Courts of Denmark
The Courts of Denmark is the ordinary court system of the Kingdom of Denmark. Part of the Courts of Denmark are three boards, The Process Grating Board, The Sideline Employment Board and the Judicial Appointment Council, finally the Danish Court Administration is vested with the joint administration of the whole organization. The courts of Greenland and the Faeroe Islands constitute semi-autonomous parts of the Courts of Denmark and are governed by separate, in accordance with Article 3 of the Danish Constitution, all judicial authority is vested in the courts of justice. The constitution provides that judges of the court may pass judgements. The Danish system of courts is based on a structure, in which there are no special or constitutional courts of law. As a rule, all courts of law may adjudicate disputes in legal areas such as civil, administrative, the Court of Indictment and Revision handles complaints regarding procedure, disqualification of judges, etc. brought by the users of the courts, against the courts.
Proceedings are oral in general and open to the public in the lower courts, media transmissions from within the court are prohibited, unless allowed by the presiding judge. The general structure of the system is inspired by the traditions of continental Europe. The Act has undergone substantial changes since its enactment in 1916, the Danish Constitution provides for the Court of Impeachment of the Realm to hear cases brought against ministers concerning their administration. The Danish Courts exercise the powers of government and resolve related issues, including probate, enforcement, land registration. Lay judges may be of any profession, except they may not be attorneys, members of the clergy, or acting civil servants, from late 2005 a gradual reform of the lower courts is under way. When passed, the reform will transform the role of the County and High Courts, the composition of the county courts varies but is regulated by law. The Copenhagen County Court has 49 judges and a President, whilst Aarhus, Odense and Roskilde county courts have a President and 15,10,10,29 jurisdictions have two to four judges, whilst the last 50 jurisdictions have only one judge.
At the preparatory and trial stages of civil cases only one judge presides, in criminal cases where this is not the case, the judge sits with two lay judges. Special rules regarding appointment of lay judges apply to maritime cases, in cases where lay judges sit with the judge, decisions are adopted by simple majority. In addition to their duties, county court judges act as notary public and bailiffs, as well as administrators of bankruptcy proceedings. Furthermore, they administer the land registry. In regard to the tasks, these functions may be assigned to an assessor
Foreign relations of Denmark
The foreign policy of Denmark is based on its identity as a sovereign nation in Europe. As such its primary foreign policy focus is on its relations with other nations as an independent nation. Denmark has long had relations with other nations. It has been involved in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states, the country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. Danish forces were engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force, with IFOR. Denmark strongly supported American operations in Afghanistan and has contributed both monetarily and materially to the ISAF and these initiatives are a part of the active foreign policy of Denmark. In recent years and the Faroe Islands have been guaranteed a say in foreign issues, such as fishing, whaling. Following World War II, Denmark ended its policy of neutrality. Denmark has been a member of NATO since its founding in 1949, the conservative led Centre-right government accepted this variety of minority parliamentarism, that is, without making it a question of the governments parliamentary survival.
With the end of the Cold War, Denmark has been supportive of U. S. policy objectives in the Alliance, danes have enjoyed a reputation as reluctant Europeans. When they rejected ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on 2 June 1992, the Amsterdam Treaty was approved in the referendum of 28 May 1998. In the autumn of 2000, Danish citizens rejected membership of the Euro currency group in a referendum, the Lisbon treaty was ratified by the Danish parliament alone. It was not considered a surrendering of national sovereignty, which would have implied the holding of a referendum according to article 20 of the constitution, a continental shelf dispute involving Iceland and the UK Hans Island. An island located between Greenland and Canadian Arctic islands, unresolved boundary disputed between Canada and Denmark. This dispute flared up again in July 2005 following the visit of a Canadian minister to the disputed island, Denmark is trying to prove that the North Pole is geographically connected to Greenland.
If such proof is established, Denmark will claim the North Pole and Poland have still not agreed on the location of the maritime border between the two countries. Denmark supports a border halfway between the two countries, Poland wants to be awarded an even greater share of the Baltic Sea, the Polish position is based on the argument that Poland owns a longer coast line than the Danish island of Bornholm. China and Denmark, relations since 1674, jørgen Sevaldsen, Bo Bjørke, Claus Bjørn
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Politics of the Faroe Islands
The Faroe Islands are politically associated with the Kingdom of Denmark, but have been self-governing since 1948. Executive power is exercised by the government, legislative power is vested in both the government and the Løgting. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and the responsibility of Denmark, as of October 25,2007, the Faroe Islands became one electoral district. The high commissioner is appointed by the Queen of Denmark, the High Commissioner has a seat in the Løgting, he or she is allowed to speak in the Løgting regarding common Danish/Faroese affairs, but he or she is not allowed to vote. The chairman with the most votes is handed the initiative, after forming the coalition, the løgmaður leads the landsstýri. The landsstýri will often consist of around 7 members, the coalition parties divide the various ministries among themselves and after this, the parties elect their representative to these ministries. Any other member of the cabinet is called a landsstýrismaður if the person is a man, the word ráðharri is used for a member of the cabinet, i. e. mentamálaráðharri or heilsumálaráðharri.
