Progressivism in the United States
Progressivism in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature. It arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization, such as the growth of corporations and railroads. In the 21st century, progressives continue to embrace concepts such as environmentalism, Social progressivism, the view that governmental practices ought to be adjusted as society evolves, forms the ideological basis for many American progressives. Historian Alonzo Hamby defined progressivism as the movement that addresses ideas, impulses. Emerging at the end of the century, it established much of the tone of American politics throughout the first half of the century. Many of the principles of the Progressive Movement focused on the need for efficiency in all areas of society. The real enemy was particularism, state rights, limited government, Progressives repeatedly warned that illegal voting was corrupting the political system.
It especially identified big-city bosses, working with saloon keepers and precinct workers, the solution to purifying the vote included prohibition, voter registration requirements, and literacy tests. All the Southern states used devices to disenfranchise black voters during the Progressive Era, typically the progressive elements in those states pushed for disenfranchisement, often fighting against the conservatism of the Black Belt whites. A major reason given was that whites routinely purchased black votes to control elections, in the North, Progressives such as William URen and Robert La Follette argued that the average citizen should have more control over his government. The Oregon System of Initiative and Recall was exported to many states, including Idaho, many progressives, such as George M. Forbes, president of Rochesters Board of Education, hoped to make government in the U. S. Progressives in the South supported the elimination of supposedly corrupt black voters from the election booth, while the ultimate significance of the progressive movement on todays politics is still up for debate, Alonzo L.
Hamby asks, What were the central themes that emerged from the cacophony. And what was the impact of American foreign policy, were the progressives isolationists or interventionists. Imperialists or advocates of national self-determination, and whatever they were, what was their motivation. Not surprisingly many battered scholars began to shout no mas, in 1970, Peter Filene declared that the term progressivism had become meaningless. The Progressives typically concentrated on city and state government, looking for waste and these changes led to a more structured system, power that had been centralized within the legislature would now be more locally focused. These changes led to a solid type of municipal administration compared to the old system that was underdeveloped. The Progressives mobilized concerned middle class voters, as well as newspapers and magazines, to identify problems and concentrate reform sentiment on specific problems
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
Conservatism in the United States
Historians argue that the conservative tradition has played a major role in American politics and culture since the 1790s. However they have stressed that a conservative movement has played a key role in politics only since the 1950s. The recent movement is based in the Republican Party, though some Democrats were important figures early in the movements history, the history of American conservatism has been marked by tensions and competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small government, low taxes, limited regulation, Social conservatives see traditional social values as threatened by secularism, they tend to support voluntary school prayer and oppose abortion and same sex marriage. Some want the teaching of intelligent design or creationism allowed, the 21st century has seen an increasingly fervent conservative support for Second Amendment rights of private citizens to own firearms. Neoconservatives want to expand American ideals throughout the world, paleoconservatives advocate restrictions on immigration, non-interventionist foreign policy, and stand in opposition to multiculturalism.
Nationwide most factions, except some libertarians, support a unilateral foreign policy, the conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of godless communism. All other activities of government tend to diminish freedom and hamper progress, the growth of government must be fought relentlessly. In this great social conflict of the era, we are, without reservations and we believe that truth is neither arrived at nor illuminated by monitoring election results, binding though these are for other purposes, but by other means, including a study of human experience. On this point we are, without reservations, on the conservative side, President Ronald Reagan set the conservative standard in the 1980s, in the 2010s the Republican leaders typically claim fealty to it. For example, most of the Republican candidates in 2012 claimed to be standardbearers of Reagans ideological legacy, the 1980s and beyond became known as the Reagan Era.
Typically, conservative politicians and spokesmen in the 21st century proclaim their devotion to Reagans ideals and policies on most social and they support a strong policy of law and order to control crime, including long jail terms for repeat offenders. Most conservatives support the death penalty for particularly egregious crimes, the law and order issue was a major factor weakening liberalism in the 1960s. From 2001 to 2008, Republican President George W. Bush stressed cutting taxes and minimizing regulation of industry and banking, Conservatives generally advocate the use of American military power to fight terrorists and promote democracy in the Middle East. According to a 2014 poll, 38% of American voters identify as conservative or very conservative, 34% as moderate, although the study does show some distinction between the concentration of moderates and conservatives or liberals between the Republican and Democratic parties. Among Democrats, 44% are self-identified liberals, 19% as conservatives, for Republicans 70% self-identified as conservative, 24% as moderate, and 5% as liberal.
