Politics of Slovakia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the parliament and it can be exercised in some cases by the government or directly by citizens. Executive power is exercised by the government led by the Prime Minister; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The President is the head of the state; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Slovakia a "flawed democracy" in 2019. Before the 1989 revolution, Czechoslovakia was a socialist dictatorship ruled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, technically together with the coalition of the so-called National Front. Before the free democratic elections could take place after the revolution, a transitional government was created. 1989 President of Czechoslovakia Gustáv Husák sworn in the Government of National Understanding headed by Marián Čalfa and he himself abdicated. It consisted of 10 communists and 9 non-communists and its main goal was to prepare for democratic elections, to establish market economy in the country and to start preparing a new constitution.
On 8–9 June 1990, the Czechoslovakian parliamentary election of 1990 took place. Čalfa's second government was disbanded on 27 June 1990, when it was replaced by the Government of National Sacrifice headed by Marián Čalfa. On 5–6 June 1992, the last elections in Czechoslovakia, the Czechoslovakian parliamentary election of 1992 took place. Čalfa's third government was disbanded on 2 July 1992, when it was replaced by the Caretaker Government of Jan Stráský, headed by Jan Stráský. The caretaker government was disbanded on 31 December 1992 together with the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. Due to federalism after the 1989 revolution, two national governments were created as well under the federal Czechoslovak government. In Slovakia it was headed by Milan Čič and it was established on 12 December 1989 and disbanded on 26 June 1990. On 8–9 June 1990, the Slovak parliamentary election of 1990 took place together with the federal Czechoslovak elections. Čič's government was followed by the First Government of Vladimír Mečiar, Government of Ján Čarnogurský and the Second Government of Vladimír Mečiar.
On 5–6 June the Slovak parliamentary election of 1992 took place. The Constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September 1992 and became effective 1 October 1992, it was amended in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president and again in February 2001 due to EU admission requirements. The civil law system is based on Austro-Hungarian codes; the legal code was modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe and to expunge the Marxist–Leninist legal theory. Slovakia accepts the compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction with reservations; the president is the head of state and the formal head of the executive, though with limited powers. The president is elected under the two round system, for a five-year term. Following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is appointed prime minister by the president. Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister has to receive the majority in the parliament.
From July 2006 till July 2010 the coalition consisted of Smer, SNS and HZDS. After the 2010 elections a coalition was formed by the former opposition parties SDKÚ, KDH and Most–Híd and newcomer SaS. From 2012 to 2016, after the premature elections, whole government consisted of members and nominees of the party SMER-SD, which had majority in the parliament. Since year 2016 there is a coalition of parties SNS and Most-Híd. Slovakia's sole constitutional and legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic. Delegates are elected for 4-year terms on the basis of proportional representation; the National Council considers and approves the Constitution, constitutional statutes and other legal acts. It approves the state budget, it elects some officials specified by law as well as the candidates for the position of a Justice of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic and the Prosecutor General. Prior to their ratification, the parliament should approve all important international treaties.
Moreover, it gives consent for dispatching of military forces outside of Slovakia's territory and for the presence of foreign military forces on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Current Chairman of the National Council is Andrej Danko. Suffrage: 18 years of age. Presidential election: The president is elected by direct, popular vote, under the two round system, for a five-year term. Two rounds of the last election were held on March 16 and 30, 2019. Parliamentary election: Members of the National Council of the Slovak Republic, are elected directly for a 4-year term, under the proportional representation system. Like the Netherlands, the country is a single multi-member constituency. Voters may indicate their preferences within the semi-open list; the election threshold is 5%. Latest elections were held on March 5, 2016. Eight parties passed the 5% threshold to win seats. Freedom and Solidarity became the second
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel was an English engineer. He is best known for the construction of the Thames Tunnel and as the father of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Born in France, Brunel fled to the United States during the French Revolution. In 1796, he was appointed Chief Engineer of New York City, he moved to London in 1799. In addition to the construction of the Thames Tunnel, his work as a mechanical engineer included the design of machinery to automate the production of pulley blocks for the Royal Navy. Brunel preferred the given name Isambard, but is known to history as Marc to avoid confusion with his more famous son. Brunel was the second son of Marie Victoire Lefebvre. Jean Charles was a prosperous farmer in Hacqueville and Marc was born on the family farm, it was customary for the first son to inherit the second son to enter the priesthood. His father therefore started Marc on a classical education, but he showed no liking for Greek or Latin and instead showed himself proficient in drawing and mathematics.
