Legislative Assembly of the Cayman Islands
The Legislative Assembly of the Cayman Islands is the unicameral legislature of the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands. It is composed of 21 members; the Governor may at any time, by Proclamation, dissolve the Assembly. The Governor shall dissolve the Assembly at the expiration of four years from the date when the Assembly first meets after any general election unless it has been sooner dissolved. There shall be a general election at such time within two months after every dissolution of the Assembly as the Governor shall, by Proclamation, appoint; the first meeting of every session of the House shall, by Proclamation, be held on such day as the Governor shall appoint. A session consists of four meetings. A Meeting comprises several sittings. In the elections of 8 November 2000, with a turnout of 80% only non-partisans were elected. After the election, conservative members of parliament formed the United Democratic Party; the conservative social democratic People's Progressive Movement formed in response and won the subsequent election.
Following the most recent election both established parties failed to attain the majority of seats in the legislature. The Progressives, three of the nine elected independents and the Cayman Democratic Party formed a historic national unity government. Progressive leader Alden McLaughlin secured a second term as Premier, with Cayman Democratic Party leader McKeeva Bush as Speaker of the Legislative Assembly; the first meeting to discuss the possible legislative future of the Cayman Islands took place on 5 December 1831 at Pedro St. James, a great house in the fertile area of Savannah on Grand Cayman; this building is the seat of parliamentary beginnings in the Cayman Islands. By 1909 what got established as the Legislative Assembly of Justices and Vestry was meeting in the Court House on the waterfront in what is now the headquarters of the Cayman Islands National Museum, in front of Hog Sty Bay and the cruise passenger arrival terminal; the building served as the seat of the court house and the legislature.
Now it is the home of the Cayman Islands National Museum. The present Legislative Assembly building was built on the site of the former Princess Royal Park; the building design was the subject of some controversy when selected as the winner of an international architectural competition. Being the first poured concrete public building in Cayman, modern techniques were not yet in use, so the concrete was mixed on the street and poured pail by pail by a bucket brigade; the cornerstone was laid by Captain Rayal Brazly Bodden, MBE, JP, on 29 September 1971. The building was completed in July 1972. By 2003, the legislature had outgrown the space and the building was in need of renovating. Repair and refurbishment work on the building began in February 2003, which added more space through reconfiguration, renovated and refurbished portions of the interior, including the main chamber; the newly refurbished and expanded building was inaugurated with the opening of the Legislature session on 2 July 2004, two months before Hurricane Ivan, which completely devastated Grand Cayman over a two-day period.
The LA building withstood the storm with minor damage to its roof. Nineteen members are elected on a "one person, one vote" basis, following a Constitution Order in 2015; this replaced. The two ex officio members, the Deputy Governor and the Attorney-General, are appointed by the Governor. Hon. Franz Manderson, MBE: Deputy Governor.
Politics of Argentina
The politics of Argentina take place in the framework of what the Constitution defines as a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, where the President of Argentina is both Head of State and Head of Government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Argentine National Congress; the Judiciary is independent of the Legislature. Elections take place on a multi-party system; the government structure of Argentina is a democracy. The current Chief of State and Head of Government is President Mauricio Macri. Legislative Branch is a bicameral Congress, which consists of the Senate, presided by the Vice-President, the Chamber of Deputies presided by Emilio Monzó of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the General Auditing Office of the Nation and the Ombudsman are part of this branch. Deputies serve for 4 years; the Judiciary Branch is composed of federal judges and others with different jurisdictions, a Supreme Court with five judges, appointed by the President with approval of the Senate, who may be deposed by Congress.
Further information: Government of Argentina Argentina is divided into 23 Provinces, the equivalent of States, one autonomous district, CABA, inside the Buenos Aires province. Because of its federal government, every province has its own constitution, authorities; each province, except for Buenos Aires Province, is divided into departments, or disctricts, which are in turn divided into municipalities. The Buenos Aires Province is different, its territory is divided into 134 districts called partidos, not municipalities. Argentina's first government, autonomous from the Spanish Crown, can be traced back to May 1810 and the May Revolution, where an assembly of Argentines, called Primera Junta, took power; because at the time it was difficult to find the right form of government, more difficult to consolidate a Republic, Argentina experimented with different forms of assembly, like juntas and triumvirates. The 9th of July 1816, half of Argentina's provinces signed a declaration of independence.
