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Politics of the United States Virgin Islands

Politics of the United States Virgin Islands takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic dependency, whereby the Governor is the head of the local government, of a multi-party system. United States Virgin Islands are an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs of the United States Department of the Interior. Executive power is exercised by the local government of the Virgin Islands; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Virgin Islands residents are U. S. citizens but cannot cast electoral votes for the president of the U. S. but they can participate in the presidential nominating processes. Citizens cannot elect voting members of Congress. However, in the U. S. House of Representatives, they are represented by a delegate, who can vote in congressional committees but not in the House itself; such delegates can speak on the U. S. House floor, introduce bills and offer amendments but cannot vote during business as the Committee as the Whole or on final passage of legislation.

The USVI has been allowed to have non-voting representation since 1972. The current Delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the U. S. Virgin Islands is Stacey Plaskett. Virgin Islands residents can vote in all elections if they become a resident of one of the 50 U. S. states. If residents of one of the 50 states become residents of the Virgin Islands, they can no longer vote for President or for voting members of Congress. A federal lawsuit since 2011 in the District Court of the Virgin Islands and now before the Washington, D. C. Circuit Court is pending to provide Virgin Islanders with the fundamental right to be represented in Congress and vote for U. S. President; the federal case is Civil No. 3:11-cv-110, Charles v. U. S. Federal Elections Commission. A similar case was filed in the Superior Court of the Virgin Islands against the local Board of Elections; the cases allege it was racial discrimination present in an all-white and segregated Congress of 1917, the impetus to deny the right to vote to a majority non-white constituency.

The local case is pending a decision. The Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands of 1954 is the current Organic Act defining the government of the United States Virgin Islands, which were acquired by the United States through the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916, it replaced the Organic Act of the Virgin Islands of earlier temporary provisions. The Virgin Islands Elective Governor Act made the Governor an elected office, further amendments in 1984 removed the right to indictment for certain crimes and the jurisdiction of the admiralty courts. There have been several attempts at a constitution; the most recent attempt was the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U. S. Virgin Islands which passed a proposed constitution in May 2009 but was rejected by Congress in June 2010; the governor and the lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms. The Virgin Islands's territorial legislature is the 15-member Legislature of the Virgin Islands; the body is unicameral and comprises seven Senators from the district of Saint Croix, seven Senators from the district of Saint Thomas and Saint John, one Senator at-large.

They are elected for a two-year term to the territorial legislature. There is no limit; the U. S. Virgin Islands has a Supreme Court and a Superior Court. Judges on the District Court are appointed by the President for ten year terms, subject to Senate confirmation, they may serve more than one term. This is a federal court, established in 1936, with jurisdiction over the US Virgin Islands, with diversity jurisdiction and bankruptcy jurisdiction. Appeals of this court's decisions are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. One courthouse is located in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, one is in Christiansted, St. Croix. Judges of the USVI Supreme Court and Superior Court are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the legislative body. There are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U. S. Government, but there are three islands at the second order.

Palermo or Wolfsburg

Palermo or Wolfsburg is a 1980 film by Werner Schroeter. It tells the story of an Italian immigrant. Nicola Zarbo - Nicola Otto Sander - Staatsanwalt Ida Di Benedetto - Giovanna Magdalena Montezuma - Rechtsanwältin Johannes Wacker - Richter Antonio Orlando - Antonio Brigitte Tig - Brigitte Hahn Gisela Hahn - Brigittes Mutter Calogero Arancio - Nicolas Vater Cavaliere Comparato - Großgrundbesitzer Padre Pace - Pfarrer Harry Baer - Hausbestzer Ula Stöckl - Schöffin Tamara Kafka - Zeugin Ines Zamurovic - Dolmetscherin The film shared the 1980 Golden Bear with Heartland at the 30th Berlin International Film Festival. Palermo or Wolfsburg on IMDb

