension test plan. As of 2008, Vermont Yankee employed about 600 people including those in the corporate office on Old Ferry Road in Brattleboro, Vermont. Vermont Yankee used the Connecticut River as its source of cooling water for its two major water systems: the circulating water system and the service water system; the circulating water system removed heat from the power generation process of the plant by cooling the plant's main condenser. The service water system cooled both safety and non-safety related auxiliary components in the nuclear facility and the turbine facility of the plant, absorbed decay heat from the reactor's cooling systems in emergencies or in times when the reactor was shut down. Entergy Vermont Yankee applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license extension of 20 years on January 27, 2006.
In early 2010, the Vermont State Senate voted 26–4 to block the Vermont Public Service Board from considering continued operation of Vermont Yankee. On March 10, 2011 the NRC voted to conclude proceedings regarding renewal of the operating license for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station near Brattleboro, for an additional 20 years. On March 21, 2011 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued their renewal of the operating license for the Vermont Yankee plant for an additional 20 years.. On April 14, 2011, the owner of Vermont Yankee, sued the state of Vermont to stay open despite the Senate's blocking vote. On August 14, 2013, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled, upholding a lower court's decision that allowed the Vermont Yankee plant to keep running despite a seven-year effort by the Vermont Legislature to close it, finding that states are "pre-empted" from regulating safety by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which made safety a federal responsibility. On August 28, 2013, Entergy announced that due to economic factors, notably the lower cost of electricity provided by competing natural gas-fired power plants, it would cease operations and schedule the plant's decommissioning in the fourth quarter of 2014.
Vermont Yankee was shut down at 12:12 pm E
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant
The Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, more known as Seabrook Station, is a nuclear power plant located in Seabrook, New Hampshire, United States 40 miles north of Boston and 10 miles south of Portsmouth. Two units were planned, but the second unit was never completed due to construction delays, cost overruns and troubles obtaining financing; the construction permit for the plant was granted in 1976, construction on Unit 1 was completed in 1986. Full power operation of Unit 1 began in 1990. Unit 2 has been canceled and most of its major components sold to other plants. With its 1,244-megawatt electrical output, Seabrook Unit 1 is the largest individual electrical generating unit on the New England power grid, it is the second largest nuclear plant in New England after the two-unit Millstone Nuclear Power Plant in Connecticut. The construction of Seabrook Station was completed ten years than expected, with a cost approaching $7 billion; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission described its own regulatory oversight of Seabrook as "a paradigm of fragmented and uncoordinated government decision making," and "a system strangling itself and the economy in red tape."
The large debt involved led to the bankruptcy of Seabrook's major utility owner, Public Service Company of New Hampshire. At the time, this was the fourth largest bankruptcy in United States corporate history. A second reactor was proposed in 1972 and cancelled in 1988, it was 22% complete. The plant was owned by more than 10 separate utility companies serving five New England states. In 2002, most sold their shares to FPL Energy known as NextEra Energy Resources. NextEra Energy now owns 88.2% of Seabrook Station. The remaining portion is owned by municipal utilities in Massachusetts; the station is one of five nuclear generating facilities operated by FPL Group. The other four are St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant and Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station operated by sister company Florida Power & Light, the Duane Arnold Energy Center and Point Beach Nuclear Generating Station operated by NextEra Energy. In 2005, a security fence installed by a subcontracted engineering firm the previous year failed a Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection and was declared inoperable.
In 2006, the owner of the plant, FPL Energy Seabrook LLC, was fined $65,000 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since "both design of the system and testing procedures did not adhere to NRC guidelines". During the 2008 presidential election, Republican nominee John McCain mentioned the possibility of building the once-planned second reactor at Seabrook; the idea drew cautious support from some officials, but would be difficult due to financial and regulatory reasons. In 2017, due to the steady drop in value of nuclear power plants including Seabrook Station, the town of Seabrook enacted a 9.9 percent tax increase to offset the decrease in tax revenue collected from the plant's owner, NextEra Energy. In February 2018, a magnitude 2.7 earthquake occurred 10 miles from Seabrook Station, but the quake didn't trigger any emergency procedures or result in any signs of structural damage to the plant. In 2010, the plant applied to have its operating license extended from 2030 to 2050. In September 2012, Massachusetts Reps. Edward Markey and John F. Tierney filed HR 6554, titled the "Nuclear Reactor Safety First Act".