The beginnings of Argentine state building were rough and many provinces refused to answer to a central government and sign the first constitution of 1826. In 1853, after several years of centralist power, a new constitution was passed, this one consolidated fully, the Argentine Nation. Buenos Aires, still refused to be considered part of the country. However, after the battle of Pavon in 1861, Buenos Aires set terms for its inclusion in the Constitution and the Republic of Argentina was born, with Bartolome Mitre as the President. From 1852 until 1930 Argentina experienced liberal government with first oligarchic and democratic tendencies. From 1852-1916 the government, run by the landowning elite, controlled the outcome of elections by committing fraud; this was contested by working-class sectors. This fueled the creation of more unions and political parties, including the Radical Civil Union, which represented the emergent middle-class. In 1912, Law 8871, or the Sáenz Peña Law established universal and obligatory male suffrage, which marked the middle classes entering the government, displacing the landowning elite.
Since the 1930s coups d'état have disrupted this democracy. After World War II and Juan Perón's presidency, recurring economic and institutional crises fostered the rise of military regimes. In 1930, the elected president Hipolito Yrigoyen was ousted by a right-wing led coup. In 1931 the new government held controlled elections and blocked the participation of Yrigoyen's party; this alleged elections gave way to the Concordancia, a three-party regime. They controlled the Argentine government, through fraud and rigged elections, until 1943. Several factors, including the deaths of the most prominent leaders and World War II, led to another coup that ended the Concordancia regime; this coup was led by the army, which supported the Axis powers, modeled the new government after Italy's fascist regime. Among the military leaders was Juan Domingo Perón, in charge of the Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, he veered off the path set by the conservative army and set forth to improve the living and working conditions of workers, including giving Labor Unions support and governmental positions.
He was jailed but after mass protests, he became president in the elections of 1946. His regime is known as a populist one, aided by the figure of his first wife Eva Duarte de Perón or “Evita”, their regime produced economic growth and improvements on working conditions. It passed female suffrage, nationalized the central bank and gas, urban transport and the telephone. After the death of his wife, Perón started losing support, he was ousted in 1955 by another coup. However, Peronism continues to live on in Argentina; the next stage of the Social State was one characterized by both political instability. Peron died a year later, his second wife, became president. However, she was not capable of running the country and the military took power once again in 1976. Jorge Rafael Videla's dictatorship began in 1976 but fell into decline in 1982 after a defeat in the Falklands War, ended in 1983 with the democratic election of President Raúl Alfonsín of the Radical Civic Union party. Alfonsín faced significant challenges, including a military uprising, resigned in 1989, six months before the end of his term, but the country was not in clear danger of becoming subject to a dictatorship again.
Carlos Menem of th
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Ivan formed in early September, reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Ivan caused catastrophic damage to Grenada as a strong Category 3 storm, heavy damage to Jamaica as a strong Category 4 storm and Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands and the western tip of Cuba as a Category 5 storm. After peaking in strength, the hurricane moved north-northwest across the Gulf of Mexico to strike Pensacola/Milton and Alabama as a strong Category 3 storm, causing significant damage. Ivan dropped heavy rains on the Southeastern United States as it progressed northeast and east through the eastern United States, becoming an extratropical cyclone; the remnant low from the storm moved into the western subtropical Atlantic and regenerated into a tropical cyclone, which moved across Florida and the Gulf of Mexico into Louisiana and Texas, causing minimal damage.
Ivan caused an estimated $26.1 billion along its path, of which $20.5 billion occurred in the United States. On September 2, 2004, Tropical Depression Nine formed from a large tropical wave southwest of Cape Verde; as the system moved to the west, it strengthened becoming Tropical Storm Ivan on September 3 and reaching hurricane strength on September 5, 1,150 miles to the east of Tobago. That day, the storm intensified and by 5 pm EDT, Ivan became a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 125 miles per hour; the National Hurricane Center said that the rapid strengthening of Ivan on September 5 was unprecedented at such a low latitude in the Atlantic basin. As it moved east, Ivan weakened because of wind shear in the area; the storm passed over Grenada on September battering several of the Windward Islands. As it entered the Caribbean Sea, Ivan reintensified and became a Category 5 hurricane, just north of the Windward Netherlands Antilles and Aruba on September 9, with winds reaching 160 mph. Ivan weakened as it moved west-northwest towards Jamaica.