Conservatism appears to be growing stronger at the state level, the trend is most pronounced among the least well-off, least educated, most blue collar, most economically hard-hit states. Conservatives generally believe that government action is not the solution to problems as poverty and inequality
Mayor of San Francisco
The Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the San Francisco city and county government. The mayor has the duty to enforce city laws, and the power to approve or veto bills passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. The mayor serves a term and is limited to two successive terms. There have been 42 individuals sworn into office, john W. Geary, elected in 1850, was the first mayor of the city. Charles James Brenham, who served as mayor during the 1850s, is the person who has served two non-consecutive terms. The previous mayor, Gavin Newsom resigned to become the Lieutenant Governor of California on January 10,2011, Ed Lee was appointed by the Board of Supervisors on the following day to finish out Newsoms term. Lee was elected to his own term on November 8,2011, the mayor of San Francisco is elected every four years, elections take place one year before United States presidential elections on election day in November. Candidates must live and be registered to vote in San Francisco at the time of the election, the mayor is usually sworn in on the January 8 following the election.
The next election for the mayor will be in 2019, under the California constitution, all city elections in the state are conducted on a non-partisan basis. As a result, candidates party affiliations are not listed on the ballot, mayoral elections were originally run under a two-round system. If no candidate received a majority of votes in the general election. In 2002, the system for city officials was overhauled as a result of a citywide referendum. The new system, known as instant-runoff voting, allows voters to select, if no one wins more than half of the first-choice votes, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and second-choice votes are counted until a candidate captures the majority. This eliminates the need to hold a separate runoff election and saves money and this was first implemented in the 2004 Board of Supervisors election after two years of preparation. In 2007, the new system was implemented in the election for the first time. To date,42 individuals have served as mayor, there have been 43 mayoralties due to Charles James Brenhams serving two non-consecutive terms, he is counted chronologically as both the second and fourth mayor.
The longest term was that of James Rolph, who served over 18 years until his resignation to become the California governor, the length of his tenure as mayor was largely due to his popularity. During his term, San Francisco saw the expansion of its system, the construction of the Civic Center
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David Ike Eisenhower was an American politician and Army general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a general in the United States Army during World War II. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43, in 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO. Eisenhower was of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry and was raised in a family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, after World War II, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman and accepted the post of President at Columbia University. Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft, campaigning against communism, Korea and he won in a landslide, defeating Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson and temporarily upending the New Deal Coalition.
Eisenhower was the first U. S. president to be constitutionally term-limited under the 22nd Amendment, Eisenhowers main goals in office were to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. He ordered coups in Iran and Guatemala, Eisenhower gave major aid to help the French in the First Indochina War, and after the French were defeated he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the space race. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt and he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. Eisenhower sent 15,000 U. S. troops to Lebanon to prevent the government from falling to a Nasser-inspired revolution during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident.
On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege and he otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. Eisenhower was a conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. Eisenhowers two terms saw considerable economic prosperity except for a decline in 1958. Voted Gallups most admired man twelve times, he achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office, since the late 20th century, consensus among Western scholars has consistently held Eisenhower as one of the greatest U. S. Presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in the Saarland, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, accounts vary as to how and when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhowers Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn
California State Senate
The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. The legislative body consists of 40 members, with each member representing approximately 931,000 people, due to the states large population and relatively small legislature, the State Senate has the largest population per representative ratio of any state legislative house. Each member roughly represents a population equivalent to the state of Delaware, the State Senate convenes at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. In the current session, Democrats control 27 seats, comprising a two-thirds supermajority of the chamber, prior to 1968, state senate districts were drawn so that each county had at most one state senator. This led to the situation of a populous county such as Los Angeles County being accorded the same number of senators as less populous counties such as Humboldt County. In Reynolds v. Sims, the United States Supreme Court compelled all states to draw up districts with equal population, as such, boundaries were changed to provide more equitable representation.
The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate, the President pro tempore is elected by the majority party caucus, followed by confirmation of the full senate. Other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their party caucuses according to each partys strength in the chamber. The current president pro tem is Democrat Kevin de León, the minority leader is Republican Jean Fuller. The red tones of the California State Senate Chamber are based on the British House of Lords, the dais rests along a wall shaped like an E, with its central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a portrait of George Washington and the Latin quotation, almost every decorating element is identical to the Assembly Chamber. The Secretary, the Sergeant-at-Arms, and the Chaplain are not members of the Legislature