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Politics of Western Sahara

The politics of Western Sahara take place in a framework of an area claimed by both the recognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Morocco. Occupied by Spain from 1884 to 1975, as Spanish Sahara, the territory has been listed with the United Nations as a case of incomplete decolonization since the 1960s, making it the last major territory to remain a colony, according to the UN; the conflict is between the Kingdom of Morocco and the national liberation movement known as Polisario Front, which in February 1976 formally proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, now administered by a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Following to the Madrid Accords, the territory was partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in November 1975, with Morocco acquiring the northern two-thirds. Mauritania, under pressure from the POLISARIO guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979, with Morocco moving to annex that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control over the majority of the territory.

A portion is administered by the SADR. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was seated as a member of the Organisation of African Unity in 1984, was a founding member of the African Union. Guerrilla activities continued until a United Nations-monitored cease-fire was implemented September 6, 1991 via the mission MINURSO; the mission patrols the separation line between the two territories. In 2003, the UN's envoy to the territory, James Baker, presented the Baker Plan, known as Baker II which would have given Western Sahara immediate autonomy as the Western Sahara Authority during a five-year transition period to prepare for a referendum, offering the inhabitants of the territory a choice between independence, autonomy within the Kingdom of Morocco, or complete integration with Morocco. POLISARIO has accepted the plan. In 2001, Baker had presented his framework plan, called Baker I, where the dispute would be solved through an autonomy within Moroccan sovereignty, but Algeria and the Polisario Front refused it.

Algeria had proposed the partition of the territory instead. The population under Moroccan control participates in countrywide and regional Moroccan elections. A referendum on independence or integration with Morocco was agreed upon by Morocco and the Polisario Front in 1991, but it has yet to take place; the population under SADR control and in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Tindouf, participates in elections to the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Foreign relations of Morocco#Western Sahara Legal status of Western Sahara

Claudia Kohde-Kilsch

Claudia Kohde-Kilsch is a former German tennis player and member of the Die Linke. During her tennis career, she won two women's doubles Grand Slam titles, she won eight singles titles and a total of 25 doubles titles. Kohde-Kilsch was born Claudia Kohde in Saarbrücken, but added the hyphenated "-Kilsch" to her name which came from her adoptive father Jürgen Kilsch, an attorney, she has Katrin. She began playing tennis aged 5, was soon a rising junior player. Kohde-Kilsch campaigned for Oskar Lafontaine of Die Linke at the 2012 Saarland state election. With the party winning over 16% of the vote, it was announced that as of 1 May 2012 she would become the new spokesperson for the Landtag parliamentary group, she lives in Saarland with her husband, Chris Bennett, their son, Fynn. The couple operate a music publishing house and production company. Kohde-Kilsch turned professional on 1 January 1980, by 1981 she had handed a first round defeat to Martina Navratilova in Oakland, she went on to win four singles titles that year.

In 1982, she captured the title at Pittsburgh and in 1984 she triumphed at the German Open, defeating Kathleen Horvath of the United States, 7–6, 6–1. In 1985, she reached the Australian Open and French Open semi-finals and won in Los Angeles; that year, she defeated Navrátilová in the quarter-finals on the way to a final round match with Chris Evert at the Canadian Open, where she lost to Evert, 2–6, 4–6. In 1987, she again reached the finals of the German Open, where she lost to Steffi Graf 2–6, 3–6. In women's doubles, Kohde-Kilsch won the 1985 US Open women's doubles championship with Helena Suková and in 1987, partnering again with Suková, she won the Wimbledon championships. Between 1984 and 1987, Kohde-Kilsch and Suková, sometimes referred to as the "twin towers" for their height, paired to win 14 doubles tournaments. At the 1988 Summer Olympics, she partnered with Steffi Graf in the doubles competition and together they were awarded the bronze medal in the event. Graf and Kohde-Kilsch lost in the semifinals to Jana Novotná and Helena Suková 5–7, 3–6.