As Ivan approached the island late on September 10, it began a westward jog that kept the eye and the strongest winds to the south and west. However, because of its proximity to the Jamaican coast, the island was battered with hurricane-force winds for hours. After passing Cuba, Ivan regained Category 5 strength. Ivan's strength continued to fluctuate as it moved west on September 11, the storm attained its highest winds of 163 mph as it passed within 30 miles of Grand Cayman. Ivan reached its peak strength with a minimum central pressure of 910 millibars on September 12. Ivan passed through the Yucatán Channel late on September 13, while its eyewall affected the westernmost tip of Cuba. Once over the Gulf of Mexico, Ivan weakened to Category 4 strength, which it maintained while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States. Just before it made landfall in the United States, Ivan's eyewall weakened and its southwestern portion disappeared. Around 2 a.m. CDT September 16, Ivan made landfall on the U.
S. mainland in Alabama, as a Category 3 hurricane with 120 mph winds. Ivan continued inland, maintaining hurricane strength until it was over central Alabama. Ivan weakened that evening and became a tropical depression on the same day, still over Alabama. Ivan lost tropical characteristics on September 18 while crossing Virginia; that day, the remnant low of Ivan drifted off the U. S. mid-Atlantic coast into the Atlantic Ocean, the low-pressure disturbance continued to dump rain on the United States. On September 20, Ivan's remnant surface low completed an anticyclonic loop and moved across the Florida peninsula; as it continued west across the northern Gulf of Mexico, the system reorganized and again took on tropical characteristics. On September 22, the National Weather Service, "after considerable and sometimes animated in-house discussion the demise of Ivan," determined that the low was in fact a result of the remnants of Ivan and thus named it accordingly. On the evening of September 23, the revived Ivan made landfall near Cameron, Louisiana as a tropical depression.
Ivan weakened into a remnant low on September 24. The remnant circulation of Ivan persisted for another day, before dissipating on September 25. Ivan set 18 new records for intensity at low latitudes; when Ivan first became a Category 3 hurricane on September 3, it was centered near 10.2 degrees north from the equator. This is the most southerly location on record for a major hurricane in the Atlantic basin. Just six hours Ivan became the most southerly Category 4 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin when it reached that intensity while located at 10.6 degrees north. At midnight on September 9 while centered at 13.7 degrees north, Ivan became the most southerly Category 5 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin. The latter record would not be surpassed until Hurricane Matthew in 2016, which reached Category 5 intensity at 13.4 degrees north. Ivan had held the world record of 33 six-hour periods of intensity above Category 4 strength; this record was broken two years by Pacific Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke, which had 36 six-hour periods at Category 4 strength.
This contributed to Ivan's tota
Politics of Costa Rica
The politics of Costa Rica take place in a framework of a presidential, representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the president and his cabinet, the President of Costa Rica is both the head of state and head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly; the president and 57 Legislative Assembly deputies are elected for four-year terms. The judiciary operates independent of the executive and the legislature but remains involved in the political process. Costa Rica is a republic with a strong system of constitutional balances. Voting is compulsory in Costa Rica but it is not enforced; the position of governor in the seven provinces was abolished in 1998. There are no provincial legislatures. In 2009, the state monopolies on insurance and telecommunications were opened to private-sector competition. Certain other state agencies enjoy considerable operational autonomy. Costa Rica has no military but maintains a domestic police force and a Special Forces Unit as part of the Ministry of the President.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Costa Rica as "flawed democracy" in 2016. The 1986 presidential election was won by Óscar Arias of the PLN. During his tenure he experienced some criticism from within his own party for abandoning its traditional social democratic teachings and promoting a neoliberal economic model, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts to end civil wars raging in several Central American countries. In the February 1998 national election, PUSC candidate Miguel Ángel Rodríguez won the presidency over PLN nominee José Miguel Corrales Bolaños. President Rodriguez assumed office May 8, 1998; the PUSC obtained 27 seats in the 57-member Legislative Assembly, for a plurality, while the PLN got 23 and five minor parties won seven. Social Christian in philosophy, the PUSC favors neoliberalism, conservative fiscal policies, government reform. President Rodriguez pledged to reduce the country's large internal debt, privatize state-owned utilities, attract additional foreign investment, eliminate social welfare programs, promote the creation of jobs with decent salaries.
