click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Politics of Nicaragua

Nicaragua is a presidential republic, in which the President of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government, there is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. In 1995, the executive and legislative branches negotiated a reform of the 1987 Sandinista constitution which gave extensive new powers and independence to the National Assembly, including permitting the Assembly to override a presidential veto with a simple majority vote and eliminating the president's ability to pocket veto a bill. Members of the unicameral National Assembly are elected to concurrent five-year terms. In January 2014, the National Assembly approved changes to the constitution, removing presidential term limits; this allowed current President Daniel Ortega to run for a third successive term. The president and the vice president are elected for a single five-year term. With the reform of the constitution in 2014 the ban on re-election of the president has been removed.

The president appoints the Council of Ministers. The National Assembly consists of 90 deputies elected from party lists drawn at the department and national level, plus the outgoing president and the runner-up in the presidential race, for a total of 92. In the 2011 elections, the Sandinista National Liberation Front won 63 seats, the Independent Liberal Party won 27 seats, the Constitutionalist Liberal Party won 2 seats; this includes seats given to outgoing Vice President Jaime Morales Carazo and presidential runner-up Fabio Gadea Mantilla. Outgoing Vice President Jaime Morales Carazot's seat would be given to the outgoing president. However, Danial Ortega was re-elected; the Supreme Court of Justice supervises the functioning of the still ineffective and overburdened judicial system. As part of the 1995 constitutional reforms, the independence of the Supreme Court was strengthened by increasing the number of magistrates from 9 to 12. In 2000, the number of Supreme Court Justices was increased to 16.

Supreme Court justices are nominated by the political parties and elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly. Led by a council of seven magistrates, the Supreme Electoral Council is the co-equal branch of government responsible for organizing and conducting elections and referendums; the magistrates and their alternates are elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly. Constitutional changes in 2000 expanded the number of CSE magistrates from five to seven and gave the PLC and the FSLN a freer hand to name party activists to the council, prompting allegations that both parties were politicizing electoral institutions and processes and excluding smaller political parties. Freedom of speech is a right guaranteed by the Nicaraguan constitution, but media has come under censorship from time to time. Other constitutional freedoms include peaceful assembly and association, freedom of religion, freedom of movement within the country, as well as foreign travel and repatriation; the government permits domestic and international human rights monitors to operate in Nicaragua.

The constitution prohibits discrimination based on birth, political belief, gender, religion, national origin, economic or social condition. Homosexuality has been legal since 2008. All public and private sector workers, except the military and the police, are entitled to form and join unions of their own choosing, they exercise this right extensively. Nearly half of Nicaragua's work force, including agricultural workers, is unionized. Workers have the right to strike. Collective bargaining is becoming more common in the private sector. Nicaragua is divided in 15 departments: Boaco, Chinandega, Estelí, Jinotega, León, Managua, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rivas, Río San Juan, as well as in two autonomous regions: North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega said March 6, 2008 that the nation is breaking relations with Colombia "in solidarity with the Ecuadoran people", following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis; the relations were restored soon after.

Some political pressure groups are: National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions, including Farm Workers Association or ATC Health Workers Federation or FETSALUD Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN National Union of Employees or UNE National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG Sandinista Workers' Centre or CST Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions, including Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A Confederation of Labour Unification or CUS Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups 2013-2019 Nicaraguan protests National Assembly of Nicaragua Presidency of Nicarágua Supreme Court of Nicarágua

George B. Selden

George Baldwin Selden was a patent lawyer and inventor, granted a U. S. patent for an automobile in 1895. In 1859, his father, Judge Henry R. Selden, a prominent Republican attorney most noted for defending Susan B. Anthony, moved to Rochester, New York, where George attended the University of Rochester before dropping out to enlist in the 6th Cavalry Regiment, Union Army; this was not to the liking of his father who after pulling some strings and having some earnest discussions with his son managed to have him released from duty and enrolled in Yale. George did not do well at Yale in his law studies, preferring the technical studies offered by the Sheffield Scientific School, but did manage to finish his course of study and pass the New York bar in 1871 and joined his father's practice, he married shortly thereafter with whom he had 4 children. He continued his hobby of inventing in a workshop in his father's basement, inventing a typewriter and a hoop making machine. For a time, Selden represented photography pioneer George Eastman in patent matters.

