The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary can be thought of as the mechanism for the resolution of disputes. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary does not make statutory law or enforce law, but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. However, in some countries the judiciary does make common law, setting precedent for other courts to follow; this branch of the state is tasked with ensuring equal justice under law. In many jurisdictions the judicial branch has the power to change laws through the process of judicial review. Courts with judicial review power may annul the laws and rules of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher norm, such as primary legislation, the provisions of the constitution or international law. Judges constitute a critical force for interpretation and implementation of a constitution, thus de facto in common law countries creating the body of constitutional law.
For a people to establish and keep the'Rule of Law' as the operative norm in social constructs great care must be taken in the election or appointment of unbiased and thoughtful legal scholars whose loyalty to an oath of office is without reproach. If law is to govern and find acceptance courts must exercise fidelity to justice which means affording those subject to its jurisdictional scope the greatest presumption of inherent cultural relevance within this framework. In the US during recent decades the judiciary became active in economic issues related with economic rights established by constitution because "economics may provide insight into questions that bear on the proper legal interpretation". Since many countries with transitional political and economic systems continue treating their constitutions as abstract legal documents disengaged from the economic policy of the state, practice of judicial review of economic acts of executive and legislative branches have begun to grow. In the 1980s, the Supreme Court of India for a decade had been encouraging public interest litigation on behalf of the poor and oppressed by using a broad interpretation of several articles of the Indian Constitution.
Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is completely controlled by the executive. This undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary; the proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics. It is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the state, the private; the term "judiciary" is used to refer collectively to the personnel, such as judges and other adjudicators, who form the core of a judiciary, as well as the staffs who keep the system running smoothly. In some countries and jurisdictions, judiciary branch is expanded to include additional public legal professionals and institutions such as prosecutors, state lawyers, public notaries, judicial police service and legal aid officers; these institutions are sometimes governed by the same judicial administration that governs courts, in some cases the administration of the judicial branch is the administering authority for private legal professions such as lawyers and private "notary" offices.
After the French Revolution, lawmakers stopped interpretation of law by judges, the legislature was the only body permitted to interpret the law. In civil law juridictors at present, judges interpret the law to about the same extent as in common law jurisdictions – however it is different from the common law tradition which directly recognizes the limited power to make law. For instance, in France, the jurisprudence constante of the Court of Cassation or the Council of State is equivalent in practice with case law. However, the Louisiana Supreme Court notes the principal difference between the two legal doctrines: a single court decision can provide sufficient foundation for the common law doctrine of stare decisis, however, "a series of adjudicated cases, all in accord, form the basis for jurisprudence constante." Moreover, the Louisiana Court of Appeals has explicitly noted that jurisprudence constante is a secondary source of law, which cannot be authoritative and does not rise to the level of stare decisis.
In common law jurisdictions, courts interpret law. They make law based upon prior case law in areas where the legislature has not made law. For instance, the tort of negligence is not derived from statute law in most common law jurisdictions; the term common law refers to this kind of law. In civil law jurisdictions, courts interpret the law, but are prohibited from creating law, thus do not issue rulings more general than the actual case to be judged. Jurisprudence plays a similar role to case law. In the United States court system, the Supreme Court is the final authority on the interpretation of the federal Constitution and all statutes and regulations created pursuant to it, as well as the constitutionality of the various state laws. State courts, which try 98 % of litigation, may have organization.
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Visa policy of Senegal
Visitors to Senegal require a visa unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. Visitors must hold passports. Citizens of the following 57 countries can visit Senegal without a visa for up to 90 days: Holders of passport for Public Affairs of China can visit Senegal without a visa for 30 days. Holders of a Laissez-Passer issued by the United Nations traveling on duty and holders of a Laissez-Passer issued by the Economic Community of West African States do not required a visa. Holders of diplomatic passports issued to nationals of Turkey and holders of diplomatic and official/service passports issued to nationals of Algeria, Gabon, Russia and Uganda do not require a visa. Citizens of the following 69 countries and territories can obtain visa on arrival for up to 90 days, they must have a passport valid for a minimum of 6 months from the arrival date, a return/onward ticket, a proof of accommodation.: Passengers holding an official invitation letter issued by a Senegalese Authority to participants of international events or a proof of accommodation can obtain visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 30 days.
