Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin and of the Piedmont region, was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865; the city is located on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 878,074 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, churches, opera houses, parks, theatres, libraries and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.
The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, the first capital of the unified Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour; the city hosts some of Italy's best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry and trade, is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.
With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F. C. and Torino F. C. the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat and Alfa Romeo, as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres; the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history, it is believed that a Roman colony was established in 9 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum. Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.
In the 1st century BC, the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama; the Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but conquered again by the Lombards and the Franks of Charlemagne; the Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control.
While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century; the University of Turin was founded during this period. Emmanuel Philibert known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquir
Savona is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, railway workshops, engineering shops, a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys.'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus. Inhabited in ancient times by Ligures tribes, it came under Roman influence in c. 180 BC, after the Punic wars in which the city had been allied to Carthage. At the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it passed under Lombard rule in 641 AD after a short period as an Ostrogoth and Byzantine possession, it recovered as county seat in the Carolingian Empire.
In the 10th century its bishops were counts of Savona, but the countship passed to the marquesses of Montferrat and afterwards to the marquesses Del Vasto. After a long struggle against the Saracens, Savona acquired independence in the 11th century, becoming a free municipality allied with the Emperor. Savona was the center of religious culture due to the work of two important monasteries: Dominican and Franciscan. Subsequently, it fought against Genoa before being definitively conquered in 1528; the Genoese buried the port. It shared the fortunes of the Republic of Genoa until Napoleonic times. In 1809 the city received prisoner of Napoleon Bonaparte, for a few years. Between April and mid-May 1800, Austrian forces besieged the city while a small British naval force maintained a blockade. Subsequently, Savona was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, it became part of unified Italy. The Cattedrale dell'Assunta, built after Genoese demolition of the old cathedral, it kept the relics of Saint Valentine.
The Cappella Sistina, adjacent to the Cathedral and built 1480-1483, it containing the Mausoleum erected by the Della Rovere Pope Sixtus IV to honor his parents, Leonardo Della Rovere and Luchina Monleone. The construction was commissioned by his brother Michele; the chapel is architecturally similar to the chapel dedicated to the Cardinal Pietro Riario in the Basilica of the Santi Apostoli, Rome. After years of deterioration, in 1765-1767 a reconstruction was ordered by the Genovese Doge Francesco Maria Della Rovere; this updated the chapel in a Rococo style, with ceiling painted by Paolo Gerolamo Brusco. The Cathedral has a noteworthy 16th-century carved wooden choir seats; the church of Nostra Signora di Castello has a large altarpiece by Vincenzo Foppa and Ludovico Brea painted in 1490. The Sanctuary of Nostra Signora della Misericordia; the Torre Leon Pancaldo, built in the 14th century and known as "Torretta", is the symbol of the town. The Torre del Brandale known as Campanassa and towers Corsi and Riario.
The Priamar fortress, built by the Genoese in 1542 after their conquest of Savona, on the area of the old cathedral and old city and used as a prison and military priso. In 1830-1831 Giuseppe Mazzini was imprisoned in the fortress and he "dreams" the "Giovine Italia". Inside the fortress there is the Museum Centre of Priamar; the Palazzo Della Rovere, built by Cardinal Giulio della Rovere and designed by Giuliano da Sangallo as a university. The Palazzo Gavotti, built in the 15th century. Inside the palace there is the Art Museum of Palazzo Gavotti that contains the Pinacoteca of Savona, the artwork of Fondazione Museo di Arte Contemporanea Milena Milani in memoria di Carlo Cardazzo and the new Ceramic Museum; the Palazzo Delle Piane, the most important building in liberty style of Savona. In neighbourhood of Savona remains a house documented as property of Domenico Colombo, father of Christopher Columbus, where they lived for many years; the town is situated 40 kilometres west of Genoa and circa 150 km of Nice, in France, on the western Italian Riviera, between the Ligurian Sea and the Ligurian Alps.
Savona has a Mediterranean climate. The average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 12 °C at night. In the coldest months: January and December, the average temperature is 11 °C during the day and 5 °C at night. In the warmest month – July and August – the average temperature is 28 °C during the day and 20 °C at night. A typical summer season lasts about 4 to 6 months, from May/June to September/October; the daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 7 °C between high and low temperatures. Rain occurs in autumn, the summers being dry. Sunshine hours total above 2,097 per year, from an average 4 hours of sunshine duration per day in winter to average 9 hours in summer. Savona sees snow once or twice per year. Paolo Boselli, Prime Minister of Italy during World War I Gianni Baget Bozzo and politician Susanna Bonfiglio, basketball player Giacomo Boselli, Rococo-period sculptor of c
The Tanaro, known as Tanarus in ancient times and Tane or Tani in piedmontese language, is a 276-kilometre long river in northwestern Italy. The river begins in the Ligurian Alps, near the border with France, is the most significant right-side tributary to the Po in terms of length, size of drainage basin, discharge; the Tanaro proper begins in Liguria at the confluence of two small streams, the sources of which are in Piedmont: the Tanarello and the Negrone. The main source of the Tanarello is on the slopes of Monte Saccarello above Monesi, a village belonging to the commune of Triora; this mountain straddles the French département of Alpes-Maritimes, the Piedmontese province of Cuneo and the Ligurian province of Imperia and marks the juncture of the watersheds between three drainage basins: that of the Tanaro itself. The sources of the Negrone are some 10 kilometres to the north, south of Punta Marguareis and close to the French border; the Tanaro flows past the towns Ceva, Alba and Alessandria before entering the Po near Bassignana in the Province of Alessandria.
At its confluence with Po, it is longer by about 50 kilometres than the upper Po, a case similar to the famous Missouri tributary being longer than Mississippi in the United States. The main tributaries to the Tanaro are the Stura di Demonte and the Borbore from the left and the Bormida and the Belbo from the right; the flow is subject to a great deal of seasonal variation. Although the river has an Alpine origin, unique among the Po’s right-side tributaries, the Ligurian Alps are of an insufficient elevation and too close to the sea to allow for the formation of snow fields or glaciers large enough to provide a steady source of water during the summer. Furthermore, the Alpine zone forms only a part of the basin drained by the Tanaro; the seasonal regime of the river is therefore more typical of an Apennine stream, with a maximum discharge that can reach 1,700 cubic metres per second, in spring and autumn and a low rate of flow in the summer. The river is prone to flooding. During the two hundred-year period between 1801 and 2001, sections of the Tanaro basin were affected by floods on 136 occasions, the most devastating being those in November 1994, when the whole of the river valley was affected by severe flooding the town of Alessandria.
The left bank of the Tanaro River near Asti is the scene of the Battle of Pollentia on April 6, 402. The article draws on material from related articles in the Italian and German Wikipedias, as retrieved 14 June 2006 SUL MONTE SACCARELLO:: Una camminata alla scoperta delle sorgenti del Tanaro Luino, F.. "Chapter 49: Flooding Vulnerability of a Town in the Tanaro Basin: The Case of Ceva". In V. R. Thorndycraft. C. Llasat. Palaeofloods, Historical Floods and Climatic Variability: Applications in Flood Risk Assessment. Retrieved 2006-06-18. Luino F.: “The flood and landslide event of November 4–6, 1994 in Piedmont Region: causes and related effects in Tanaro Valley”. XXII General Assembly dell’European Geophysical Society, Vienna. 21–25 April 1997. Ed. Elsevier Science Ltd, Vol. 24, N. 2, p. 123-129
Bra is a town and comune in the province of Cuneo in the northwest Italian region of Piedmont. It is situated 50 kilometres southeast of Turin and 50 km northeast of Cuneo in the area known as Roero. Bra is the birthplace of the feminist philosopher Adriana Cavarero, politician Emma Bonino, of the activist Carlo Petrini, founder of the Slow Food movement and of the world’s first University of Gastronomic Sciences, whose main campus is located within Bra’s municipal boundaries at Pollenzo. Bra is home to "Cheese," a biennial international festival organised by Slow Food which features the makers of artisanal cheeses from across the world. In 1997 the event attracted some 150,000 visitors. Among the structures in town is the intricately domed church of Santa Chiara by the late-Baroque architect, Bernardo Antonio Vittone. Jeremy Clarkson and Richard Hammond stayed the night in Bra whilst filming Top Gear - The Perfect Road Trip. Spreitenbach, Switzerland Weil der Stadt, Germany San Sosti, Italy Corral de Bustos, Argentina
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes; the word is used in a broad sense to encompass a number of such types of places of interment or burial, including: Architectural shrines – in Christianity, an architectural shrine above a saint's first place of burial, as opposed to a similar shrine on which stands a reliquary or feretory into which the saint's remains have been transferred Burial vault – a stone or brick-lined underground space for multiple burials vaulted privately owned for specific family groups. Crypts – though not always, for interment, its central feature is a single, prominent pillar or column made of stone. Rock-cut tomb – a form widespread in the ancient world, in which the tomb is not built but carved out of the rock and can be a free-standing building but is more a cave, which may be extensive and may or may not have an elaborate facade. Sarcophagus – a stone container for a body or coffin decorated and part of a monument.
