SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Polymerase

A polymerase is an enzyme that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids. DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase are used to assemble DNA and RNA molecules by copying a DNA template strand using base-pairing interactions or RNA by half ladder replication. A DNA polymerase from the thermophilic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus is used in the polymerase chain reaction, an important technique of molecular biology. DNA polymerase Family A: DNA polymerase I. Family Y: DNA polymerase V - SOS repair polymerase, it is a major target for antiviral drugs. RNA polymerase Multi-subunit, DNA-directed: RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase III Single-subunit, DNA-directed: T7 RNA polymerase, POLRMT RNA replicase Primase, PrimPolIn general, viral single-subunit RNA polymerases/replicases/reverse transcriptase shares a common origin with DNA polymerase, they have a conserved "palm" domain. Multi-subunit RNA polymerase forms an unrelated group. Primases have a more complex story: bacterial primases with the Toprim domain are related to topoisomerase and mitochrondrial helicase, while archaea and eukaryotic primases form an unrelated family related to the polymerase palm.

Both families associate to the same bunch of helicases

Oscar Fran├žois de Jarjayes

Brigadier Oscar François de Jarjayes is one of the main characters in the manga/anime series The Rose of Versailles, created by Riyoko Ikeda. Born the last of five daughters to the Commander of the Royal Guards, General François Augustin Regnier de Jarjayes, she is raised by her father as if she were a boy in order to take his place and command the Royal Guards serving at Court after he retires. At the age of fourteen, as soon as her training in the basic military skills is complete, Oscar is given the task to protect the Dauphine Marie Antoinette when she arrives at the French Court. Despite being raised as if she were a boy and dressing in males' clothes, Oscar is open about being female; as she embraces her womanhood, she uses her male position to gain freedoms that she could never have as a lady of the court. She is the love interest of both André Grandier, her servant at the Jarjayes mansion and afterwards a soldier in her regiment, Marie Antoinette, who she acts as a bodyguard to, she earns the admiration and love of Rosalie Lamorlière, in turn calls Rosalie her "spring breeze".

Other women are infatuated with Oscar after she tells them she is female. She dislikes the court intrigues, but remains there out of loyalty to her father and her friend, Marie Antoinette. At one point, Oscar falls in love with Fersen. Soon gaining the Dauphine and Queen-to-be's affection and trust, Oscar experiences life at Versailles and the pain caused by the contradictions of her being a woman whom everybody, including herself, considers a man. In the story, Oscar learns of the political ideals of the Revolution and that the royalist regime is corrupt; as the French Revolution is about to begin, Oscar refuses to sedate tumults occurring in Paris. She renounces her status and her regiment joins forces with the people marching to the Bastille. Shot by soldiers inside the fortress, she dies right. Oscar was a supporting character to Marie Antoinette, was created as a female because Ikeda was unsure if she could portray a male soldier. Oscar eclipsed Marie Antoinette in popularity and due to reader feedback became the main character until her death.

Eri Izawa suggests that as Oscar is fictional, Ikeda could be freer in the portrayal of Oscar's life than Ikeda could be in the life of Marie-Antoinette, who had to die on the guillotine. Oscar's androgynous persona is based on the actresses who play male roles in the Takarazuka Revue and Princess Sapphire, she was named for Oscar Wilde, as Ikeda is a fan of his; the way Oscar is drawn has been regarded as a way of showing her androgyny: she is shorter than male characters, but taller than female characters, her eyebrows are thicker than female characters but thinner than male characters - giving the effect of looking feminine when compared to male characters and masculine when compared to female characters. The Digimon Leopardmon's original design was based on Oscar. In the Takarazuka Revue performances of The Rose of Versailles, Oscar has been played by several male-role actresses from 1974 to the present day. In the 1974 Moon Troupe performance, Yuri Haruna played Oscar. Mayo Suzukaze has played Oscar.

Kei Aran and Hikaru Asami played Oscar in 2006. In the 1979 anime adaptation of The Rose of Versailles, Oscar was voiced by Reiko Tajima. In the 1979 film Lady Oscar, Oscar was played when a child by Patsy Kensit, when adult by Catriona MacColl. MacColl's feminine and weak portrayal of Oscar was criticised, it was felt that she was not androgynous enough to play Oscar. Oscar has been described as "iconic", as an archetype, "thrilling", credited with the success of Rose of Versailles, as she illustrates the performative nature of gender. Ian Buruma and Deborah Shamoon consider that Oscar's politics are less important to the audience than her romances. Shamoon sees the Oscar-Andre relationship as different from the Cinderella-Prince Charming stories which "dominated" shōjo manga in the 1960s, where the female protagonist would lose her identity to her boyfriend. Shamoon considers that the Oscar-Andre relationship follows the pattern of pre-war douseiai shōjo novels, which featured same-sex love between girls.

