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Politics of Suriname

Politics of Suriname take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the president of Suriname is the head of state and head of government, of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government; the executive power is dependent on the Parliament in theory. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. The executive branch is headed by the president, elected by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly or, failing that twice, by a majority of the People's Assembly for a 5-year term. If at least two-thirds of the National Assembly cannot agree to vote for one presidential candidate, a People's Assembly is formed from all National Assembly delegates and regional and municipal representatives who were elected by popular vote in the most recent national election; the Vice President elected at the same time as the president, is elected for a 5-year term, the same way as the president.

As head of government, the president appoints a cabinet of ministers who are led in their day-to-day activities by the Vice President. There is no constitutional provision for replacement of the president unless he resigns. A 15-member State Advisory Council advises the president in the conduct of policy. Eleven of the 15 council seats are allotted by proportional representation of all political parties represented in the National Assembly; the president chairs the council, two seats are allotted to representatives of labor, two are to employers' organizations. The Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president; the legislative branch of government consists of a 51-member unicameral National Assembly and popularly elected for a 5-year term. Suriname elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature; the president is elected for a five-year term by an electoral college based on the parliament. The National Assembly has 51 members, elected every five years by proportional representation per district.

The judiciary is headed by the Court of Justice. This court supervises the magistrate courts. Members are appointed for life by the president in consultation with the National Assembly, the State Advisory Council, the National Order of Private Attorneys; the country is divided into 10 administrative districts, each headed by a district commissioner appointed by the president. The commissioner serves at the president's pleasure; the 10 districts are.

R82 (South Africa)

The R82 is a provincial route in South Africa that connects Johannesburg with Kroonstad via Vereeniging and Sasolburg. It starts just south of the M1 Johannesburg Municipal Highway's interchange with the N12 Southern Bypass, going south, meeting the R59, R54, R42 & R28 At Vereeniging before crossing the Vaal River into the Free State & proceeding to Kroonstad, it is an longer route to the N1 National Route between Johannesburg & Kroonstad. The R82 is an alternative route to the N1 National Highway from Johannesburg to Kroonstad, with the N1 highway being a shorter and more direct route by about 20 Kilometres. While the N1 has tollgates, the R82 is toll-free; the R82 Road begins in the southern suburbs of Johannesburg. It comes from Johannesburg Central in the north as the M1 Johannesburg Municipal Highway and changes to the R82 designation just after meeting the N12 Southern Bypass near the Southgate suburb. At the next off-ramp with Columbine Avenue by Southgate Shopping Centre, the route stops being a highway and continues southwards as Vereeniging Road.

It continues for 6 kilometres to meet the R554 route from Alberton near Kibler Park and they are cosigned southwards for 1 kilometre up to the western terminus of the R550 route from Nigel, where the R554 route continues as the road westwards towards Lenasia. The R82 continues south for 11 kilometres, crossing into the Midvaal Local Municipality, to meet the R557 route from Meyerton and they are cosigned for 3 kilometres southwards before the R557 route becomes the road westwards towards Kanana Park; the R82 continues for 22 kilometres southwards, through De Deur, meeting the R551 route at a staggered junction and entering the Emfuleni Local Municipality, to enter Vereeniging as Old Johannesburg Road. At the four-way-junction with the R54 Route near Duncanville, under the passing R59 Sybrand van Niekerk Freeway, the R82 becomes Voortrekker Street and is the main road southwards through Vereeniging Central. At Beaconsfield Avenue in Vereeniging Central, the R82 meets the south-eastern terminus of the R28 route from Sebokeng.

At the 3rd junction afterwards, the R82 meets the R42 Route from Vanderbijlpark and they become cosigned on the road eastwards from this junction. At the 2nd junction, just after passing under the Vereeniging Railway, the R42 becomes the road northwards towards Three Rivers, leaving the R82 as the road eastwards. Right after this junction, the R82 crosses the Vaal River into the Free State; the R82 crosses the Vaal River into the Metsimaholo Local Municipality as Problem Road. Right after crossing the Vaal River, the road turns southwards and continues for 7 kilometres to Viljoensdrif, where it meets Ascot-On-Vaal Road from Vanderbijlpark and the R716 route to Deneysville; the R82 continues southwards for 12 kilometres to the south-eastern area of Sasolburg, where it meets the R57 route between Vanderbijlpark and Heilbron and a road linking eastwards to Deneysville. After the Sasolburg area, the R82 crosses into the Ngwathe Local Municipality and continues south-west for 58 kilometres, intersecting with the R723 route, bypassing the town of Koppies, to reach an intersection with the R720 route.