The Faroese Parliament has 33 MPs, elected for a term by proportional representation. Election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on June 18,2015, Social Democrats 1, the Faroese Parliament has 33 seats. Members are elected by vote to serve four-year terms. The islands are divided into 30 municipalities with about 120 cities and villages. Traditionally, there are the 6 sýslur, sýsla means district and although it is only a police district today, it is still commonly understood as a geographical region. In earlier times, each sýsla had its own ting, the so-called várting, cabinet of the Faroe Islands List of Prime Ministers of the Faroe Islands Politics of Denmark List of Danish High Commissioners in the Faroe Islands Prime Minister’s Office
Danish royal family
The Danish royal family consists of the dynastic family of the monarch. All members of the Danish royal family, except Queen Margrethe II, dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are accorded the style of His/Her Royal Highness, while other members of the dynasty are addressed as His/Her Highness. The Queen is styled Her Majesty, the Queen and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, which is a branch of the Royal House of Oldenburg. The Queens children and male-line descendants belong agnatically to the family de Laborde de Monpezat, the Danish royal family enjoys remarkably high approval ratings in Denmark, possibly ranging from somewhere between 82% and 92%. During this time she was still a Princess of Denmark and thus a member of the Danish royal family, in 2005, her former mother-in-law granted her the additional title of grevinde af Frederiksborg, a personal title which would not be forfeited if Alexandra remarried. When she remarried on 3 March 2007, she lost the style of Highness and titular dignity of Princess of Denmark, until 1953 his dynastic male-line descendants remained in Denmarks order succession.
However, no Danish act has revoked usage of the title for these descendants, neither for those living in 1953. There are three members of the Greek royal family who are not known to bear the title of Prince/ss of Denmark with the qualification of His/Her Highness, the Ducal Family of Schleswig-Holstein descends in the legitimate male line from Christian III of Denmark. Danish princes who marry without consent of the Danish monarch lose their dynastic rights, the ex-dynasts are usually accorded the hereditary title Count of Rosenborg. Female descendants were eligible to inherit the throne in the event there were no surviving male dynasts born in the male line. As for the duchies and Lauenburg where the King ruled as duke, these lands adhered to Salic law, the duchies of Schleswig and Lauenburg were joined in personal union with the Crown of Denmark. That meant that the new King of Denmark would not be the new Duke of Schleswig or Duke of Holstein, in 2009, the mode of inheritance of the throne was once more changed, this time into an absolute primogeniture.
This imposed no immediate change on the line of succession as it was then, of the articles of this law, all except Article 21 and Article 25 have since been repealed. However, those who do reside in Denmark or its territories continue to require the prior permission to travel abroad. The wording excludes those whose blood cannot be traced to a Danish monarch, although all other articles of the Kongelov have been repealed by amendments to the Constitution in 1849,1853 and 1953, these two articles have thus far been left intact. 1Princess Benediktes children have no succession rights, since the children continued to be educated in Germany well past the mandatory schooling age, they are deemed to no longer have succession rights. Line of succession to the British throne Line of succession to the Greek throne Line of succession to the Norwegian throne Kongehuset. dk Official site of the Danish Monarchy
Aksel V. Johannesen
Aksel Vilhelmsson Johannesen is a Faroese lawyer and politician for the Social Democratic Party. He is the current prime minister of the Faroe Islands, at the Faroese general election,2008 Aksel Johannesen was the partys 1st suppleant to the Løgting, and sometimes he took seat in the parliament, especially for Andrias Petersen. He became minister of health on 16 July 2009, when John Johannessen declined the position after Hans Pauli Strøm stepped down. He resigned as minister of health and was assigned as minister of finance on 21 February and was at the time elected president of the Social Democratic Party on 5 March 2011. On 6 April the same year, he was appointed as prime minister. His main task as the president of the Social Democratic Party was to make the party rise to its strength again for the upcoming election for the Løgting. On 14 November 2011 the cabinet was renewed and the Social Democratic Party was not a part of the new cabinet, Aksel Johannesen became chairman of the Social Democratic Party on the Løgting.
At the Faroese general election on 1 September 2015, Johannesens party won the election with 25. 1% of the votes, Johannesen himself got 2405 personal votes which was a new Faroese record. He broke the record of Kaj Leo Holm Johannesen from 2011 which was 1967 personal votes, Aksel V. Johannesen played football with his hometown club KÍ Klaksvík, mostly as a forward. Although not always a choice in the best team, he made his contribution, as KÍ won the Faroese League in 1991. Aksel V. Johannesen is a runner, he was national 100 meters champion in 1994. He played volleyball for Mjølnir, the club of Klaksvík and he is educated Master of Law from the University of Copenhagen in 2004, and worked as a lawyer in Tórshavn from 2007 until he became an active politician. He is former president of the club of Klaksvík, Klaksvíkar Ítróttarfelag. Aksel V. Johannesen is the son of Vilhelm Johannesen, a former Faroese politician
The Faroe Islands, spelled the Faeroes, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland,320 kilometres north-northwest of Scotland. Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 49,188 in 2016, the Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have an oceanic climate, wet, cloudy. Despite this island groups northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream, between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters, areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, the police department, the justice department and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy.
The islands have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation, the people of the Faroe Islands compete as national team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær, the morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as the islands of sheep, in Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for island, the modern Faeroese word for island is oyggj. In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled Faeroe, archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 400 and 600 and the second between 600 and 800. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes. He suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia.
A Latin account of a made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language, according to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson, the Norwegian monarchy, a traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí, possibly refers to the Skeggjar Beards, a nickname given to island dwellers