Phlegm is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals. Its definition is limited to the mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal passages, that, expelled by coughing. Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of glycoproteins, immunoglobulins and other substances, its composition varies depending on climate and state of the immune system. Its color can vary from transparent to pale or dark yellow and green, from light to dark brown, to dark grey depending on the constituents. Contrary to popular misconception and misuse and phlegm are not always the same. Mucus is a normal protective layering around the airway, nasal turbinate, urogenital tract. Mucus is an adhesive viscoelastic gel produced in the airway by submucosal glands and goblet cells and is principally water, it contains high-molecular weight mucous glycoproteins that form linear polymers. Phlegm is more related to disease than is mucus and can be troublesome for the individual to excrete from the body.
Phlegm is a juicy secretion in the airway during inflammation. Phlegm contains mucus with virus, other debris, sloughed-off inflammatory cells. Once phlegm has been expectorated by a cough it becomes sputum. There are multiple factors that can contribute to an excess of phlegm in the larynx. Vocal abuse: Vocal abuse is the misuse or overuse of the voice in an unhealthy fashion such as clearing the throat, screaming, talking loudly, or singing incorrectly. Clearing the throat: Clearing the throat removes or loosens phlegm but the vocal cords hit together causing inflammation and therefore more phlegm. Yelling/screaming: Yelling and screaming both cause the vocal cords to hit against each other causing inflammation and phlegm. Nodules: Excessive yelling and incorrect singing as well as other vocal abusive habits can cause vocal nodules. See vocal fold nodule for more information on nodules. Smoking: Smoke is hot, polluted air which dries out the vocal cords. With each breath in of smoke, the larynx is polluted with toxins that inhibit it from rehydrating for about 3 hours.
The vocal cords need a fair amount of lubrication and swell from inflammation when they do not have enough of it. When the vocal folds swell and are inflamed, phlegm is created to attempt to ease the dryness. Experiment on smoking correlations: In 2002, an experiment was done and published by the American College of Chest Physicians to find if there was a correlation of smokers with coughing and phlegm. In the study, 117 participants were studied, a mix of current smokers, ex-smokers, non-smokers, a positive control of participants with a disease, COPD At the end of the experiment, experimenters found that there was a high correlation between phlegm and cough with smoking of 0.49 Illness: During illness like the flu and pneumonia, phlegm becomes more excessive as an attempt to get rid of the bacteria or viral particles within the body. A major illness associated with excess phlegm is acute bronchitis. A major symptom of acute bronchitis is an excess amount of phlegm and is caused by a viral infection, only bacterial infections, which are rare, are to be treated with an antibiotic.
Hay fever, asthma: In hay fever and asthma, inner lining in bronchioles become inflamed and create an excess amount of phlegm that can clog up air pathways. Air pollution: In studies of children, air pollutants have been found to increase phlegm by drying out and irritating parts of the throat. Humourism is an ancient theory that the human body is filled with four basic substances, called the four humours, which are held in balance when a person is healthy, it is related to the ancient theory of the four elements and states that all diseases and disabilities result from an excess or deficit in black bile, yellow bile and blood. Hippocrates, an ancient Greek medical doctor, is credited for this theory, about 400 BC, it influenced medical thinking for more than 2,000 years, until discredited in the 1800s. Phlegm was thought to be associated with apathetic behaviour; this adjective always refers to behaviour, is pronounced differently, giving full weight to the "g": not /ˈflɛmatɪk/ but /flɛgˈmatɪk/.
To have "phlegm" traditionally meant to have stamina and to be unswayed by emotion. Sir William Osler’s 1889 Aequanimitas discusses the imperturbability or calmness in a storm required of physicians. "'Imperturbability means coolness and presence of mind under all circumstances, calmness amid storm, clearness of judgment in moments of grave peril, impassiveness, or, to use an old and expressive word, phlegm." This was his farewell speech at the University of Pennsylvania in 1889 before becoming Physician-in-Chief at the founded Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. This is from "Celebrating the Contributions of William Osler" in the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions." The phlegm of Humourism is far from the same thing as phlegm. Nobel laureate Charles Richet MD, when describing humorism's "phlegm or pituitary secretion" in 1910 asked rhetorically, "this strange liquid, the cause of tumours, of chlorosis, of rheumatism, cacochymia - where is it?