Rubber science

Rubber science is a science fiction term describing a quasi-scientific explanation for an aspect of a science fiction setting. Rubber science explanations are fictional but convincing enough to avoid upsetting the suspension of disbelief. Rubber science is a feature of most genres of science fiction, with the exception of hard science fiction, it is frequently invoked in comic books. The term was coined by Norman Spinrad in an essay entitled "Rubber Sciences", in Reginald Bretnor's anthology The Craft of Science Fiction. Rubber science was Spinrad's term for "pseudo-science... made up by the writer with literary care that it not be discontinuous with the reader's realm of the possible." The term and concept have subsequently been adopted by science fiction writers to describe science based on "speculation, fabrication or invention." For example, Star Trek: Voyager script consultant Andre Bormanis used "the so-called rubber science or the speculative, consistent with reality" when he was unable to find scientific explanations "based in well-established real science".

Some science fiction authors have used the term disparagingly. Bill Ransom associates rubber science with science fiction of the 1940s-1950s, an era marked by "lots of cool gadgets," before "the genre became more character driven" under the influence of writers such as Frank Herbert and Samuel Delaney, focusing on humans rather than technology solving dilemmas. Lucius Shepard, responding to a negative review by George Turner, decried the suggestion that he "haul a gob of rubber science out of the vat in order to justify and explain physics". Ann C. Crispin considered Star Trek's rubber science to be a forgivable flaw. Reviewers have used the term to praise deft or plausible scientific explanations, to criticise underdeveloped or distracting worldbuilding. Technobabble

Missouri Meerschaum

The Missouri Meerschaum Company is a tobacco smoking pipe manufacturer located in Washington, Missouri. It is the world's largest manufacturer of corncob pipes; the company was founded in 1869 when Dutch-American woodworker Henry Tibbe began producing corncob pipes and selling them in his shop. Tibbes likened the pipes to meerschaum pipes and thus named them "Missouri Meerschaum." In 1878 Tibbe patented his method of fireproofing the pipes by applying a plaster-like substance to the outside of the cob. In 1883 Tibbe and his son Anton applied for a U. S. Patent to trademark their Missouri Meerschaum pipe. In 1907 H. Tibbe & Son Co. became the Missouri Meerschaum Company. The Missouri Meerschaum Company's factory produces 3,500 pipes per day and ships these pipes to every U. S. state and several foreign countries. Official Site Tibbe-Cuthbertson Family, Papers, 1849-1975, State Historical Society of Missouri blog with history and information about Missouri Meerschaum corn cob pipes

Super Bowl IX

Super Bowl IX was an American football game played between the American Football Conference champion Pittsburgh Steelers and the National Football Conference champion Minnesota Vikings to decide the National Football League champion for the 1974 season. The game was played on January 1975, at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans, Louisiana; the Steelers defeated the Vikings by the score of 16–6 to win their first Super Bowl championship. This game matched two of the NFL's best defenses and two future Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterbacks. Led by quarterback Terry Bradshaw and the Steel Curtain defense, the Steelers advanced to their first Super Bowl after posting a 10–3–1 regular season record and playoff victories over the Buffalo Bills and the Oakland Raiders; the Vikings were led by the Purple People Eaters defense. The first half of Super Bowl IX was a defensive struggle, with the lone score being the first safety in Super Bowl history when Tarkenton was downed in his own end zone; the Steelers recovered a fumble on the second half kickoff, scored on fullback Franco Harris's 9-yard run.

The Vikings cut the score, 9–6, early in the fourth quarter by recovering a blocked punt in Pittsburgh's end zone for a touchdown, but the Steelers drove 66 yards on their ensuing possession to score on Larry Brown's 4-yard touchdown reception to put the game out of reach. In total, the Steelers limited the Vikings to Super Bowl record lows of nine first downs, 119 total offensive yards, 17 rushing yards, no offensive scores; the Steelers accomplished this despite losing starting linebackers Andy Russell and Jack Lambert, who were injured and replaced by Ed Bradley and Loren Toews for most of the second half. On the other hand, Pittsburgh had 333 yards of total offense. Harris, who ran for a Super Bowl record 158 yards and a touchdown, was named the Super Bowl's Most Valuable Player; the NFL awarded Super Bowl IX to New Orleans on April 3, 1973, at the owners meetings held in Scottsdale, Arizona. This was the third time that the Super Bowl was played in New Orleans, after Super Bowls IV and VI.