In 1988, there was no bronze medal play-off match, both beaten semifinal pairs received bronze medals. Official website Claudia Kohde-Kilsch at the Women's Tennis Association Claudia Kohde-Kilsch at the International Tennis Federation Claudia Kohde-Kilsch at the Fed Cup

Edward James Land

Edward James Land Jr. or Jim Land, is a retired Marine Corps officer, instrumental in starting the Marine Scout Sniper program. Land was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1935, he enlisted in the Marine Corps at age 17 in 1953. Land went on to become a Staff Sergeant and a Drill Instructor before attending Officer Candidate School in 1959. Upon graduating OCS, Land was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the 4th Marine Regiment; as an officer, Land demonstrated an aptitude for competitive shooting and was selected for the Marine Corps Rifle Team. In 1961. Land founded the first modern sniper course for the Marine Corps. In Vietnam, Land was the commanding officer of Carlos Hathcock, whom he had trained in one of his early Sniper Courses. After the Vietnam War, Land along with Major Richard O. Culver Jr. established the first permanent Marine Corps Scout Sniper school in Quantico, Virginia. After Vietnam, Land served as the USMC Marksmanship coordinator. Land was active in the community and from 1977 until 1980 held the position of scoutmaster for Boy Scout Troop 1183 in Triangle, Virginia.

During his tenure he mentored many Scouts, several to the rank of Eagle. He was instrumental in spearheading a newspaper recycling program years before such recycling practices were commonplace. Newspaper from the local community was collected once a month by the Scouts and sold to an insulation company to benefit the troop. From September 16 through the 29, 1978 funds from these efforts sent 12 Scouts and 3 leaders to Brownsea Island, the location of Lord Baden Powell's first Boy Scout camping trip in 1907. Land retired from the Marine Corps as a major in 1977. Land was elected as Secretary of the National Rifle Association in 1994, he retired from this position in April 2015. United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper Richard O. Culver Jr. - worked with Land in establishing the first Scout Sniper School. Carlos Hathcock - famed Marine Corps sniper. Humphries, Michael. "The Father of USMC Sniping". Tactical Weapons Magazine. Tactical Life


A syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. In a form, defined by Aristotle, from the combination of a general statement and a specific statement, a conclusion is deduced. For example, knowing that all men are mortal and that Socrates is a man, we may validly conclude that Socrates is mortal. Syllogistic arguments are represented in a three-line form: In antiquity, two rival theories of the syllogism existed: Aristotelian syllogistic and Stoic syllogistic. Aristotle defines the syllogism as "a discourse in which certain things having been supposed, something different from the things supposed results of necessity because these things are so". Despite this general definition, in Prior Analytics Aristotle limits himself to categorical syllogisms that consist of three categorical propositions; these include categorical modal syllogisms. From the Middle Ages onwards, categorical syllogism and syllogism were used interchangeably.

This article is concerned only with this traditional use. The syllogism was at the core of traditional deductive reasoning, where facts are determined by combining existing statements, in contrast to inductive reasoning where facts are determined by repeated observations. Within academic contexts, the syllogism was superseded by first-order predicate logic following the work of Gottlob Frege, in particular his Begriffsschrift, but syllogisms remain useful in some circumstances, for general-audience introductions to logic; the use of syllogisms as a tool for understanding can be dated back to the logical reasoning discussions of Aristotle. Prior to the mid-twelfth century, medieval logicians were only familiar with a portion of Aristotle's works, including titles such as Categories and On Interpretation, works that contributed to the prevailing Old Logic, or "logica vetus"; the onset of a New Logic, or "logica nova", arose alongside the reappearance of Prior Analytics, the work in which Aristotle develops his theory of the syllogism.

Prior Analytics, upon re-discovery, was regarded by logicians as "a closed and complete body of doctrine", leaving little for thinkers of the day to debate and re-organize. Aristotle's theory on the syllogism for assertoric sentences was considered remarkable, with only small systematic changes occurring to the concept over time; this theory of the syllogism would not enter the context of the more comprehensive logic of consequence until logic began to be reworked in general in the mid-fourteenth century by the likes of John Buridan. Aristotle's Prior Analytics did not, incorporate such a comprehensive theory on the "modal syllogism"—a syllogism that has at least one modalized premise. Aristotle's terminology in this aspect of his theory was deemed vague and in many cases unclear contradicting some of his statements from On Interpretation, his original assertions on this specific component of the theory were left up to a considerable amount of conversation, resulting in a wide array of solutions put forth by commentators of the day.

