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Politics of Sudan

The politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic, representative democracy is a type of Indirect democracy consociationalist republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and in the two chambers, the National Assembly and the Council of States, of the bicameral National Legislature; the judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court. However, following a deadly civil war and the still ongoing genocide in Darfur, Sudan was recognized as a totalitarian state where all effective political power was held by President Omar al-Bashir and the National Congress Party. However, al-Bashir and the NCP were ousted in a military coup which occurred on April 11, 2019; the government of Sudan was led by the "Transitional Military Council". On 20 August 2019, the TMC dissolved giving its authority over to the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, who are planned to govern for 39 months until 2022, in the process of transitioning to democracy.

The political system of the Republic of the Sudan was restructured following a military coup on 30 June 1989, when Omar al-Bashir a brigadier in the Sudanese Army, led a group of officers and ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi. Under al-Bashir's leadership, the new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level, he became Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation, assumed the posts of chief of state, prime minister, chief of the armed forces, minister of defense. Further on, after institutionalizing Sharia law in the northern part of the country along with Hassan al-Turabi, al-Bashir issued purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, the banning of associations, political parties, independent newspapers and the imprisonment of leading political figures and journalists. In 1993, Sudan transformed into an Islamic totalitarian one-party state as al-Bashir abolished the Revolutionary Command Council and created the National Islamic Front with a new parliament and government obtained by members of the NIF, proclaimed himself President of Sudan.

As a result, the Second Sudanese Civil War with the Sudan People's Liberation Army would only escalate in the following years. From 1983 to 1997, the country was divided into five regions in the north and three in the south, each headed by a military governor. After the military coup in 1989, regional assemblies were suspended. With the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation abolished in 1993 and the ruling National Islamic Front forming the National Congress Party, the new party included some non-Muslim members Southern Sudanese politicians, some of whom were appointed as ministers or state governors. In 1997, the structure of regional administration was replaced by the creation of twenty-six states; the executives and senior-level state officials are appointed by the President, their limited budgets are determined by and dispensed from Khartoum. The states, as a result, remain economically dependent upon the central government. Khartoum state, comprising the capital and outlying districts, is administered by a governor.

Following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 between the government of Omar al-Bashir and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army, a Government of National Unity was installed in Sudan in accordance with the Interim Constitution whereby a co-Vice President position representing the south was created in addition to the northern Sudanese Vice President. This allowed the north and south to split oil deposits but left both the north's and south's armies in place. Following the Darfur Peace Agreement, the office of senior Presidential advisor, the fourth highest constitutional post, was allocated to Minni Minnawi, a Zaghawa of the Darfur-based Sudanese Liberation Army. Executive posts were divided between the National Congress Party, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army, Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist Party; this peace agreement with the SPLM/A granted Southern Sudan autonomy for six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence in 2011.

According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament, is divided between two chambers. Thus the parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms. Despite his international arrest warrant, Omar al-Bashir was re-elected in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, the first democratic election with multiple political parties participating in nine years, his political rival was Vice President Salva Kiir Mayardit, current leader of the SPLA. In December 1999, a power struggle climaxed between president Omar al-Bashir and Hassan al-Turabi, NIF founder, Islamist ideologue and speaker of parliament. Al-Turabi was stripped of his posts in the ruling party and the government, parliament was disbanded, the constitution suspended, a state of national emergency declared by presidential decree. Parliament resumed in February 2001 after the December 2000 presidential and parliamentary elections, but the national emergency laws remain in effect.

Around the same time the Black Book, a manuscript by dissident Westerners detailing the do

Aristophon of Azenia

Aristophon was native of the deme of Azenia in Attica. He lived after the end of the Peloponnesian War. In 412 BC, Aristophon and Melesias were sent to Sparta as ambassadors by the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred. In the archonship of Euclid in 404, after Athens was delivered of the Thirty Tyrants, Aristophon proposed a law which, though said to be beneficial to the republic, yet caused great uneasiness and troubles in many families at Athens, he proposed various other laws, by which he acquired great popularity and the full confidence of the people. Their great number may be inferred from his own statement that he was accused 75 times of having made illegal proposals, but that he had always come off victorious, his influence with the people is most manifest from his accusation of Iphicrates and Timotheus, two men to whom Athens was much indebted. He charged them in 354 with having accepted bribes from the Chians and Rhodians, the people condemned Timotheus on the mere assertion of Aristophon.