Inspired by the mammoth internal combustion engine invented by George Brayton displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, Selden began working on a smaller, lighter version, succeeding by 1878, some eight years before the public introduction of the Benz Patent Motorwagen in Europe, in producing a one-cylinder, 400-pound version which featured an enclosed crankshaft with the help of Rochester machinist Frank H. Clement and his assistant William Gomm, he filed for a patent on May 8, 1879. His application included not only the engine but its use in a 4-wheeled car, he filed a series of amendments to his application which stretched out the legal process resulting in a delay of 16 years before the patent was granted on November 5, 1895. Shortly thereafter the fledgling American auto industry began its first efforts and George Selden, despite never having gone into production with a working model of an automobile, had a credible claim to have patented an automobile in 1895. In 1899 he sold his patent rights to William C.

Whitney, who proposed manufacturing electric-powered taxicabs as the Electric Vehicle Company, EVC, for a royalty of US$15 per car with a minimum annual payment of US$5,000. Whitney and Selden worked together to collect royalties from other budding automobile manufacturers, he was successful, negotiating a 0.75% royalty on all cars sold by the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers. He began his own car company in Rochester under the name Selden Motor Vehicle Company. However, Henry Ford, owner of the Ford Motor Company, founded in Detroit, Michigan, in 1903, four other car makers resolved to contest the patent infringement suit filed by Selden and EVC; the legal fight lasted eight years. Ford's testimony included the comment, "It is safe to say that George Selden has never advanced the automobile industry in a single particular...and it would be further advanced than it is now if he had never been born." The case was publicized in the newspapers of the day, ended in a victory for Selden.

In his decision, the judge wrote that the patent covered any automobile propelled by an engine powered by gasoline vapor. Posting a bond of US$350,000, Ford appealed, on January 10, 1911 won his case based on an argument that the engine used in automobiles was not based on George Brayton's engine, the Brayton engine which Selden had improved, but on the Otto engine; this stunning defeat, with only one year left to run on the patent, destroyed Selden's income stream. He focused production of his car company on trucks, renaming his company the Selden Truck Sales Corporation, it survived in that form until 1930. Selden suffered a stroke in late 1921 and died aged 75 on January 17, 1922, he was buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester. It is estimated; the Wright brothers patent war, another vehicular technology patent lawsuit of the same time period George Brayton, inventor of the Brayton cycle engine Based on pages 184-199 of The Mayflower Murderer & Other Forgotten Firsts in American History, Peter F. Stevens, William Morrow, hardcover, 272 pages, ISBN 0-688-11818-6.

Published on Wikinfo. Flink, James J; the Automobile Age, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-56055-0 George B. Selden at Find a Grave The Selden Motor Wagon Photos of the vehicle, plus articles about the gestation of the patent and the lengthy lawsuit which followed

Methylisothiazolinone

Methylisothiazolinone, MIT, or MI, is a powerful synthetic biocide and preservative within the group of isothiazolinones, used in numerous personal care products and a wide range of industrial applications. It is a cytotoxin, its use for a wide range of personal products for humans, such as cosmetics, moisturizers, sanitary wipes and sunscreens, more than doubled during the first decade of the twenty-first century and has been reported as a contact sensitizing agent by the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety. Industrial applications are quite wide ranging, from preservative and sanitizing uses to antimicrobial agents, energy production, metalworking fluids, paint manufacturing, paper manufacturing, many of which increase potential exposure to it by humans as well as organisms, both terrestrial and marine. Industrial applications in marine environments are proving to be toxic to marine life, for instance, when the effect of its now almost-universal use in boat hull paint was examined.

Methylisothiazolinone and other isothiazolinone-derived biocides are used for controlling microbial growth in water-containing solutions. Two of the most used isothiazolinone biocides are 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, which are the active ingredients in a 3:1 mixture sold commercially as Kathon. Kathon is supplied to manufacturers as a concentrated stock solution containing from 10-15% of CMIT/MIT. For applications the recommended use level is from 6 ppm to 75 ppm active isothiazolones. Biocidal applications range from industrial water storage tanks to cooling units, in processes as varied as mining, paper manufacturing, metalworking fluids and energy production. Kathon has been used to control slime in the manufacture of paper products that contact food. In addition, this product serves as an antimicrobial agent in latex adhesives and in paper coatings that contact food. One isothiazolinone, Sea-Nine 211, has replaced tributyltin as the antifouling agent of choice in ship hull paint.

