Chinese clothing is ancient and modern as it has varied by region and time, is recorded by the artifacts and arts of Chinese culture. Chinese clothing has been shaped through its dynastic traditions as well as foreign influences. Chinese clothing showcases the traditional fashion sensibilities of Chinese culture traditions and forms one of the major cultural facets of Chinese civilization. Traditional Han clothing comprises all traditional clothing classifications of the Han Chinese with a recorded history of more than three millennia until the end of the Ming Dynasty. Depending on one's status in society, each social class had a different sense of fashion in ancient China. Most Chinese men wore Chinese black cotton shoes, but wealthy higher class people would wear tough black leather shoes for formal occasions. Rich and wealthy men would wear bright, beautiful silk shoes sometimes having leather on the inside. Women would wear silk shoes, with certain wealthy women practicing bound feet wearing coated Lotus shoes as a status symbol until in the early 20th century.
Men's shoes were less elaborate than women's. Chinese civil or military officials used a variety of codes to show their position; the most recognized is the Mandarin rank badge. Another way to show social standing and civil rank was the use of colorful hat knobs fixed on the top of their hats; the specific hat knob on one's hat determined one's rank,as there were twelve types of hat knobs representing the nine distinctive ranks of the civil or military position. Variations existed for Ming Dynasty official head wear. In the Qing Dynasty different patterns of robes represented different ranks; the rise of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in many ways represented a new clothing styles were required to be worn by all noblemen and officials. This style became widespread among the commoners. A new style of dress, called tangzhuang, included the changshan worn by men and the qipao worn by women. Manchu official headwear differed from the Ming version, but the Qing continued to use the Mandarin square, it was around this time.
The abolition of imperial China in 1912 had an immediate effect on dress and customs. The Han Chinese population cut off their queues they had been forced to grow in submission to the overthrown Qing Dynasty. Sun Yat-sen popularised a new style of men's wear, featuring jacket and trousers instead of the robes worn previously. Adapted from Japanese student wear, this style of dress became known as the Zhongshan suit. For women, a transformation of the traditional qipao resulted in a slender form-fitting dress with a high cut; this new "cheongsam" contrasted with the traditional qipao but has replaced it in modern fashion. In the early republican period, the traditional dudou underbodice was abandoned in favor of western-style corsets and bras. Early in the People's Republic, Mao Zedong would inspire Chinese fashion with his own variant of the Zhongshan suit, which would be known to the west as Mao suit. Meanwhile, Sun Yat-sen's widow, Soong Ching-ling, popularized the cheongsam as the standard female dress.
At the same time, old practices such as footbinding, viewed as backwards and unmodern by both the Chinese as well as Westerners, were forbidden. Around the Destruction of the "Four Olds" period in 1964 anything seen as part of Traditional Chinese culture would lead to problems with the Communist Red Guards. Items that attracted dangerous attention if caught in the public included jeans, high heels, Western-style coats, jewelry and long hair; these items were regarded as symbols of bourgeois lifestyle. Citizens had to suffer serious consequences such as torture or beatings by the guards. A number of these items were thrown into the streets to embarrass the citizens. Hong Kong clothing brand Shanghai Tang's design concept is inspired by historical Chinese clothing, it set out to rejuvenate Chinese fashion of the 1920s and 30s, in bright colors and with a modern twist. Other Chinese luxury brands include NE Tiger, Guo Pei, Laurence Xu. In the year 2000, dudou-inspired blouses appeared in the summer collections of Versace and Miu Miu, leading to its adoption within China as a revealing form of outerwear.
For the 2012 Hong Kong Sevens tournament, sportswear brand Kukri Sports teamed up with Hong Kong lifestyle retail store G. O. D. to produce merchandising, which included traditional Chinese jackets and Cheongsam-inspired ladies polo shirts. In recent years, renewed interest in traditional Chinese culture has led to a movement in China advocating for the revival of ancient Han Chinese clothing. However, some scholars' research mention that the modern definition of "Hanfu", in fact published on the Baidu Baike website and other websites in china, was an empty concept created by internet user. With many of these clothing changes red was a popular colour found on garments because of its beliefs that it brings good luck. Therefore, people would have a lot of red on their clothes. Chinese patchwork Hanfu National costume Watt, James C. Y.. When silk was gold: Central Asian and Chinese textiles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870998250. Jian, Li. Forbidden City: Imperial Treasures from the Palace Museum, Beijing.
Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. ISBN 978-1-934351-06-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Powerhousemuseum Traditional Chinese Clothing
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines that referred to a person of combined European and Indigenous American descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system, in use during the Spanish Empire's control of its American and Asian colonies. Nowadays though in Spanish America, mestizo has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry and with the term Indian being reserved for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, tribal affiliation, etc. Today, the vast majority of Spanish-speaking Latin Americans are regarded as mestizos; the term mestizaje – taking as its root mestizo or mixed – is the Spanish word for miscegenation, the general process of mixing ancestries. To avoid confusion with the original usage of the term mestizo, mixed people started to be referred to collectively as castas.
In some Latin American countries, such as Mexico, the concept of the mestizo became central to the formation of a new independent identity, neither wholly Spanish nor wholly indigenous, the word mestizo acquired its current meaning, it being used by the government to refer to all Mexicans who do not speak indigenous languages, including people of complete European or indigenous descent as well as Asians and Africans. In colonial Venezuela, pardo was more used instead of mestizo. Pardo means being mixed without specifying which mixture. In the Spanish system of racial hierarchy, the sistema de castas, mestizos/pardos, who formed the majority, had fewer rights than the minority elite European-born persons called peninsulares, the minority white colonial-born whites criollo, but more rights than the now-minority indio, negro and zambo populations; the Portuguese cognate, mestiço referred to any mixture of Portuguese and local populations in the Portuguese colonies. In colonial Brazil most of the non-slave population was mestiço de indio, i.e. mixed white and native Brazilian.
There was no descent-based casta system, children of upper class white landlord males and female slaves would enjoy privileges higher than the ones given to the lower classes, such as formal education, though such cases were not so common and they tended to not inherit property given to the children of free women, who tended to be legitimate offspring in cases of concubinage. In Portuguese India the mixed population was known as mestiços and the local Indian Christians as indiacatos. In the Philippines, a colony of Spain, the term mestizo came to refer to a Filipino with any foreign ancestry white, shortened as Tisoy. In Indonesia, the term mestizo refers to ethnicity, a mixture of Europeans and native Indonesians, they are called as Indo people. In Canada, the Métis people is a distinct community composed of the descendants of Europeans involved in the fur trade and North American Indigenous peoples of what is now Western Canada. In Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of East Asian ancestry.
The Spanish word mestizo is from Latin mixticius, meaning mixed. Its usage has been documented as early as 1275, to refer to the offspring of an Egyptian and a Semite; this term was first documented in English in 1582. In the United States and other English-speaking countries and cultures, mestizo, as a loanword from Spanish, is used to mean a non-white of mixed European and American Indian descent generally with connection to a Latin American culture or of Latin American descent, a concept much stricter than that found in Romance languages, it is related to the particular racial identity of historical non-white Amerindian-descended Hispanic and Latino American communities in an American context. In English-speaking Canada, Canadian Métis, as a loanword from French, refers to persons of mixed French and Indigenous ancestry. French-speaking Canadians, when using the word métis, are referring to Canadian Métis ethnicity, all persons of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry, rather than the broader concept of mixed-race people in general, present in all other French-speaking countries, as would speakers of Spanish.