The bill would prevent nuclear plants from receiving 20-year license extensions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission if they apply more than 10 years before their current 40-year licenses expire. The legislation was aimed at Seabrook Station, experiencing aging-related problems 22 years into its operating license; the representatives have asserted that granting the plant a license extension covering operation from 2030 to 2050 based on inspections done in 2012 is illogical. They believe that inspection dates more than 10 years before the expiration of the current license are too far from the dates of validity for the extension and therefore may miss additional age-related problems that may occur in the future. In February 2012, there were safety concerns about concrete degradation at the plant. Concrete surrounding an electric control tunnel at the nuclear plant had lost 22 percent of its strength and was showing signs of an alkali–silica reaction because of more than a decade of ground-water infiltration, according to an NRC inspection report released in May 2011.
A growing chorus of local politicians were "urging the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to halt the relicensing process for Seabrook Station until a long-term solution is implemented". In June 2017, Nuclear Regulatory Commission officials "reviewed numerous documents and inspected the plant as it gauges NextEra's safety plan to monitor and manage the alkali-silica reaction phenomenon present in concrete throughout the power plant". In October 2017, federal regulators allowed the non-profit nuclear watchdog group C-10 to weigh in on the license amendment request; the NRC has committed to finishing its review of the license amendment request concerning the alkali-silica reaction phenomenon by the third quarter of 2018. In 2013, the Nuclear Energy Institute released a study showing the positive impact of Seabrook Station on the economy and environment. Key findings are listed below. Seabrook Station directly employs 650 people that earn more than double the average salary of workers in Rockingham County and Strafford County Seabrook Station generates 40 percent of New Hampshire's total electricity, its emission-free operation helps avoid the emission of nearly 4 million tons of carbon dioxide annually, the equivalent of taking 700,000 cars off the road Seabrook Station contributes $535 millio
The Vermont Senate is the upper house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Vermont. The senate consists of 30 members. Senate districting divides the 30 members into three single-member districts, six two-member districts, three three-member districts, one six-member district; each senator represents at least 20,300 citizens. Senators are elected to two-year terms and there is no limit to the number of terms that a senator may serve; as in other upper houses of state and territorial legislatures and the U. S. Senate, the state senate of Vermont has special functions, such as confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to executive departments, the state cabinet and boards, as well as electing members to the Vermont Supreme Court; the Vermont Senate meets at the Vermont State House in the state capital of Montpelier. Senators are elected from a total of 13 multi-member senate districts; the districts correspond to the boundaries of the state's 14 counties with adjustments to ensure equality of representation.
Two small counties are combined into one district. Each district elects between 6 senators at-large depending on population. Vermont is the only state to have any senate districts represented by more than two senators each, as well as the only state to employ bloc voting for senate elections. Vermont is one of the 14 states where the upper house of its state legislature serves at a two-year cycle, rather than the more common four-year term in the majority of states; the Lieutenant Governor of Vermont serves as the President of the Senate, but casts a vote only if required to break a tie. In his or her absence, the President pro tempore presides over the Senate; the President pro tempore is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation from the entire body through a Senate Resolution. The President Pro Tempore is the chief leadership position in the senate; the senate majority and minority leaders are elected by their respective party caucuses. Committee assignments are determined by the Committee on Committees.
This panel consists of the Lieutenant Governor, the President pro tempore and one member chosen by the full Senate. For several years the third member of the committee has been Richard Mazza; the full Senate meets Tuesday and Friday mornings only for the first seven weeks of the annual session. The Vermont Senate is aided by an administrative staff, including the Secretary of the Vermont Senate and several assistants. Since 2011, the Senate Secretary has been a former member of the Senate. Previous secretaries include Ernest W. Gibson Jr. Murdock A. Campbell, Franklin S. Billings Jr. See also: Political party strength in Vermont. Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836; the state added a senate by constitutional amendment. The longest-serving member of the Vermont Senate was William T. Doyle. Doyle served from January 1969 to January 2017. Most individuals who have served as governor or lieutenant governor had experience in the Vermont legislature. For more than 100 years from the 1850s to the 1960s, the Vermont Republican Party won every election for statewide office.
In keeping with the "Mountain Rule", created to ensure party unity and lieutenant governors were from opposite sides of the Green Mountains, were limited to two years in office. Candidates for governor and lieutenant governor were agreed upon by party leaders years in advance, were chosen for leadership positions in the House or Senate to groom them for statewide office. Governors who served in the Vermont Senate include: Horace Eaton. Proctor. Mead. Wills. Many of Vermont's members of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives served in the Vermont Senate. U. S. Senators include Samuel S. Phelps, George F. Edmunds, Jonathan Ross, Porter H. Dale, Frank C. Partridge, Ernest Willard Gibson and Jim Jeffords. U. S. House members who served in the Vermont Senate include William Henry, Ahiman Louis Miner, George Tisdale Hodges, Frederick E. Woodbridge, H. Henry Powers, David J. Foster, William Hebard, Andrew Tracy, William W. Grout, Kittredge Haskins, Frank Plumley, Alvah Sabin, Homer Elihu Royce, Worthington Curtis Smith, Bradley Barlow, Augustus Young, Richard W. Mallary, Peter Plympton Smith and Peter Welch.