The reforms he tried to promote found opposition from several parties, including his own, he asserted several times the country was "ungovernable". In particular, an attempt by the Legislative Assembly to approve a law that opened up the electricity and telecommunication markets to market competition, known as the "Combo" law, was met with strong social opposition; the Combo law was supported by both major parties at the time as well as by President Rodriguez, but the first of three required legislative votes to approve it provoked the largest protest demonstrations the country had seen since 1970. The government resolved to shelve the initiative. President Rodríguez's approval would reach an all-time low, he was indicted by the Attorney General after leaving office on corruption charges. In September 2000 the Constitutional Court rejected an argument by former president Arias that a 1969 constitutional amendment banning presidential reelection be rescinded. Arias thus remained barred from a second term as president.
In the 2002 national election, a new party founded by former PLN Congressman and government Minister Ottón Solís captured 26% of the vote, forcing a runoff election for the first time in the country's history. Abel Pacheco was elected President, under a national unity platform, but continuing most of the neoliberal and conservative policies of Miguel Ángel Rodríguez; this election was important because new parties won several seats in Congress, more than ever. The PUSC obtained PLN 17 seats, PAC 14 seats, PML 6 seats and PRC one seat. During 2004, several high-profile corruption scandals shattered the foundations of PUSC. Two former presidents from the party, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez and Rafael Ángel Calderón, were arrested on corruption charges and are waiting for the investigation to end and trial to begin. Involved in scandals has been José María Figueres, former President from PLN and former head of the World Economic Forum; the 2006 national election was expected to be a landslide for former President and PLN's candidate Óscar Arias, but it turned out to be the closest in modern history.
Although polls just a week before the election gave Arias a comfortable lead of at least 12%, preliminary election results gave him only a.4% lead over rival Ottón Solís and prompted a manual recount of all ballots. After a month-long recount and several appeals from different parties, Arias was declared the official winner with 40.9% of the votes against 39.8% for Solís. When Óscar Arias returned to office, the political debate shifted to the ratification of the Central American Free Trade Agreement. Main supporters of the approval included the President's PLN, which established a coalition with PUSC and ML in Congress to approve the implementation laws in Congress, as well as different business chambers; the main opposition to CAFTA came from PAC, labor unions, environmental organizations and pu
Martyn Keith Roper is a British diplomat and Governor of the Cayman Islands since October 2018. Roper was the Ambassador to Algeria from 2010 to 2014, he was appointed OBE in 2013 "for services to UK interests in Algeria the UK response to the In Amenas hostage crisis." Cayman Islands Government Web Site
Politics of Mexico
The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive and judicial, Anahis term as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917; the constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions. The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by the President, advised by a cabinet of secretaries that are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary and the collegiate and district tribunals.
The politics of Mexico are dominated by three political parties: National Action Party, the National Regeneration Movement and Institutional Revolutionary Party. According to a survey by the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 2017, 74 per cent of Mexicans believe that Mexico's electoral system is not transparent and distrust official results Constitutionally, political parties in Mexico must promote the participation of the people in the democratic life of the country, contribute in the representation of the nation and citizens, be the access through which citizens can participate in public office, through whatever programs and ideals they postulate. All political parties must be registered before the National Electoral Institute, the institution in charge of organizing and overseeing the federal electoral processes, must obtain at least 2% of votes in the federal elections to keep their registry. Registered political parties receive public funding for their operation and can obtain private funding within the limits prescribed by the law.
As of 2010 the following political parties are registered before the INE and all have representatives at the Congress of the Union: Institutional Revolutionary Party, founded in 1929. The coalition must present itself with logo. Proportional representation seats are assigned to the coalition based on the percentage of votes obtained in the elections, the coalition reassigns them to the constituent political parties. Once each party in the coalition has been assigned plurinominal seats, they do not continue to work as a coalition in government. Throughout the 20th century, PRI had an hegemonic power at the state and federal level, which began to recede in the late 1980s. Though since the 1940s, PAN had won a couple of seats in the Congress, in 1947 the first presidential municipality, it wasn't until 1989, that the first non-PRI governor of a state was elected, it was in 1997, that PRI lost its absolute majority at the Congress of the Union, in 2000 the first non-PRI president was elected since 1929.
Suffrage is universal, free and direct for all Mexican citizens 18 and older, is compulsory. The identity document in Mexico serves as the voting card, so all citizens are automatically registered for all elections. All elections are direct. Only when an incumbent president is absent, the Congress of the Union constitutes itself acts as an electoral college to elect an interim president by absolute majority. Presidential elections are scheduled every six years, except in the exceptional case of absolute absence of the president. Legislative elections are scheduled every six years for the Senate, to be renewed in elections held concurrently with the presidential elections. Elections are held on the first Sunday of July. State governors are elected every six years, whereas the legislatures are renewed every three years. State elections need not be concurrent with federal elections. Federal elections are organized and supervised by the autonomous public Federal Electoral Institute, whereas state and municipal elections are organized and supervised by electoral institutes constituted by each state of the federation.