Sepulchre – a cavernous rock-cut space for interment in the Jewish or Christian faiths. Samadhi – in India a tomb for a deceased saint that has a larger building over it as a shrine Other forms of archaeological "tombs", such as ship burials Tumulus – A mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgräber or kurgans', can be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, might be a tumulus. A long barrow is a long tumulus for numbers of burials; as indicated, tombs are located in or under religious buildings, such as churches, or in cemeteries or churchyards. However, they may be found in catacombs, on private land or, in the case of early or pre-historic tombs, in what is today open landscape; the Daisen Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, is the largest in the world by area. However, the Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt is the largest by volume. Cadaver tomb Church monument Death in Norse paganism English church monuments Funerary art Grave Ossuary Necropolis List of extant papal tombs List of mausolea List of non-extant papal tombs List of tombs and mausoleums Ziyarat - "visitation".
Notable examples: Dartmoor kistvaens Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Great Pyramids Taj Mahal Tomb of Alexander the Great Tomb of Genghis Khan Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Catacombs of Paris Catacombs of Rome The Panthéon Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which contains the empty tomb of Jesus, where he was buried and resurrected. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier United Kingdom: The Unknown Warrior France: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile United States: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery Iraq: Monument to the Unknown Soldier Russia: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Alexander Garden, Moscow
Pollença is a town and municipality situated in the northern part of the island of Majorca, near Cap de Formentor and Alcúdia. It lies inland, about 6 km west of Port de Pollença; the name "Pollença" comes from the name of the Roman settlement of "Pollentia," the excavated remains of which lie several kilometers away, at the modern municipality of Alcúdia. It was founded by the Catalans in the 13th century some 6 km from the coast in an effort to avoid pirate attacks. Most houses were built in the 17th and 18th centuries and many streets are narrow and compact, a legacy from the medieval era; the central square, called Plaça Major, has numerous outdoor cafés and is dominated by a large 13th-century church Esglèsia de Nostra Senyora dels Àngels, built by the Knights Templar. One of the town's most distinctive features is the 365-step stairway north of the square. On Good Friday this is the setting for the most dramatic parade of the year. First, on the road winding up the back of the hill, there is a reenactment of the Stations of the Cross.
This is followed by a mock crucifixion on top of the hill after which the figure of Christ is ceremonially removed from the Cross. There is a sombre, torchlit parading of the body of Christ through the town led by hundreds of people in cloaks and pointed hats and done in total silence save for the slow beating of a drum; the town has a 19th-century bridge of Romanesque design that crosses a stream to the north of town. Most visited sights in Pollença town: Plaça Mayor, Plaça Vella, Can Llobera, Joan March Gardens and Roman Bridge. Cala Figuera Cala Murta Cala Formentor Cala Sant Vicenç Cala Boquer Puerto Pollença Beach Llenaire Beach Can Cuarassa Beach Pollença travel guide from Wikivoyage SOM POLLENÇA, tourist municipality The Roman City of Pollentia Pollensa Town