He was very musical from an early age. At the age of eleven he was sent to a seminary in Rouen; the superior of the seminary allowed him to learn carpentry, he soon achieved the standards of a cabinetmaker. He sketched ships in the local harbour; as he showed no desire to become a priest, his father sent him to stay with relatives in Rouen, where a family friend tutored him on naval matters. In 1786, as a result of this tuition, Marc became a naval cadet on a French frigate and during his service visited the West Indies several times, he made an octant for himself from brass and ivory, used it during his service. In 1789, during Brunel's service abroad, the French Revolution began. In January 1792 Brunel's frigate paid off its crew, Brunel returned to live with his relatives in Rouen, he was a Royalist sympathiser. In January 1793, whilst visiting Paris during the trial of Louis XVI, Brunel unwisely publicly predicted the demise of Robespierre, one of the leaders of the Revolution, he was lucky to get out of Paris with his life, returned to Rouen.
However, it was evident. During his stay in Rouen, Brunel had met Sophia Kingdom, a young English woman, an orphan and was working as a governess, he was forced to leave her behind when he fled to Le Havre and boarded the American ship Liberty, bound for New York. Brunel arrived in New York on 6 September 1793, he subsequently travelled to Philadelphia and Albany, he got involved in a scheme to link the Hudson River by canal with Lake Champlain, submitted a design for the new Capitol building to be built in Washington. The judges were impressed with the design, but it was not selected. In 1796, after taking American citizenship, Brunel was appointed Chief Engineer of the city of New York, he designed various houses, commercial buildings, an arsenal, a cannon factory. No official records exist of the projects that he carried out in New York, as it seems that the documents were destroyed in the New York Draft Riots of 1863. In 1798, during a dinner conversation, Brunel learnt of the difficulties that the Royal Navy had in obtaining the 100,000 pulley blocks that it needed each year.
Each of these was made by hand. Brunel produced an outline design of a set of machines that would automate their production, he decided to put his invention before the Admiralty. He sailed for England on 7 February 1799 with a letter of introduction to the Navy Minister, on 7 March his ship, landed at Falmouth. Whilst Brunel had been in the United States, Sophia Kingdom had remained in Rouen and during the Reign of Terror, she was arrested as an English spy and daily expected to be executed, she was only saved by the fall of Robespierre in June 1794. In April 1795 Kingdom was able to travel to London; when Brunel arrived from the United States, he travelled to London and made contact with Kingdom. They were married on 1 November 1799 at Holborn. In 1802 she gave birth to their first child, Sophie. Isambard Kingdom grew up in Lindsey House. During the summer of 1799 Brunel was introduced to Henry Maudslay, a talented engineer who had worked for Joseph Bramah, had started his own business. Maudslay made working models of the machines for making pulley blocks, Brunel approached Samuel Bentham, the Inspector General of Naval Works.
In April 1802 Bentham recommended the installation of Brunel's block-making machinery at Portsmouth Block Mills. Brunel's machine could be operated by unskilled workers, at ten times the previous rate of production. Altogether 45 machines were installed at Portsmouth, by 1808 the plant was producing 130,000 blocks per year. For Brunel, the Admiralty vacillated over payment, despite the fact that Brunel had spent more than £2,000 of his own money on the project. In August 1808 they agreed to pay £1,000 on account, two years they consented to a payment of just over £17,000. Brunel was a talented mechanical engineer, did much to develop sawmill machinery, undertaking contracts for the British Government at Chatham and Woolwich dockyards, building on his experience at the Portsmouth Block Mills, he built a sawmill at Battersea, designed to produce veneers, he designed sawmills for entrepreneurs. He developed machinery for mass-producing soldiers' boots, but before this could reach full production, demand ceased due to the end of t
Lesbian, gay and transgender persons in the British Virgin Islands face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity has been legal in the British Virgin Islands since 2001. Before 2001, anal sex and oral sex for both heterosexuals and male homosexuals were criminal offences, referred to as "buggery" under the British Virgin Islands Criminal Code. Lesbian activity has never been illegal. Sexual acts between two consenting adults in private were expressly decriminalized by an Order in Council in the British Virgin Islands by the British Government pursuant to Sections 3 and 3 of the Caribbean Territories Order, 2000. According to section 4 of the order, the law has retrospective effect. There are two exceptions to the law: group sex and sex in public remain criminal offences and may lead to charges under gross indecency and other minor sexual offence laws; as a British Overseas Territory, the British Virgin Islands Government is required to comply with their obligations under international human rights instruments.
This includes an adherence to the European Convention on Human Rights, which highlight a responsibility to ensure non-discrimination and equality. The European Convention on Human Rights has been recognised by the courts as having legal effect in the jurisdiction. Same-sex marriages and civil unions are not legal in the British Virgin Islands; the British Virgin Islands is an religious society, no discussion relating to legalisation has yet occurred in the House of Assembly. In 2015, Premier Orlando Smith, whilst affirming his personal opposition to same-sex marriage, indicated that he is open to public consultation on the issue. However, the Marriage Act 2017 made no provision for same-sex marriages, politicians speaking in the House of Assembly took time to comment on the absence of such provisions and express hostility to same-sex marriage and LGBT people more broadly. Church leaders have indicated hostility towards the possibility of legalisation, political leaders have taken an unsympathetic approach in public.