Other notable members of the Vermont Senate include: Jefferson P. Kidder: U. S. Congressman from Dakota Territory. Lucius E. Chittenden: author and government official. Daniel Kellogg: Adjutant general of the Vermont Militia. Hoyt Henry Wheeler: judge of
Anti-nuclear movement in the United States
The anti-nuclear movement in the United States consists of more than 80 anti-nuclear groups that oppose nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and/or uranium mining. These have included the Abalone Alliance, Clamshell Alliance, Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, Nevada Desert Experience, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Plowshares Movement, Women Strike for Peace, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom; the anti-nuclear movement has delayed construction or halted commitments to build some new nuclear plants, has pressured the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enforce and strengthen the safety regulations for nuclear power plants. Anti-nuclear protests reached a peak in the 1970s and 1980s and grew out of the environmental movement. Campaigns that captured national public attention involved the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant, Three Mile Island.
Beginning in the 1980s, many anti-nuclear power activists began shifting their interest, by joining the growing Nuclear Freeze campaign, the primary concern about nuclear hazards in the US changed from the problems of nuclear power plants to the prospects of nuclear war. On June 3, 1981, the White House Peace Vigil began and has continued day and night since, thanks to William Thomas and a small band of stalwart antinuclear activists who launched the "Proposition One Campaign for a Nuclear-Free Future" voter initiative in 1993 which led to a bill, introduced into the House of Representatives every session by Eleanor Holmes Norton. On June 12, 1982, one million people demonstrated in New York City's Central Park against nuclear weapons and for an end to the cold war arms race, it was the largest political demonstration in American history. International Day of Nuclear Disarmament protests were held on June 20, 1983, at 50 sites across the United States. There were many Nevada Desert Experience protests and peace camps at the Nevada Test Site during the 1980s and 1990s.
More recent campaigning by anti-nuclear groups has related to several nuclear power plants including the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant, Indian Point Energy Center, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Generating Station, Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. There have been campaigns relating to the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Plant, the Idaho National Laboratory, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository proposal, the Hanford Site, the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, transportation of nuclear waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory; some scientists and engineers have expressed reservations about nuclear power, including: Barry Commoner, S. David Freeman, John Gofman, Arnold Gundersen, Mark Z. Jacobson, Amory Lovins, Arjun Makhijani, Gregory Minor, M. V. Ramana, Joseph Romm and Benjamin K. Sovacool. Scientists who have opposed nuclear weapons include Paul M. Doty, Hermann Joseph Muller, Linus Pauling, Eugene Rabinowitch, M.
V. Ramana and Frank N. von Hippel. On November 1, 1961, at the height of the Cold War, about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons, it was the largest national women's peace protest of the 20th century. The nuclear debate was about nuclear weapons policy, began within the scientific community. Scientific concern about the adverse health effects arising from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing first emerged in 1954. Professional associations such as the Federation of Atomic Scientists and the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs were involved; the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy was formed in November 1957, surveys showed rising public uneasiness about the nuclear arms race—especially atmospheric nuclear weapons tests that sent radioactive fallout around the globe. In 1962, Linus Pauling won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to stop the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, the "Ban the Bomb" movement spread throughout the United States.
Between 1945 and 1992, the United States maintained a program of vigorous nuclear weapons testing. A total of 1,054 nuclear tests and two nuclear attacks were conducted, with over 900 of them at the Nevada Test Site, ten on miscellaneous sites in the United States; until November 1962, the vast majority of the U. S. tests were above-ground. The U. S. program of atmospheric nuclear testing exposed some people to the hazards of fallout. Since the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, more than $1.38 billion in compensation has been approved. The money is going to people who took part in the tests, notably at the Nevada Test Site, to others exposed to the radiation. Unexpectedly high costs in the nuclear weapons program, along with competition with the Soviet Union and a desire to spread democracy through the world, created "... pressure on federal officials to develop a civilian nuclear power industry that could help justify the government's considerable expenditures."The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 encouraged private corporations to build nuclear reactors and a significant learning phase followed with many early partial core meltdowns and accidents at experimental reactors and research facilities.
This led to the introduction of the Price-Anderson Act in 1957, which was, "... an implicit admission that nuclear power provided risks that producers were unwilling to assume without federal backing." The Price-Anderson Act "... shields nuclear u