Who will see it? Who has seen it? What can we say of this fanciful classification of humours into four groups, of which two are imaginary?" Phlegm may be a carrier of larvae of intestinal parasites. Bloody sputum can be a symptom of serious disease, but can be a rela
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus
Aulus Cornelius Celsus was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia. The De Medicina is a primary source on diet, pharmacy and related fields, it is one of the best sources concerning medical knowledge in the Roman world; the lost portions of his encyclopedia included volumes on agriculture, law and military arts. He made contributions to the classification of human skin disorders in dermatology, such as Myrmecia, his name is occurring in medical terms about the skin, e.g. kerion celsi and area celsi. Nothing is known about the life of Celsus, his praenomen is uncertain. Some incidental expressions in his De Medicina suggest that he lived under the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, it is not known with any certainty. He has been identified as the possible dedicator of a gravestone in Rome, but it has been supposed that he lived in Narbonese Gaul, because he refers to a species of vine which, according to Pliny, was native to that region.
It is doubtful whether he practised medicine himself, although Celsus seems to describe and recommend his own medical observations sanctioned by experience, Quintilian says that his volumes included all sorts of literary matters, agriculture and military tactics. Of the numerous volumes of his encyclopedia, only one remains intact, his celebrated treatise On Medicine. "The work’s encyclopedic arrangement follows the tripartite division of medicine at the time as established by Hippocrates and Asclepiades — diet and surgery." It is divided into eight books. Book 1 – The History of Medicine Book 2 – General Pathology Book 3 – Specific Diseases Book 4 – Parts of the Body Book 5 and 6 – Pharmacology Book 7 – Surgery Book 8 – OrthopedicsIn the "Prooemium" or introduction to De Medicina there is an early discussion of the relevance of theory to medical practice and the pros and cons of both animal experimentation and human experimentation. Celsus discusses, for example, the case of Herophilos and Erasistratos, who he asserts practised vivisection.
In the treatment of disease, Celsus' principal method was to observe and watch over the operations of Nature, to regulate rather than oppose them, conceiving that fever consisted in an effort of the body to throw off some morbid cause, that, if not unduly interfered with, the process would terminate in a state of health. On occasions, however, he boldly recommends the use of the scalpel, his work contains detailed descriptions of the symptoms and different varieties of fever, he is credited with recording the cardinal signs of inflammation known as "Celsus tetrad of inflammation": calor, dolor and rubor. He goes into great detail regarding the preparation of numerous ancient medicinal remedies including the preparation of opioids. In addition, he describes many 1st century Roman surgical procedures which included removal of a cataract, treatment for bladder stones, the setting of fractures. During the twentieth century, many historians claimed that Celsus believed that the crystalline lens is in the exact center of the eye.
In fact, Celsus made no specific statement about the position of the crystalline lens, his Graeco-Roman contemporaries did understand that the lens is located to the front. Hippocrates used the Greek word καρκίνος - karkínos, meaning crab or crayfish, to refer to malignant tumors as carcinomas, it was Celsus who translated the Greek term into the Latin cancer meaning crab. The first printed edition of Celsus' work was published in 1478, his style has been much admired as being equal in purity and elegance to that of the best writers of the Augustan age. Celsus wrote a technical work on agriculture, on which Columella based his De Re Rustica. In hoc volvmine haec continentvr Avrelii Cornelii Celsi medicinae libri VIII: qvam emendatissimi, Graecis etiam omnibvs dictionibvs restitvtis. Beigefügte Werke: Qvinti Sereni Liber de medicina et ipse castigatiss. Accedit index in Celsvm et Serenvm sane qvam copiosvs.... Venetiis: in aedibvs Aldi et Andreae Asvlani soceri, 1528. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
Aurelii Cornelij Celsi de arte Medica libri octo: multis in Locis iam emendatiores longè, quàm unquam antea, editi. Beigefügte Werke: Accessit quoque Rerum & Verborum in hisce omnibus memorabilium locupletissimus Index. Basileae: Oporinus, 1552 Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Aur. Corn. Celsi De medicina: libri octo. Lugduni Batavorum: Joh. Arn. Langerak, 1746. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Works by Aulus Cornelius Celsus at Open Library De Medicina at LacusCurtius
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers. The concept of "humors" became more prominent from the writing of medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton, his list of humours was longer than just four liquids and included fundamental elements described by Empedocles, such as water, earth, etc. Some authors suggest that the concept of "humours" may have origins in Ancient Egyptian medicine or Mesopotamia, though it was not systemized until ancient Greek thinkers; the word humor is a translation of chymos. At around the same time, ancient Indian Ayurveda medicine had developed a theory of three humors, which they linked with the five Hindu elements. Hippocrates is the one credited with applying this idea to medicine. In contrast to Alcmaeon, Hippocrates suggested that humours are the vital bodily fluids, such as blood, phlegm and "black bile". Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humours bodily fluid in a person can be a sign of illness.