A recent study reported the presence of DCOI in both port water and sediment samples in Osaka, Japan in weakly circulating mooring areas. Of environmental concern, DCOI levels predicted in marinas now are considered a threat to various marine invertebrate species. Isothiazolinones are toxic to fish. In industrial use, the greatest occupational inhalation exposure occurs during open pouring. Non-occupational exposure to isothiazolinones by the general population occurs, albeit at much lower concentrations; these compounds are present in a large number of used cosmetics. “Leave-on” cosmetics contain 15 parts per million of combined CMIT/MIT. MIT is allergenic and cytotoxic, this has led to some concern over its use. A report released by the European Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products Intended for Consumers in 2003 concluded that insufficient information was available to allow for an adequate risk assessment analysis of MIT. Rising reports of consumer impact led to new research, including a report released in 2014 by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety which reported: "The dramatic rise in the rates of reported cases of contact allergy to MI, as detected by diagnostic patch tests, is unprecedented in Europe.

The increase is caused by increasing consumer exposure to MI from cosmetic products. The delay in re-evaluation of the safety of MI in cosmetic products is of concern to the SCCS. In 2014, the European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety further issued a voluntary ban on "the mixture of Methylchloroisothiazolinone Methylisothiazolinone from leave-on products such as body creams; the measure is aimed at reducing the incidence of skin allergies. The preservative can still be used in rinse-off products such as shampoos and shower gels at a maximum concentration of 0.0015 % of a mixture in the ratio 3:1 of MCI/MI. The measure will apply for products placed on the market after 16 July 2015." Shortly thereafter, Canada moved to adopt similar measures in its Cosmetic Ingredients Hotlist. Additionally, new research into cross reactivity of MI-sensitized patients to variants benzisothiazolinone and octylisothiazolinone have found that reactions may occur if present in sufficient amounts.

Methylisothiazolinone is used in products in conjunction with methylchloroisothiazolinone, a mixture sold under the registered trade name Kathon CG. A common indication of sensitivity to Kathon CG is allergic contact dermatitis. Sensitization to this family of preservatives was observed as early as the late 1980s. Due to increased use of isothiazolinone-based preservatives in recent years, an increase in reported incidences of contact allergy to this product has been reported. In 2013 the substance was declared the 2013 Contact Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. In 2016 the Dermatitis Academy launched a call to action for patients to report their isothiazolinone allergy to the FDA. On December 13, 2013 the trade group, Cosmetics Europe, following discussions with the European Society of C

Rolena Adorno

Rolena Adorno is an American humanities scholar, the Spanish Sterling Professor at Yale University and bestselling author. Writing in 2001, in the context of a favorable review of a "magnificent study" that she coauthored, James Axtell called her "perhaps the preeminent student of colonial Latin American literature", she was awarded the Katherine Singer Kovacs Prize of the Modern Language Association of America for her book, The Polemics of Possession in Spanish American Narrative. On 06 November 2009, she was made a member of the National Endowment for Humanities by President Barack Obama, she is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, sits on the Board of Governors of the John Carter Brown Library. Some of her most notable works are: Guaman Poma and His Illustrated Chronicles The Polemics of Possession in Spanish American Narrative Colonial Latin American Literature: A Very Short Introduction With Patrick Pautz, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: His Account, His Life and the Expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez.

3 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. "Rolena Adorno | Department of Spanish and Portuguese". Span-port.yale.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-27

Dissociated sensory loss

Dissociated sensory loss is a pattern of neurological damage caused by a lesion to a single tract in the spinal cord which involves preservation of fine touch and proprioception with selective loss of pain and temperature Understanding the mechanisms behind these selective lesions requires a brief discussion of the anatomy involved. Loss of pain and temperature are due to damage to the lateral spinothalamic tracts, which cross the central part of the cord close to the level where they enter it and travel up the spinal column on the opposite side to the one they innervate. Note that a lesion of the lateral spinothalamic tract at a given level will not result in sensory loss for the dermatome of the same level. Loss of fine touch and proprioception are due to damage to the dorsal columns, which do not cross the cord until the brainstem, so travel up the column on the same side to the one they innervate; this means that a lesion of the dorsal columns will cause loss of touch and proprioception below the lesion and on the same side as it, while a lesion of the spinothalamic tracts will cause loss of pain and temperature below the lesion and on the opposite side to it.