After this event, but still in 354, he came forward in the assembly to defend the law of Leptines against Demosthenes. The latter, who mentions him, treats the aged Aristophon with great respect, reckons him among the most eloquent orators; this event is the last record of Aristophon, he seems to have died soon after. No record of his orations has come down to us; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Aristophon". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology

Celine Brun-Lie

Celine Marie Knudtzon Brun-Lie is a Norwegian cross-country skier. She won a bronze medal at the 2006 Junior World Ski Championships, recorded a fourth place at the 2007 Junior World Ski Championships and won a gold medal in relay at the 2008 Junior World Ski Championships, she made her World Cup debut with a twentieth place. She recorded her first top-ten result in December 2007, with a tenth place in Rybinsk, finished on the podium for the first time in December 2008, when she finished second in the sprint race in Davos, she competed at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2009, recording a twelfth place in the sprint. At the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver she reached the finals of both her events, coming sixth in the Individual Sprint and fifth in the Team Sprint, she represents the sports club Njård IL, lives in Trondheim. She is a student at the Norwegian University of Technology, she has three siblings and speaks Norwegian and French. In February 2015, Brun-Lie announced that she was retiring from top-level skiing after the 2015 season, aiming to complete her civil engineer studies at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 8 podiums – 5 podiums –

Bàsquet Girona

Club Bàsquet Girona 2014 is a Spanish basketball club based in Girona, founded in 2014 by NBA player Marc Gasol. The club was founded in 2014 by NBA player Marc Gasol, who played in CB Girona between 2006 and 2008, with the name of Club Escola Bàsquet Marc Gasol. In its first years the club only competed in youth categories. In 2016, it added the name of the city of Girona to the name of the club thus becoming CEB Girona Marc Gasol and one year it changed again its name to Bàsquet Girona. In 2017, with the aim to become the main men's basketball club in the city, the club created the senior squad that would start competing in the fourth-tier Liga EBA after achieving a vacant spot in the league. Quim Costa would be the head coach for the debut season. Jordi Trias Official website Profile at

Arthur Delaney

Arthur McEvoy Delaney born 9 December 1927, Chorlton upon Medlock, Lancashire - died 17 April 1987 was an English painter whose scenes of Manchester life were influenced by those of L. S. Lowry, gaining some popularity since his death, he is alleged to be the illegitimate son of comedian Frank Randle. His mother, Genevieve Delaney was a music hall artiste who appeared with her sister, Mary Monica Kelshaw. At 13 years of age, he joined a textile design studio in Manchester where he worked for the next 32 years, he married his childhood sweetheart, Joan Campion, in 1949 and they had four children. He started to paint as a means of relaxation. There were two great influences in his life. One was the work of L. S. Lowry and the other was the memories of the happy years he spent as a boy in the Manchester of the 1930s with its smoke-laden skies, rattling tramcars and gas lamps. Lowry's work made him aware of the many special qualities of the north and soon he began producing street scenes and industrial landscapes.

His paintings were not stylised but a true likeness to their location. He set out to capture the atmosphere of the 1930s and all of his paintings capture the nostalgia of the period. In April 1974 he held a successful one-man show at the Tib Lane Gallery in Manchester, with all the pictures selling within half an hour at the preview, his paintings continued to sell well during his lifetime and he exhibited at the Royal Academy. Many of his paintings were produced as limited-edition prints. In 2010 a painting by Delaney, in the style of L. S. Lowry, painted as a homage to him, was auctioned after being seized by police from convicted fraudster Maurice Taylor. Taylor had purchased the painting for £7,500 in 2004; the painting, of a snowbound Mill Street, had been given an insurance valuation of £600,000 by the auctioneers Bonhams. The painting was said to lack fluidity, with muddy skies and with the lamp-posts wrongly highlighted in red

Michelle Hinn

Michelle Hinn is the current chairperson of the IGDA's Game Accessibility Special Interest Group, a video game industry advocacy group for creating mainstream games accessible to gamers with disabilities. She is involved with, a game accessibility project funded by the Bartiméus Accessibility Foundation, is the Vice-President of the Game Division of Hinn has a bachelor's degree in music performance, a bachelor's degree in psychology, a master of arts degree in multimedia design from Virginia Tech. Hinn's experience includes an internship at Microsoft Game Studios, where she focused on piloting usability tests for Xbox multiplayer games and ran playtests on Xbox games such as Halo: Combat Evolved, Oddworld: Munch's Oddysee, Fuzion Frenzy, Amped: Freestyle Snowboarding. Additionally, she has worked for Computer Sciences Corporation, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the University of Nevada, Reno. Hinn was an instructor in the Department of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she taught game design courses and was the program co-ordinator and academic advisor for the Women in Math and Engineering community.

In September 2006, she was named one of Next Generation's "100 Most Influential Women in Gaming for her work in game accessibility. She is the co-editor of the book Visions of Quality: How Evaluators Define and Represent Program Quality and is working with the IGDA's Game Accessibility SIG on an upcoming book. Hinn is on the editorial board of Computers in Entertainment magazine, has authored several award-winning papers on the topic of universal accessibility from organizations, she was one of the three 2006 recipients of the IGDA's Most Valuable Player Award. IGDA Special Interest Group site Bartiméus Accessibility Foundation University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Library and Information Science Women In Math and Engineering site