Kazuko Suzuki says that after RoV, "several works" were created with "nonsexual" female protagonists like Oscar, who realise their "womanness" upon falling in love. Suzuki sees her as being a transitional figure between the heterosexual romances of 1960s shōjo manga and those of shōnen-ai. Oscar's "gorgeous androgyny" has led to her being interpreted as belonging to the bishōnen - beautiful young men. Oscar's relationship with Andre has been interpreted as being male-male, Andre vows to die for Oscar if he needs to, like the Kabuki samurai. Oscar's conflict between her principles and her loyalty to Marie-Antoinette has been compared with a "samurai who must be faithful to an unworthy master". Oscar has appeared in the Animage top 50 character list as as 1992. Susan J. Napier described Oscar as a "truly complex and three-dimensional figure who offered young Japanese women a different kind of role model", citing her influence in Utena Tenjo of Revolutionary Girl Utena. In 2007, a manga series called Shōjo Manga was serialised in Chorus and was compiled into one volume.

It told the story of an office lady, inspired by the character of Oscar to defy her managers. It was adapted into a six episode TV series and renamed Haken no Oscar ~"Shōjo Manga" ni Ai o Komete, which aired starting from 28 August 2009. In the 1990s and 2000s, Oscar inspired Le Chevalier D'Eon. Anne Duggan describes Oscar as a "maiden warrior", a young woman who disguises herself as a man to take up a

Earthlife Africa

Earthlife Africa is a South African environmental and anti-nuclear organisation founded in August 1988, in Johannesburg. Conceived of as a South African version of Greenpeace, the group began by playing a radical, anti-apartheid, activist role. ELA is arguably now more of a reformist pressure group. Considered by some to be a key voice in the emerging environmental justice movement, Earthlife Africa has been criticised for being too radical, by others for "working with traditional conservation movements" in furthering the environmental struggle; the Earthlife Africa constitution was formally adopted at the first national conference at Dal Josophat, near Paarl during 1989. Earthlife Africa was chosen as a conscious attempt to avoid the split affecting two factions in GreenPeace who were vying for control of the organisation. ELA therefore took a different approach to the environmental struggle; the ELA constitution was loosely based upon the Four Pillars of the Green Party and other movement documents.

In attendance at this historical inauguration of South Africa's green movement were various members of related environmental organisations and ecology groups including: Peter Lukey Chris Albertyn Mike Kantey Elfrieda Strauss David Robert Lewis Rachel BrownAccording to Jacklyn Cock, "the concept of environmental justice was first introduced in South Africa at the Earthlife 1992 conference." Environmental Justice "was articulated as a black concept and a poor concept and it took root well’ More it was the Environmental Justice Network Forum, initiated at the 1992 conference hosted by Earthlife Africa on the theme "What does it mean to be green in South Africa.’ At this conference 325 civil society delegates resolved to redefine the environmental agenda in South Africa in broad terms and to move beyond the loose anarchist constitution which had bound members with'values' as opposed to'rights'. The South African National Conference on Environment and Development had set the agenda of the green movement in 1991 and thus the 1992 ELA conference was a sequel and precursor of development within the broader movement.

The exposure of pollution by Thor Chemicals, a corporation which imported toxic waste into South Africa, by Earthlife and EJNF working with the Legal Resources Centre, the Chemical Workers Industrial Union, affected workers and local communities was the crucial turning point in the re-framing and ‘browning’ of environmentalism in South Africa. Earthlife launched the People’s Environmental Centre, the Greenhouse in 2002. 2007 ELA participates in a parliamentary portfolio committee hearing into the nuclear industry, delivering submissions and hearing from widows and workers affected by the Pelindaba accident September 2010, Public Enterprises Minister Barbara Hogan announces the ANC government decision to mothball the PBMR project. The cost to the taxpayer is in the region of between R7bn and R9.5Bn wasted on an unproven technology which could not produce a working reactor after more than 11 years of research. Maya Aberman 2006 Nosiphiwo Msithweni 2007 Apartheid is an Ecology issue Nuclear Energy Costs the Earth Campaign Toxics Campaign focuses on the prevention of proposed incinerators, through input into EIAs Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Partnership 1998: picket at Durban harbour against a nuclear waste ship 2008: picket against the arrival of the USS Theodore Roosevelt 2012 The records and medical files of hundreds of the workers formally handed over to the Public Protector.

2017 Memorandum handed to Necsa relating to allegations of ill health caused to Necsa employees, accepted by Group CEO, Phumzile Tshelane. 1998: campaign against air pollution in Johannesburg, three prominent sculptures were decorated with gas masks. They disseminate information on issues such as climate change, genetic engineering and nuclear energy 1991 South African National Conference on Environment and Development 1992 What does it mean to be green in South Africa. 1992 Thor Chemicals is exposed resulting in various court applications that end up testing culpability of global corporates. 15 September 2003 Earthlife Africa - Cape Town launched a High Court application in Cape Town, seeking to review and set aside the environmental impact assessment authorisation granted to Eskom to build a demonstration module Pebble Bed Modular Reactor at Koeberg, Cape Town. 2004 The clean-up operation for thousands of tons of Thor Chemicals mercury waste begins after an agreement with the British-owned chemical company to pay R24-million towards disposal costs.

2005 Earthlife Africa v Eskom Holdings Ltd, Access to Information Necsa provided information upon request, in terms of the Promotion of Access to Information Act ), promulgated in 2000, regarding former employees. The request was received from the South African Historical Archives who acted on behalf of Earthlife Africa who in turn acted on behalf of the former employees. Earthlife Africa v Director General Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and Another ZAWCHC 7; the matter was remitted to the director-general with directions to afford the applicant and other interested parties an opportunity of addressing further written submissions to him along the lines as set out in this judgement and within such period as he may determine a