Visa requirements for Senegalese citizens
Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Arrondissements of Senegal
The departments of Senegal are subdivided into arrondissements. As of 2008 there were 133; the arrondissements are listed below, by department: Bélé Arrondissement Kéniaba Arrondissement Moudéry Arrondissement Baba Garage Arrondissement Lambaye Arrondissement Ngoye Arrondissement Kataba Arrondissement Sindian Arrondissement Tendouck Arrondissement Tenghori Arrondissement Keur Mboucki Arrondissement Mabo Arrondissement Boghal Arrondissement Bona Arrondissement Diaroumé Arrondissement Arrondissement of Mbane Arrondissement of Ndiaye Almadies Arrondissement - divided into 4 communes d'arrondissement. Grand Dakar Arrondissement - divided into 6 communes d'arrondissement Parcelles Assainies Arrondissement - divided into 4 communes d'arrondissement Plateau/Gorée Arrondissement - divided into 5 communes d'arrondissement Ndindy Arrondissement Ndoulo Arrondissement Diakhao Arrondissement Fimela Arrondissement Naikhar Arrondissement Tattaguine Arrondissement Djilor Arrondissement Niodior Arrondissement Toubacouta Arrondissement Colobane Arrondissement Ouadiour Arrondissement Bala Arrondissement Boynguel Bamba Arrondissement Dianké Makha Arrondissement Koulor Arrondissement Guédiawaye Arrondissement - divided into 5 communes d'arrondissement.
Djibanar Arrondissement Simbandi Brassou Arrondissement Karantaba Arrondissement Mbadakhoune Arrondissement Nguélou Arrondissement Note: As of 2006, Koungheul and the eastern section was removed from Kaffrine Department to form Koungheul Department. In 2008, Kaffrine became a Region in its own right, while Birkelene and Malem Hodar became departments within the new Region. Gniby Arrondissement Katakel Arrondissement Orkadiere Arrondissement Wouro Sidy Arrondissement Koumbal Arrondissement Ndiedieng Arrondissement Ngothie Arrondissement Darou Mousti Arrondissement Ndande Arrondissement Sagata Arrondissement Bandafassi Arrondissement Fongolimbi Arrondissement Djoulacolon Arrondissement Mampatim Arrondissement Saré Bidji Arrondissement Bamba Thialène Arrondissement Kouthiaba Wolof Arrondissement Ida Mouride Arrondissement Lour Escale Arrondissement Missirah Wadene Arrondissement Barkedji Arrondissement Dodji Arrondissement Sagatta Dioloff Arrondissement Yang-Yang Arrondissement Keur Momar Sarr Arrondissement Koki Arrondissement Mbédiène Arrondissement Sakal Arrondissement Fissel Arrondissement Séssène Arrondissement Sindia Arrondissement Darou Minam Arrondissement Sagna Arrondissement Agnam Civol Arrondissement Ogo Arrondissement Kael Arrondissement Ndame Arrondissement Taïf Arrondissement Fafacourou Arrondissement Ndorna Arrondissement Niaming Arrondissement Medina Sabakh Arrondissement Paoskoto Arrondissement Wack Ngouna Arrondissement Cabrousse Arrondissement Loudia Ouolof Arrondissement Dagoudane Arrondissement - divided into 7 communes d'arrondissement Niayes Arrondissement - divided into 4 communes d'arrondissement Thiaroye Arrondissement - divided into 5 communes d'arrondissement Cas-Cas Arrondissement Gamadji Saré Arrondissement Salde Arrondissement Thille Boubacar Arrondissement Vélingara Arrondissement Rufisque Arrondissement - includes 3 communes d'arrondissement Sebikotane Arrondissement Rao Arrondissement Dakateli Arrondissement Dar Salam Arrondissement Bembou Arrondissement Sabodala Arrondissement Diende Arrondissement Djibabouya Arrondissement Djiredji Arrondissement Koussanar Arrondissement Makacolibantang Arrondissement Missirah Arrondissement Keur Moussa Arrondissement Notto Arrondissement Thiénaba Arrondissement Thiès Nord Arrondissement - a commune d'arrondissement Thiès Sud Arrondissement - divided into 2 communes d'arrondissement Meouane Arrondissement Merina Dakhar Arrondissement Niakhene Arrondissement Pambal Arrondissement Bonconto Arrondissement Pakour Arrondissement Saré Coly Sallé Arrondissement Niaguis Arrondissement Nyassia Arrondissement Regions of Senegal Departments of Senegal Communes of Senegal List of administrative divisions in Senegal Collectivités locales from Republic of Senegal Government site, l'Agence de l'informatique de l'État.