Her Majesty's Government has confirmed that it will not impose recognition of same-sex marriages in the British Virgin Islands by way of an Order in Council. Same-sex marriage is legal in the neighbouring United States Virgin Islands, however; the 2007 Constitution prohibits discrimination against people on the basis of sexual orientation: Whereas every person in the Virgin Islands is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual. Open displays of affection between same-sex partners may offend, LGBT people keep their sexual orientation a secret and stay in the closet. There are reports of same-sex couples and LGBT people being harassed and physically attacked; some of these violent attacks have been justified by locals as "following the Bible". Human rights in the British Virgin Islands LGBT rights in the Americas LGBT rights in the United Kingdom Recognition of same-sex unions in the British Overseas Territories LGBT rights in the United States Virgin Islands
John W. Kern III was a judge of the District of Columbia Court of Appeals. Kern graduated from Princeton University in 1949 and Harvard Law School in 1952. After law school, he moved to Washington, D. C. to clerk for Judge Harold Montelle Stephens of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. He worked as an assistant to Attorney General Ramsey Clark and as an Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia before being nominated to the Court of Appeals in 1968. In 1980, Kern was one of several more conservative judges, led by Frank Q. Nebeker, who attempted unsuccessfully to prevent the reappointment as chief judge of Theodore R. Newman Jr.. After sixteen years on the bench, Kern assumed senior status and became dean of the National Judicial College in Reno, Nevada, on October 3, 1984, he returned to the court in 1987 and continued to hear cases until his retirement on December 31, 2011. In 1998, Kern was appointed by Judge Norma Holloway Johnson as a special master to investigate whether independent counsel Ken Starr had illegally leaked secret grand jury information concerning the Monica Lewinsky scandal to media outlets.
In 1999, Kern submitted a report clearing Starr of the allegations. Kern's grandfather, John W. Kern, was a Senator from the first Senate Majority Leader, his father, John W. Kern Jr. was the 31st mayor of Indianapolis and chief judge of the United States Tax Court. Kern's son, John W. Kern IV, is a lawyer
Saskatchewan Highway 641 is a highway in the province of Saskatchewan, beginning at Highway 39 near Rouleau, traveling north ending at Highway 15 at Semans. The highway intersects the Trans Canada Highway, Saskatchewan Highway 1 south of Pense and east of Belle Plaine, Highway 20 at Lumsden, Highway 22 at Earl Grey. Local Improvement Districts were the precursors of rural municipalities which established and maintained roads in their area. Early settlers helped to construct and maintain the route and would get paid road improvement wages from the local rural municipality; the 8 kilometres concurrency between Highway 20 and Highway 641 was constructed in 1927 following the removal of the Canadian National Railway line between Lumsden and Craven. The remainder of the road followed Dominion land survey range lines. Highway 641 begins near Rouleau and extends north 22.1 kilometres to the Trans Canada Highway Highway 1 intersection. The rural municipality of Reburn number 130 office is located in Rouleau and administers to a population of 245.
This area is part of the Regina Plain landscape area of the Moist Mixed Grassland ecoregion featuring cereal crops in the dark brown soils. The RM of Pense is located between the provincial capital city of Regina. At km 24.6 Highway 641 enters the village Pense. At km 25.4, it intersects Saskatchewan Highway 730. Highway 730 connects to Saskatchewan east of this intersection. Lumsden is located at the km 55.9 intersection with Highway 11 in the Qu'Appelle Valley created by the Qu'Appelle River. The town of Lumsden features the Lumsden Museum, home to several restored heritage buildings; the Lumsden Trans Canada Trail Committee helped establish 20 kilometres of the Trans Canada trail. The trail has been groomed for walking, cycling, horseback riding and snowmobiling. Craven, the home of the Craven Country Jamboree, is located at the Highway 99 and Highway 20 junctions. Highway 641 continues north for 11.5 kilometres and turns east 6.4 kilometres before again continuing northerly. This final stretch of the highway is part of the Strasbourg Plain landscape area of the Moist Mixed Grassland ecoregion featuring small trembling aspen bluffs around the occasional slough.