Dissociated sensory loss always suggests a focal lesion within brainstem. The location of cord lesions affects presentation—for instance, a central lesion will knock out second order neurons of the spinothalamic tract as they cross the centre of the cord, will cause loss of pain and temperature without loss of fine touch or proprioception. Other causes of dissociated sensory loss include: Diabetes mellitus Syringomyelia Brown-Séquard syndrome Lateral medullary syndrome aka Wallenberg's syndrome Anterior spinal artery thrombosis Tangier disease Subacute combined degeneration Multiple sclerosis Tabes dorsalis Friedreich's ataxia

Collegiate summer baseball

Collegiate summer baseball leagues are amateur baseball leagues in the United States and Canada featuring players who have attended at least one year of college and have at least one year of athletic eligibility remaining. They operate from early June to early August. Players use wooden baseball bats, hence the common nickname of these leagues as "wood bat leagues". To find a collegiate summer team, players work with their college coaches and prospective teams' general managers, they report to summer leagues after completing their spring collegiate season with their NCAA, NAIA, NJCAA, CCCAA teams. Some players arrive late due to their college team's postseason play, which sometimes runs into early June. In some cases, players are drafted during the collegiate summer season; these draftees can remain with their collegiate summer team until they sign a professional contract. During the season, players are housed by volunteer host families and bussed to and from road games; the leagues vary in their attendances, quality of play, ability to attract scouts.

The Cape Cod League is considered the premier collegiate summer league. In 2011, Baseball America scouted and ranked Top 10 prospects from 19 leagues, indicated below with. Ballpark Digest tracks attendance for 14 leagues, indicated below with. Many collegiate summer teams occupy cities and ballparks where a minor league team has left a city; this list is organized by federation Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League – Eastern Pennsylvania. I. N. K. Collegiate Baseball League Pacific International League Rocky Mountain Baseball League Western Baseball Association All-American Amateur Baseball Association - Pennsylvania Arizona Collegiate Wood Bat League Atlantic Baseball Confederation - New Jersey Ban Johnson Amateur Baseball League Bay Area Collegiate League Beach Collegiate Summer Baseball League Carolina-Virginia Collegiate League Cascade Collegiate League Centennial State League - Northern Colorado Coastal Plain League Collegiate Baseball League Europe Connecticut Collegiate Baseball League Corn Belt Baseball League Cotton States Baseball League Expedition League Futures Collegiate Baseball League Golden State Collegiate Baseball League Great West League Hudson Valley Collegiate Baseball League Interstate Collegiate Baseball League Kansas Collegiate League Maryland Collegiate Baseball League Mid-Plains League Mile High Collegiate Baseball League New Jersey Amateur Baseball League Northwoods League Ohio Valley Summer Collegiate Baseball League Pacific Coast Collegiate League Palm Springs Collegiate League Perfect Game Collegiate Baseball League Prospect League Rockingham County Baseball League St. Louis Metro Collegiate Instructional Baseball League Southern California Collegiate Baseball League Sunset Baseball League Sunflower Collegiate League Texas Collegiate League West Coast League Western Canadian Baseball League Basin League Big States League Central Illinois Collegiate League Clark Griffith Collegiate Baseball League Eastern Collegiate Baseball League Far West League Hawaii Collegiate Baseball League Horizon Air Summer Series KIT Summer Collegiate Baseball League Lewis & Clark Baseball League Mountain Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League Mountain West Summer Collegiate Baseball Pacific West Baseball League Puget Sound Collegiate League Saskatchewan Major Baseball League Sierra Baseball League Scenic West Athletic Conference, a junior-college league that uses wooden bats in conference play during the standard college baseball season Collegiate Summer Baseball website Ballpark Digest Baseball America Summer Scene Collegiate Summer Baseball Register