Map of main subdivisions and more detailed maps on subdivisions Décret fixant le ressort territorial et le chef lieu des régions et des départements, décret n°2002-166 du 21 février 2002. Code des collectivités locales, Loi n° 96-06 du 22 mars 1996
President of Senegal
The President of Senegal is the head of state of Senegal. According to the 2001 Constitution, the president is elected for a 5-year term; the following is a list of Presidents of Senegal, since the country gained independence from France in 1960. Political parties Symbols§ Elected unopposed Senegal Prime Minister of Senegal First Lady of Senegal List of colonial governors of Senegal Politics of Senegal Lists of office-holders World Statesmen – Senegal
2012 Senegalese presidential election
A presidential election took place in Senegal on 26 February 2012, amidst controversy over the constitutional validity of a third term for incumbent president Abdoulaye Wade. In the runoff on 25 March, Macky Sall defeated the incumbent president; the 2015 documentary film Incorruptible chronicles both campaigns as well as the youth movement Y'en Marre, which led protests against Wade's administration. The 26 February 2012 date for the election was decreed by President of Senegal Abdoulaye Wade on 23 November 2010. President Wade indicated that he would stand for his third term, set at seven years by the constitution. While the 2001 constitution limits a President to two terms, Wade argued that his 2000 election to his first seven-year term falls under the previous constitution, which did not provide for term limits. In April 2010, Wade came under fire for unveiling a monument, deemed too expensive, it was criticised by religious leaders for the immodest attire of the women in the monument. While there was domestic criticism, the United States' Jesse Jackson and Malawian President Bingu wa Mutharika praised Wade's representation of Africa.
North Korea, who contributed to the construction of the monument in exchange for a tract of land, congratulated Wade. In December 2010, Senegalese troops engaged and repulsed 100 MFDC rebels after they attacked Bignona, Casamance. In February 2011, the Senegalese government cut ties with Iran alleging that forensic analysis of bullets obtained from rebels revealed that the Iranian government had supplied them. On 18 February 2011, Oumar Bocoum, a soldier, used gasoline to set himself on fire outside the presidential palace in Dakar, following a pattern of protest used throughout the Middle East. In June, after violent protests, Wade dropped plans for two constitutional changes: lowering the percentage of votes required for a first-round victory from 50% to 25% and creating the position of vice-president to be elected. Critics feared that Wade would use this to ensure his re-election against a split opposition, to make his son vice-president. In response to a protest planned for 23 July, a ban on protesting in Dakar was laid down on 21 July 2011.
On 27 January 2012, the Constitutional Court of Senegal ruled that Wade was allowed to run for a third term – according to the ruling, his first term did not count under the new constitution. Protests erupted the following day. Buildings burned across the capital Dakar. Police fired tear gas at youth protesters. Wade made a television appearance in which he called the protests "displays of petulance" and promised an "open" electoral campaign with "no restrictions on freedom." Protesters said that they would turn the Place de l'Obelisque in central Dakar into the country's version of Tahrir Square, the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian revolution which led to the ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Head of the Party of Independence and Labour and member of the M23 opposition activist group Amath Dansokho told reporters, "Abdoulaye Wade has declared war on the people". Truckloads of police in full riot gear and armed with tear gas grenade launchers and truncheons surrounded the presidential palace used by Wade.
Leading human rights activist. The protests continued into February. Riot police fired volleys of tear gas and rubber bullets in Dakar on 19 February 2012, one week before the election; the protests ended when Sall defeated Wade in the runoff election. In addition to the fourteen eventual candidates, Bruno d'Erneville, President of Programme Action Citoyenne Totale, musician Youssou N'Dour, Abdourahmane Sarr and Kéba Keinde intended to run in the election as independents. In January 2012, Bruno d'Erneville withdrew; the other three intended candidates were barred from running in the election over insufficiency of legitimate signatures to endorse their campaigns. For the second round Sall called on all other losing candidates and N'Dour to support him on the promise of returning to five-year terms from the previous seven-year term that Wade controversially restored. First roundFollowing a review of the Constitutional Council's official result for the first round, Wade had 34.8% of the votes with Sall forcing a runoff after getting 26.5% of the votes.
Second roundA run-off was held on 25 March between Sall with Sall winning the presidency. Notably, Wade lost by a big margin in his own constituency of Point-E; the election commission had warned both candidates not to prematurely declare victory. Voting occurred without undue incidents. After the second round, Wade congratulated Sall. "My dear compatriots, at the end of the second round of the vote...the current results indicate that Macky Sall has won." His spokesman Amadou Sall said: "It is the whole country that has just won... This is a big moment for democracy and President Abdoulaye Wade has respected the voice of the people." Thousands of Sall's supporters celebrated on the streets of Dakar and outside the winning party's headquarters. The Senegalese Press Agency said. Sall said he would be a president for all the Senegalese people and the election marked a "new era." Wade's presidential spokesman Serigne Mbacke Ndiaye issued a statement that read: "On this day...at 9:27 p.m. President Abdoulaye Wade...wish good luck in his mission at the head of Senegal in the hopes that he will render the Senegalese happy.
In this way, S