In the United States, Métis Americans and Mestizo Americans are two distinct racial and ethno-racial identities, as reflected in the use of French and Spanish loanwords, respectively. In the Philippines, the word mestizo refers to a Filipino with combined Indigenous and European ancestry, but it will be used for a Filipino with apparent Chinese ancestry, who will be referred to as'chinito'; the latter was listed as a "mestizo de sangley" in birth records of the 19th century, with'sangley' as a reference to the Hokkienese word for business,'seng-li'. In the Portuguese-speaking world, the contemporary sense has been the closest to the historical usage from the Middle Ages, because of important linguistic differences, so that mestiço is separated altoget
The pāreu or pareo is the Cook Islands and Tahitian word for a wraparound skirt. It was used only to refer to women's skirts, as men wore a loincloth, called a maro. Nowadays the term is applied to any piece of cloth worn wrapped around the body, worn by males or females, it is related to the Malay sarong, Sāmoan lavalava, Tongan tupenu and other such garments of the Pacific Islands such as the islands of Hawaiʻi, Marquesas and Fiji. In contemporary Tahitian the right word is pāreu, with the pronunciation of the word with a long a and the e and u pronounced separately, rather than slurred into a diphthong, it is not clear. It might be an early explorers' misinterpretation, but both terms were used in the 19th century. Nowadays, pareo can be considered as the English-language form of the word, much less subject to mispronunciation; the Tahitian pāreu are among the most bright of the Pacific. Flower patterns, the hibiscus flowers in particular, or traditional tapa patterns, were printed in bright colours on a cotton sheet of about 90 or 120 cm wide and 180 cm long.
Nowadays they are made in Tahiti itself and dye painting with varying colours is popular as well. A pāreu can be worn in many ways. Women will wrap it around their upper body, covering it from breasts to above the knees. Either they rely on their breasts for it not to slide down, or they may wrap a corner around their shoulder or their neck. In more traditional surroundings the covering of the upper body is less important, but the covering of the thighs is, it is worn as a longer skirt. Men wear it as a short skirt, or may make shorts out of it when fishing or working in the bush where freedom of movement of the legs is needed, but during quiet, cooler nights at home, they may wear it as a long skirt too. The ends of the pāreu are tied in a knot to keep it in place. Tropic Monoi "pareo hand painting"
Daenggi is a traditional Korean ribbon made of cloth to tie and to decorate braided hair. According to the History of Northern Dynasties, maidens of Baekje bound their hair at the back and braided it, while a married women braided her hair into two plaits and secured them to the crown of her head. There are several types of daenggi according to purpose and social status. Tteoguji daenggi, maegae daenggi, doturak daenggi, deurim daenggi are used for ceremonial purpose. While jebiburi daenggi, doturank daenggi, jjok daenggi, malttuk daenggi; the daenggi are used for "gungnyeo" or court ladies during the Joseon Dynasty were negadak daenggi, patip daenggi. Gache Hanbok Hwarot List of Korean clothing
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, crocheting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns designed for needlework; the word yarn comes from Middle English, from the Old English gearn, akin to Old High German's garn yarn, Greek's chordē string, Sanskrit's hira band. Yarn can be made from a number of synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though. There are two main types of yarn: spun and filament; the most common plant fiber is cotton, spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth. Cotton and polyester are the most spun fibers in the world. Cotton is grown throughout the world. After harvesting it is prepared for yarn spinning. Polyester is extruded from polymers derived from natural oil. Synthetic fibers are extruded in continuous strands of gel-state materials.
These strands are drawn and cured to obtain properties desirable for processing. Synthetic fibers come in three basic forms: staple and filament. Staple is cut fibers sold in lengths up to 120mm. Tow is a continuous "rope" of fibers consisting of many filaments loosely joined side-to-side. Filament is a continuous strand consisting of anything from 1 filament to many. Synthetic fiber is most measured in a weight per linear measurement basis, along with cut length. Denier and Dtex are the most common weight to length measures. Cut-length only applies to staple fiber. Filament extrusion is sometimes referred to as "spinning" but most people equate spinning with spun yarn production; the most spun animal fiber is wool harvested from sheep. For hand knitting and hobby knitting, thick and acrylic yarns are used. Other animal fibers used include alpaca, mohair, llama and silk. More yarn may be spun from camel, possum, musk ox, dog, rabbit, or buffalo hair, turkey or ostrich feathers. Natural fibers such as these have the advantage of being elastic and breathable, while trapping a great deal of air, making for a warm fabric.