Super Bowl IX was planned to be held at the Louisiana Superdome. However, construction delays at the Superdome forced the league to move the game to Tulane Stadium, where the city's previous two Super Bowls were held; this ended up being the last professional American football game played at Tulane Stadium. Pittsburgh advanced to their first Super Bowl and were playing for a league championship for the first time in team history, their 73-year-old owner Art Rooney founded the Steelers as a 1933 NFL expansion team, but suffered through losing seasons for most of its 42-year history and had never made it to an NFL championship game or a Super Bowl. But in 1969, Rooney hired Chuck Noll to be the team's head coach and its fortunes started to turn following a disastrous 1–13 first year under the future Hall of Fame coach. Noll rebuilt the Steelers through the NFL draft, selecting defensive tackle Joe Greene and defensive end L. C. Greenwood in his first season as head coach. In 1970, Noll drafted cornerback Mel Blount.

In 1971, linebacker Jack Ham, defensive tackle Ernie Holmes, defensive end Dwight White, safety Mike Wagner were selected by the team. Fullback Franco Harris was drafted in 1972, and in 1974, the Steelers picked linebacker Jack Lambert, center Mike Webster and wide receivers Lynn Swann and John Stallworth, signed safety Donnie Shell as a free agent. Bradshaw, Swann and Harris ended up being Hall of Fame players on offense, while the others formed the core nucleus of their "Steel Curtain" defense, including future Hall of Famers Greene, Blount and Shell, but en route to Super Bowl IX, the Steelers had started the regular season as Bradshaw and Joe Gilliam fought to be the team's starting quarterback. Gilliam had started for the first four games of the season, but Noll made Bradshaw the starter. Although Bradshaw ended up completing only 67 out of 148 passes for 785 yards, 7 touchdowns, 8 interceptions, he helped lead the team to a 10–3–1 regular season record; the Steelers main offensive weapon, was running the ball.

Harris rushed for 1,006 yards and five touchdowns, while catching 23 passes for 200 yards and another touchdown. Running backs Rocky Bleier, Preston Pearson, Steve Davis made important contributions, gaining a combined total of 936 yards and eight touchdowns. Receiver Lynn Swann returned 41 punts for league leading a touchdown, but the Steelers' main strength during the season was their staunch "Steel Curtain" defense, which led the league with the fewest total yards allowed and the fewest passing yards allowed. Greene won the NFL Defensive Player of the Year Award for the second time in the previous three seasons, he and L. C. Greenwood were named to the Pro Bowl. Both of the team's outside linebackers and Andy Russell, had been selected to play in the Pro Bowl, while Lambert had two interceptions for 19 yards in his rookie year. In the defensive backfield, Blount and Glen Edwards made a strong impact against opposing passing plays; the Vikings came into the season trying to redeem themselves after a one sided Super Bowl VIII loss after which they became the first team to lose two Super Bowls.

Minnesota's powerf

Amédée Donatien Doublemard

The sculptor and medalist Amédée Donatien Doublemard was born at Beaurain in Nord and was taught by Francisque Duret. In 1842, he enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts of Paris and began exhibiting his work at the Paris Salon in 1844, he died in Paris on 20 July 1900. In 1855 he shared the Prix de Rome with Henri Chapu; this entitled him to study at Rome. On his return to Paris, he was kept busy creating busts of the famous of the period, he completed several important public works such as his La France en deuil déposant une couronne sur la tombe des soldats morts pour sa défense, le 19 janvier 1871 for Saint-Quentin, his monument honouring Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey in Paris and his monument to Camille Desmoulins in Guise in the Aisne. He was named a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 1877 and received a variety of prizes and medals including a silver medal at the 1889 Exposition universelle. Félix Charpentier was a pupil of his, he bequeathed to the Institute his collection of art to assist students preparing to compete for the Prix de Rome.

French version Wikipedia Details of statues/monuments in Paris that suffered destruction