The system for modal syllogisms laid forth by Aristotle would be deemed unfit for practical use, would be replaced by new distinctions and new theories altogether. Boethius contributed an effort to make the ancient Aristotelian logic more accessible. While his Latin translation of Prior Analytics went unused before the twelfth century, his textbooks on the categorical syllogism were central to expanding the syllogistic discussion. Boethius' logical legacy lay not in any addition he made to the field, but in his effective transmission of prior theories to logicians, as well as his clear and accurate presentations of Aristotle's contributions. Another of medieval logic's first contributors from the Latin West, Peter Abelard, gave his own thorough evaluation of the syllogism concept and accompanying theory in the Dialectica - a discussion of logic based on Boethius' commentaries and monographs, his perspective on syllogisms can be found in other works as well, such as Logica Ingredientibus. With the help of Abelard's distinction between de dicto modal sentences and de re modal sentences, medieval logicians began to shape a more coherent concept of Aristotle's modal syllogism model.

John Buridan, whom some consider the foremost logician of the Middle Ages, contributed two significant works: Treatise on Consequence and Summulae de Dialectica, in which he discussed the concept of the syllogism, its components and distinctions, ways to use the tool to expand its logical capability. For two hundred years after Buridan's discussions, little was said about syllogistic logic. Historians of logic have assessed that the primary changes in the post-Middle Age era were changes in respect to the public's awareness of original sources, a lessening of appreciation for the logic's sophistication and complexity, an increase in logical ignorance—so that logicians of the early twentieth century came to view the whole system as ridiculous; the Aristotelian syllogism dominated Western philosophical thought for many centuries. Syllogism itself is about how to get valid conclusion from assumptions and not about verifying the assumptions. However, people over time focused on the logic part and forgot the importance of verifying the assumptions.

In the 17th century, Francis Bacon emphasized that experimental verification of the assumptions must be carri

The Voice of Poland (season 4)

The Voice of Poland began airing 1 March 2014 on TVP 2. On January 7, 2014, Edyta Górniak announced she would be leaving the show in order to concentrate on her music career. On February 1, 2014 it was announced that Justyna Steczkowska, who served as a judge in the second season, will return to replace Edyta Górniak; the other judges will be Maria Sadowska and Marek Piekarczyk. All hosts from the previous season will return. Auditions January 10 and 11, 2014 in Warsaw. Color key The blind auditions were taped from February 12 to 15, 2014. Color keys The coaches performed "Tysiące głosów", polish version of "One Thousand Voices", at the start of the show; the Battle rounds were taped from March 17 to 19, 2014. Katarzyna Markiewicz could not arrive to take part in Battle rounds due to health problems. On March 23, 2014 she died at the age of 38, due to cervical cancer with multiple metastases. Sławomir Ramian, who would be her battle partner, was put straight through and performed "Moja i twoja nadzieja" as a tribute.

Color keys Before each knockout round the coach chooses two artists from their team to get a "fast pass" to the live shows, the remaining six artists from that team are split up into two groups of three. At the end of each knockout round the coach decides out of the three artists who wins, therefore makes up their four artists to take to the live shows. Color keys Color keys Color keys Artist's info Result details Marta Dryll was a contestant on the first season of Bitwa na głosy. Katarzyna Sawczuk appeared on the season two of Mam talent!. Anna Deko appeared on the second season of Bitwa na głosy, she was a contestant on the third season of X Factor. She was eliminated at the Bootcamp stage. Michał Chmielewski sang in the blind auditions of season two of The Voice of Poland and failed to make a team, but was able to turn a chair this season. Kinga Kowalkowska, Igor Marinow and Klaudia Trzepizur competed on Must Be the Music. Tylko muzyka – seasons one and five respectively. Monika Pilarczyk auditioned for Mam talent!