Other natural fibers that can be used for yarn include cotton. These tend to be much less elastic, retain less warmth than the animal-hair yarns, though they can be stronger in some cases; the finished product will look rather different from the woolen yarns. Other plant fibers which can be spun include bamboo, corn and soy fiber. T-shirt yarn is a yarn made directly from t-shirts, the fiber composition is determined by the material the t-shirt is made from. In general, natural fibers tend to require more careful handling than synthetics because they can shrink, stain, fade, wrinkle, or be eaten by moths more unless special treatments such as mercerization or superwashing are performed to strengthen, fix color, or otherwise enhance the fiber's own properties. Protein yarns may be irritating to some people, causing contact dermatitis, wheezing, or other reactions. Plant fibers tend to be better tolerated by people with sensitivities to the protein yarns, allergists may suggest using them or synthetics instead to prevent symptoms.
Some people find that they can tolerate organically grown and processed versions of protein fibers because organic processing standards preclude the use of chemicals that may irritate the skin. When natural hair-type fibers are burned, they tend to have a smell of burnt hair. Cotton and viscose yarns burn as a wick. Synthetic yarns tend to melt though some synthetics are inherently flame-retardant. Noting how an unidentified fiber strand burns and smells can assist in determining if it is natural or synthetic, what the fiber content is. Both synthetic and natural yarns can pill. Pilling is a function of fiber content, spinning method, contiguous staple length, fabric construction. Single ply yarns or using fibers like merino wool are known to pill more due to the fact that in the former, the single ply is not tight enough to securely retain all the fibers under abrasion, the merino wool's short staple length allows the ends of the fibers to pop out of the twist more easily. Yarns combining synthetic and natural fibers inherit the properties of each parent, according to the proportional composition.
Synthetics are added to lower cost, increase durability, add unusual color or visual effects, provide machine washability and stain resistance, reduce heat retention or lighten garment weight. Spun yarn is made by twisting staple fibres together to make a cohesive thread, or "single." Twisting fibres into yarn in the process called spinning can be dated back to the Upper Paleolithic, yarn spinning was one of the first processes to be industrialized. Spun yarns may be a blend of various types. Combining synthetic fibres with natural fibres is common; the most used blends are cotton-polyester and wool-acrylic fibre blends. Blends of different natural fibres are common too with more expensive fibres such as alpaca and cashmere. Yarn is selected for different textiles based on the characteristics of the yarn fibres, such as warmth, light weight, durability (nylo
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, from hide and fur clothing from bison, angora from rabbits, other types of wool from camelids. Wool consists of protein together with a few percent lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles; these follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow. Follicles can be classed as either secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber: kemp, medullated fibers, true wool fibers. Secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp and elasticity. Kemp fibers are coarse and shed out. Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together.
Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a high specific thermal resistance, so it impedes heat transfer in general; this effect has benefited desert peoples, as Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation. Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair/fur: it is crimped and elastic; the amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp; the relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning, felting, or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products, including the famous tweed cloth of Scotland.
Wool fibers absorb moisture, but are not hollow. Wool can absorb one-third of its own weight in water. Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics, it is a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than some synthetic fibers, it has a lower rate of flame spread, a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, does not melt or drip. Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is specified for garments for firefighters and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire. Wool causes an allergic reaction in some people. Sheep shearing is the process. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece, broken and locks; the quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified person, called a wool classer, groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner.
In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, staple length, staple strength, sometimes color and comfort factor. Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as the sheep's dead skin and sweat residue, also contains pesticides and vegetable matter from the animal's environment. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali in specialized equipment. In north west England, special potash pits were constructed to produce potash used in the manufacture of a soft soap for scouring locally produced white wool. In commercial wool, vegetable matter is removed by chemical carbonization. In less-processed wools, vegetable matter may be removed by hand and some of the lanolin left intact through the use of gentler detergents.
This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is used in cosmetic products, such as hand creams. Raw wool has many impurities; the sheep's body yields many types of wool with differing strengths, length of staple and impurities. The raw wool is processed into'top'.'Worsted top' requires strong straight and parallel fibres. The quality of wool is determined by its fiber diameter, yield and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining price. Merino wool is 3–5 inches in length and is fine; the finest and most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is more coarse, has fibers 1.5 to 6 in in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed whil