The R82 and the R720 are co-signed south-east for 4 kilometres, crossing the Renoster River, before the R82 becomes its own road south-west. The R82 travels for 52 kilometres, through Heuningspruit, to end at an intersection with the R34 route north-east of Kroonstad in the Moqhaka Local Municipality. Routes Travel Info Construction of the R82: Phase 1B

Boiler water

Boiler water is liquid water within a boiler, or in associated piping and other equipment, intended for evaporation into steam. The term may be applied to raw water intended for use in boilers, treated boiler feedwater, steam condensate being returned to a boiler, or boiler blowdown being removed from a boiler. Impurities in water will leave solid deposits as steam evaporates; these solid deposits thermally insulate heat exchange surfaces decreasing the rate of steam generation, causing boiler metals to reach failure temperatures. Boiler explosions were not uncommon until surviving boiler operators learned how to periodically clean their boilers; some solids could be removed by cooling the boiler so differential thermal expansion caused brittle crystalline solids to crack and flake off metal boiler surfaces. Other solids were removed by mechanical scouring. Various rates of boiler blowdown could reduce the frequency of cleaning, but efficient operation and maintenance of individual boilers was determined by trial and error until chemists devised means of measuring and adjusting water quality to minimize cleaning requirements.

Boiler water treatment is a type of industrial water treatment focused on removal or chemical modification of substances damaging to the boiler. Varying types of treatment are used at different locations to avoid corrosion, or foaming. External treatment of raw water supplies intended for use within a boiler is focused on removal of impurities before they reach the boiler. Internal treatment within the boiler is focused on limiting the tendency of water to dissolve the boiler, maintaining impurities in forms least to cause trouble before they can be removed from the boiler in boiler blowdown. At the elevated temperatures and pressures within a boiler, water exhibits different physical and chemical properties than those observed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Chemicals may be added to maintain pH levels minimizing water solubility of boiler materials while allowing efficient action of other chemicals added to prevent foaming, to consume oxygen before it corrodes the boiler, to precipitate dissolved solids before they form scale on steam-generating surfaces, to remove those precipitates from the vicinity of the steam-generating surfaces.

Sodium sulphite or hydrazine may be used to maintain reducing conditions within the boiler. Sulphite is less desirable in boilers operating at pressures above 1,000 pounds per square inch. Excess hydrazine may evaporate with steam to provide corrosion protection by neutralizing carbon dioxide in the steam condensate system. Products based on filming amines such as Helamin may be preferred for corrosion protection of condensate systems with copper alloys. Boilers operating at pressures less than 200 pounds per square inch may use unsoftened feedwater with the addition of sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide to maintain alkaline conditions to precipitate calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium silicate. Hard water treated this way causes a high concentration of suspended solid particles within the boiler to serve as precipitation nuclei preventing deposition of calcium sulfate scale. Natural organic materials like starches and lignins may be added to control crystal growth and disperse precipitates.

The soft sludge of precipitates and organic materials accumulates in quiescent portions of the boiler to be removed during bottom blowdown. Boiler sludge concentrations created by coagulation treatment may be avoided by sodium phosphate treatment when water hardness is less than 60 mg/L. With adequate alkalinity, addition of sodium phosphate produces an insoluble precipitate of hydroxyapatite with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium and calcium silicates. Lignin may be processed for high temperature stability to control calcium phosphate scale and magnetic iron oxide deposits. Acceptable phosphate concentrations decrease from 140 mg/L in low pressure boilers to less than 40 mg/L at pressures above 1,500 pounds per square inch. Recommended alkalinity decreases from 700 mg/L to 200 mg/L over the same pressure range. Foaming problems are more common with high alkalinity. Coordinated control of pH and phosphates attempts to limit caustic corrosion occurring from concentrations of hydroxyl ions under porous scale on steam generating surfaces within the boiler.