– season four. Tobiasz Pietrzyk sang in the blind auditions of season two of The Voice of Poland, but failed to turn any chairs. Michał Karpacki was among the Top 10 finalists on Idol – season three. 1 Includes advert breaks

Viennese German

Viennese German is the city dialect spoken in Vienna, the capital of Austria, is counted among the Bavarian dialects. It is distinct from written Standard German in vocabulary and pronunciation. In Lower Austria, the state surrounding the city, many of its expressions are not used, while farther to the west they are not understood. Viennese differs from the Austrian form of Standard German, as well as from other dialects spoken in Austria. At the beginning of the 20th century, one could differentiate between four Viennese dialects: Favoritnerisch, Meidlingerisch and Floridsdorferisch. Today these labels are no longer applicable, one speaks of a single Viennese dialect, with its usage varying as one moves further away from the city. Besides the locational dialects of Old Vienna, there were class-based dialects. For example, Schönbrunnerdeutsch, or German as spoken by the courtiers and attendants of the Habsburg Imperial Court at Schönbrunn Royal Palace, was a manner of speech with an affected bored inflection combined with overenunciation.

The nasal tonality was akin to German spoken with a French accent. While far less used today, educated Viennese are still familiar with this court dialect. All in all, speaking Viennese masterly by intonating sentences with distinctive ups and downs creates a warm, melodic sound - in said "Schönbrunn" variant. Features typical of Viennese German include: Monophthongization: Compared to Standard German and to other Bavarian dialects, diphthongs are monophthongized, somewhat as some Southern US accents turn oil into o-ol. For example: Standard German heiß – Bavarian hoaß – Viennese haaß Standard German weiß – Viennese wääß Standard German Haus – Viennese Håås It is typical to lengthen vowels somewhat at the end of a sentence. For example: Heeaasd, i bin do ned bleeed, wooos waaasn ii, wea des woooa: "Listen, I'm not stupid; the "Meidlinger L", i.e. /l/ pronounced with velarization found in the working class dialect, which reflects the Czech pronunciation. Inserting vowels into consonant clusters: Likewise depending on the social class, a speaker, every now and may insert a vowel between two following consonants.

That results in an additional syllable, which "intensifies" the word and has a negative feeling to it. Examples: Standard German Verschwinde! – Viennese Vaschwind! – intensified Vaschawind! Standard German Verbrecher! – Viennese Vabrecha! – intensified Vabarecha! Standard German abgebrannt – Viennese oobrennt – intensified oobarennt Standard German Geradeaus! – Viennese Groodaus! – intensified Garoodaus! The following Viennese German characteristics are found in other Bavarian dialects: Consonant tenseness: Voiceless fortis consonants /p, t, k/ become lenis. The, however remains fortis when it follows a vowel. Vocalization of /l/ within a word after a vowel,e.g. → oeso, Soldat → Soedot, fehlen → föhn, Kälte → Köödn Vocalization of /l/ at the end of a word, after a vowel,e.g. schnell → schnöö, viel → vüü Unrounding front vowels after coronal consonants,e.g. Glück → Glick, schön → schee Rounding unrounded vowels before /l/,e.g. schneller → schnöller, vielleicht → vülleicht, wild → wüüd There are not many grammatical differences from other Bavarian dialects, but the following are typical: The avoidance of the genitive case The use of the preposition ohne with the dative case instead of the accusative case The replacement of "ihn" or "ihm" with "eam", for instance: "Hast du ihn gesehen?" would be "Host eam gsehn?" in Viennese The replacement of "wir" with "mia" The dialect is distinct in its vocabulary.

Vocabulary displays particular characteristics. Viennese retains many Middle High German and sometimes Old High German roots. Furthermore, it integrated many expressions from other languages from other parts of the former Habsburg Monarchy, as Vienna served as a melting pot for its constituent populations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; because transcription of Viennese has not been standardised, the rendering of pronunciation here is incomplete: from Old High German: Zähnd Hemad from Middle High German: Greißler Baaz si ohgfrettn from Hebrew and Yiddish: Masl Hawara Gannef Beisl from Czech: Motschga Pfrnak Lepschi from Hungarian: Maschekseitn Gattihosn from Italian: Gspusi Gstanzl Gusta from French: Trottoa Lawua Loschie from Arabic: Hadscha In Viennese, the following pragmatics peculiarities are found quite often: Frequent iron