Elections within the Federal District are organized by a local electoral institute. A ingrained concept in Mexican political life is "no reelection." The theory was implemented after Porfirio Díaz managed to monopolize the presidency for over 25 years. Presently, Mexi
Secret Intelligence Service
The Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence in support of the UK's national security. SIS is a member of the country's intelligence community and its Chief is accountable to the country's Foreign Secretary. Formed in 1909 as a section of the Secret Service Bureau specialising in foreign intelligence, the section experienced dramatic growth during World War I and adopted its current name around 1920; the name MI6 originated as a flag of convenience during World War II, when SIS was known by many names. It is still used today; the existence of SIS was not acknowledged until 1994. That year the Intelligence Services Act 1994 was introduced to Parliament, to place the organisation on a statutory footing for the first time, it provides the legal basis for its operations. Today, SIS is subject to public oversight by the Investigatory Powers Tribunal and the Parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee.
The stated priority roles of SIS are counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation, providing intelligence in support of cyber security, supporting stability overseas to disrupt terrorism and other criminal activities. Unlike its main sister agencies, the Security Service and Government Communications Headquarters, SIS works in foreign intelligence gathering; some of SIS's actions since the 2000s have attracted significant controversy, such as its alleged acts of torture and extraordinary rendition. Since 1995, SIS has been headquartered in the SIS Building in London, on the South Bank of the River Thames; the service derived from the Secret Service Bureau, founded on 1 October 1909. The Bureau was a joint initiative of the Admiralty and the War Office to control secret intelligence operations in the UK and overseas concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German government; the bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign espionage and internal counter-espionage activities, respectively.
This specialisation was because the Admiralty wanted to know the maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy. This specialisation was formalised before 1914. During the First World War in 1916, the two sections underwent administrative changes so that the foreign section became the section MI1 of the Directorate of Military Intelligence, its first director was Captain Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming, who dropped the Smith in routine communication. He signed correspondence with his initial C in green ink; this usage evolved as a code name, has been adhered to by all subsequent directors of SIS when signing documents to retain anonymity. The service's performance during the First World War was mixed, because it was unable to establish a network in Germany itself. Most of its results came from military and commercial intelligence collected through networks in neutral countries, occupied territories, Russia. After the war, resources were reduced but during the 1920s, SIS established a close operational relationship with the diplomatic service.
In August 1919, Cumming created the new passport control department, providing diplomatic cover for agents abroad. The post of Passport Control Officer provided operatives with diplomatic immunity. Circulating Sections established intelligence requirements and passed the intelligence back to its consumer departments the War Office and Admiralty; the debate over the future structure of British Intelligence continued at length after the end of hostilities but Cumming managed to engineer the return of the Service to Foreign Office control. At this time, the organisation was known in Whitehall by a variety of titles including the Foreign Intelligence Service, the Secret Service, MI1, the Special Intelligence Service and C's organisation. Around 1920, it began to be referred to as the Secret Intelligence Service, a title that it has continued to use to the present day and, enshrined in statute in the Intelligence Services Act 1994. During the Second World War, the name MI6 was used as a flag of convenience, the name by which it is known in popular culture since.
In the immediate post-war years under Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming and throughout most of the 1920s, SIS was focused on Communism, in particular, Russian Bolshevism. Examples include a thwarted operation to overthrow the Bolshevik government in 1918 by SIS agents Sidney George Reilly and Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, as well as more orthodox espionage efforts within early Soviet Russia headed by Captain George Hill. Smith-Cumming died at his home on 14 June 1923, shortly before he was due to retire, was replaced as C by Admiral Sir Hugh "Quex" Sinclair. Sinclair created the following sections: A central foreign counter-espionage Circulating Section, Section V, to liaise with the Security Service to collate counter-espionage reports from overseas stations. An economic intelligence section, Section VII, to deal with trade and contraband. A clandestine radio communications organisation, Section VIII, to communicate with operatives and agents overseas. Section N to exploit the contents of foreign diplomatic bags Section D to conduct political covert actions and paramilitary operations in time of war.
Section D would organise the Home Defence Scheme resistance organisation in the UK and come to be the foundation of the Special Operations Executive during the Second World War. With the emergence of Germany as a threat following the ascendence of the N