High pressure boilers using demineralized water are most vulnerable to caustic corrosion. Hydrolysis of trisodium phosphate is a pH buffer in equilibrium with disodium phosphate and sodium hydroxide. Chelants like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or nitrilotriacetic acid form complex ions with calcium and magnesium. Solubility of these complex ions may reduce blowdown requirements if anionic carboxylate polymers are added to control scale formation. Potential decomposition at high temperatures limits chelant use to boilers operating at pressures less than 1,500 pounds per square inch. Decomposition products may cause metal corrosion in areas of stress and high temperature. Many large boilers including those used in thermal power stations recycle condensed steam for re-use within the boiler. Steam condensate is distilled water. A deaerator is used to convert condensate to feedwater by removing damaging gases including oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Inclusion of a polisher helps to maintain water purity, in particular pr

Goolman, Queensland

Goolman is a rural locality in the City of Ipswich, Australia. At the 2016 Australian Census, Goolman recorded a population of 42; the east of Goolman contains the northern foothills of the Teviot Range. The slopes remain vegetated with little development occurring in the area; the locality name Goolman comes from nearby Mount Goolman, which in turn derives its name from stone axe in the Yuggera language. Goolman was a stop along the Dugandan railway line; the Flinders - Goolman Conservation Estate covers 1,900 hectares and includes several peaks including Flinders Peak, Mount Goolman, Mount Blain and Mount Cathrine. Hardings Paddocks Picnic Area is located in Goolman, it includes walking tracks and a camping area. Media related to Goolman, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons

Carl S. Bates

Carl S. Bates was an aviation pioneer from Clear Lake, Iowa, he piloted gliders in 1899, in 1906 he designed a gasoline-powered airplane, equipped with an air-cooled engine, a metal propeller and metal wing rudders. Bates was the first person in Iowa to fly a heavier-than-air aircraft, he built and sold several aircraft and plans. Foundations of the modern hang gliding movement are traced in part to the popular Chanute style biplane that he spread with his articles to the public, as well as providing plans for homebuilders to build the biplane hang glider. In 1898 at age 14, Bates flew a hang glider. In April 1909, he authored a Popular Science how-to article on hang glider construction. In 1911, Bates designed a built and monoplane with an engine of his own design. In 1912, Bates sold the Bates Aeroplane Co, to Edward Bayard Heath. Bates died in 1956. In 2002 Carl S. Bates was inducted in the Iowa Aviation Hall of Fame. Carl Sterling Bates Carl Bates See gravestone. Bates' Popular Mechanics Glider plan.

How to Build a Glider Biography Aerofiles Article by Carl S. Bates, describing how to build a. History of hang gliding Ultralight aviation Biplane

Lady in Gold (album)

Lady in Gold is the second studio album by Swedish rock band Blues Pills. It was released on August 2016 by Nuclear Blast Records. Lady in Gold consists of ten tracks including a cover of Tony Joe White's "Elements and Things" from the 1969 album... Continued. In late 2015, the band started writing and preparing for their second album—their first with new drummer André Kvarnström. In November 2015, Elin Larsson posted a photo to the band Facebook page of her recording the vocals for the second album; the band went on a two-month Europe tour between February to April 2016 before finalising the work for the second album. On 22 April 2016, Blues Pills announced the title of the album and the ten track set-list via their Facebook page. Vocalist and co-songwriter Elin Larsson commented: "Lady gold is a character. We wanted a twist on the typical stereotype of death being the grim reaper. So instead we made her a lady in gold." The band were happy to reveal. Bassist, founding member and main songwriter Zach Anderson commented on the artwork of the album: "The design comes from the dutch artist Marijke Koger-Dunham who worked with us for the first album cover.

We are super proud to have the opportunity to work again with such a legendary artist who has worked with The Beatles and many more. The original design was made by her 50 years ago. We worked together to adapt the colors to fit the mood of the album. Our fans will like it as much as we do." All songs composed by Elin Larsson, Dorian Sorriaux, Zach Anderson and André Kvarnström. All lyrics by Zach Anderson and Elin Larsson except track 4/I Felt a Change" by Elin Larsson. Blues PillsElin Larsson – vocals Dorian Sorriaux – guitars, acoustic guitar Zach Anderson – bass André Kvarnström – drumsAdditional personnelTobias Winterkorn – Mellotron Rickard Nygren – organ Per Larssonpiano Carl Lindvall, Elin Larsson, Ellinor Svensson, Sofie Lee Johansson – choir Francis Rencoret – vocal arrangements Don Alsterberg – xylophoneProductionDon Alsterberg – production, mixing Marijke Koger-Dunham – cover design Hans Olsson Brookes – mastering Kiryk Drewinski – logo design, typography John McMurtrie – photography The album received favorable reviews.

AllMusic writer, Thom Jurek states in conclusion, " goes way past the band's self-titled debut" and it "delivers on the promise of that first album and some". Jurek calls the songwriting "more sophisticated and confident". "BLUES PILLS - announce new album! - Nuclear Blast". Nuclearblast.de. 2016-04-22. Retrieved 6 May 2016. "Blues Pills Discography at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 6 May 2016