Earl Grey is located at the intersection with Highway 22. There are no localities located at the intersection with the secondary Highway 731. Last Mountain House Provincial Park protects the heritage site of the Hudson's Bay Company post Last Mountain House established in 1869; the terminus of Highway 641 is at the Saskatchewan Highway 15 intersection at Semans. Between 1897 and 1909, municipal administration affairs were handled by Local Improvement District Number 165; the LID changed its boundaries on December 13, 1909, on January 1, 1913, the LID was renamed Pense No. 160. During the 1940s work was undertaken on paving roadways, a man could earn 35 cents an hour or $5.48 today a man and two horses could be employed at a rate of 65 cents an hour $10.17 today, a horse drawn drag would earn 37.5 cents an hour $5.87 today, if a farmer owned a tractor, a tractor drawn drag could earn as much as 50 cents per hour $7.82 today. The Saskatchewan Highway Act was established in 1922, in compliance with the 1919 Canadian highway act.
At the initial stages of the Saskatchewan Highway Act, 10 miles of provincial highways were gravel and the rest were earth roads. The road allowances were laid out as a part of the Dominion Land survey system for homesteading. Travel along the Provincial Highway 641 before the 1940s would have been traveling on the square following the township road allowances, barbed wire fencing and the Canadian Northern rail line; as the surveyed township roads were the easiest to travel, the first highway was designed on 90-degree, right-angle corners as the distance traversed the prairie along range roads and township roads. There is a historical monument erected along the highway which states that the early railway was established along the east side of the Last Mountain Lake in 1907, constructed on the west side in 1911; the monument documents as well the "Lady of the Lake" sternwheeler, used on Long Lake. Local historians clarify that the rail came to the east of the Lake in 1911, to the west in 1912.
The "Lady of the Lake" was modified to a screw propeller. On the Lake the "S. S. Qu'Appelle", a luxurious steamer, towed a barge across the lake. Lumsden was served by the Canadian National Railway CNR, however the Canadian Pacific Railway CPR was built through Craven in 1910; the new line brought freight to Lumsden infrequently and the elevator was torn down in 1927, the CNR track removed the next year. The highway went through. Highway 20 is marked on an early 1926 and 1955 maps, but highway 641 is unmarked - showing up as surveyed township and range roads only. Lumsden Lumsden No. 189 Pense No. 160 Pense
Kaisersesch is a town in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the like-named Verbandsgemeinde, to which it belongs; the town lies in the eastern Eifel halfway between the rivers Elz and Endert in the headwaters of the Pommerbach 14 km north of Cochem and 16 km southwest of Mayen. Its elevation is 410 m above sea level; the place where Kaisersesch now stands was once a crossroads in Roman times. A Roman presence is known to have existed here from a gravesite and a water supply line that have been unearthed. In the Early Middle Ages, Asche, as it was once known, was among the Lotharingian county palatine's holdings. Sometime between 1051 and 1056, Esch, as it came to be known, had its first documentary mention in a donation document dealing with the Ezzonid heiress Richeza's great donation to the Brauweiler Monastery near Cologne. Beginning in 1294, Esch was a court centre in the Electorate of Trier. In 1320, it was fortified, the following year, on Archbishop Balduin's instigation, it was granted town rights by King Louis the Bavarian.
Thereafter, the town was known as Kaisersesch, although locals sometimes still call it Esch today. In the Nine Years' War, the town was all but utterly destroyed in 1689 by the French. Beginning in 1794, Kaisersesch lay under French rule, under which it was stripped of its town rights. In 1815 it was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna. In 1895, the Andernach-Gerolstein railway reached Kaisersesch, the town began to develop as an important regional centre in the eastern Eifel, the first economic boost that the town had since its destruction in the Nine Years' War. Since 1946, Kaisersesch has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate. On 22 November 1997, Kaisersesch was granted town rights once again; the council is made up of 20 council members who were elected by proportional representation at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman. The municipal election held on 7 June 2009 yielded the following results: Kaisersesch's mayor is Gerhard Weber.
The German blazon reads: In Silber ein durchgehendes rotes Kreuz, im ersten Winkel ein sechs-strahliger schwarzer Stern über liegendem schwarzen Halbmond. The town's arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Argent a cross gules, in dexter chief a mullet over a crescent sable; the cross refers to the Electorate of Trier, the charges in dexter chief are court symbols that crop up in the Rhenish region. The arms have been borne since 1954, but are based on an old court seal from the 15th century that shows this composition; the following are listed buildings or sites in Rhineland-Palatinate’s Directory of Cultural Monuments: Saint Pancras’s Catholic Parish Church, Balduinstraße – Romanesque Revival pseudo-basilica, 1898-1900, architect Lambert von Fisenne, side tower from early 14th century Forest chapel Zur schmerzhaften Muttergottes. The steeple at Saint Pancras's Church is of special note in that it is noticeably crooked. Werner Höfer Peter Kremer Oswald Mathias Ungers Town’s official webpage Jewish history in Kaisersesch