Hippocrates and Galen suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces temperament type. One of the treatises attributed to Hippocrates, On the Nature of Man, describes the theory as follows: The Human body contains blood, yellow bile and black bile; these are the things that cause its pains and health. Health is that state in which these constituent substances are in the correct proportion to each other, both in strength and quantity, are well mixed. Pain occurs when one of the substances presents either a deficiency or an excess, or is separated in the body and not mixed with others. Although the theory of the four humors does appear in some Hippocratic texts, some Hippocratic writers only accepted the existence of two humors, while some refrained from discussing the humoral theory at all. Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries through the influence of the writings of Galen. Hippocrates theory of four humours was linked it with the popular theory of the four elements: earth, fire and air proposed by Empedocles but this link wasn't proposed by Hippocrates or Galen who referred to bodily fluids.
While Galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile. Seasons of the year, periods of life, geographic regions and occupations influenced the nature of the humors formed; the imbalance of humors, or dyscrasia, was thought to be the direct cause of all diseases. Health was associated with eucrasia; the qualities of the humors, in turn, influenced the nature of the diseases. Yellow bile caused phlegm caused cold diseases. In On the Temperaments, Galen further emphasized the importance of the qualities. An ideal temperament involved a balanced mixture of the four qualities. Galen identified four temperaments in which one of the qualities, cold, moist or dry and four more in which a combination of two and moist, warm and dry and dry or cold and moist, dominated; these last four, named for the humors with which they were associated—that is, choleric and phlegmatic became better known than the others.
While the term temperament came to refer just to psychological dispositions, Galen used it to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person's susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioral and emotional inclinations. Disease could be the result of the "corruption" of one or more of the humors, which could be caused by environmental circumstances, dietary changes, or many other factors; these deficits were thought to be caused by vapors absorbed by the body. Greeks and Romans, the Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity; when a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one of these four fluids said patient's personality and or physical health could be negatively affected. Though humorism theory had several models that used 2, 3 and 5 components, the most famous model consists of four-humors described in Hippocrates writings and developed further by Galen.
The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile, yellow bile and blood, each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. A humor is referred to as a cambium. Based on Hippocratic medicine, it was believed that the four humors were to be in balanced proportions with regard to amount and strength of each humor for a body to be healthy; these terms only correspond to the modern medical terminology, in which there is no distinction between black and yellow bile, in which phlegm has a different meaning. These "humors" may have their roots in the appearance of a blood sedimentation test made in open air, which exhibits a dark clot at the bottom, a layer of unclotted erythrocytes, a layer of white blood cells and a
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
Hippocrates of Kos known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine; this intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession. However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were commingled. Hippocrates is portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today, he is credited with advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.
Historians agree. Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek physician, was Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him. Biographies are in the Suda of the 10th century AD, in the works of John Tzetzes, Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC. Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane; the two sons of Hippocrates and Draco, his son-in-law, were his students. According to Galen, a physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates. Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was trained at the asklepieion of Kos, took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Plato mentions Hippocrates in two of his dialogues: in Protagoras, Plato describes Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad". Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly and the Sea of Marmara.
Several different accounts of his death exist. He died in Larissa, at the age of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying medicine, he separated the discipline of medicine from religion and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism. Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split on; the Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis. Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans.
The Knidian school failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms. The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments, its focus was on patient prognosis, not diagnosis. It could treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice. Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school; this shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of strong denunciations. Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the patient recover.
After a crisis, a relapse might follow, another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it predated him. Hippocratic medicine was passive; the therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature". According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself. Hippocratic therapy focused on easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization