Mount Hermon, California
Mount Hermon is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Santa Cruz County, California. In 1841, California's first water-powered sawmill was built at the junction of Bean Creek and Zayante Creek by Peter Lassen, Isaac Graham, J. Majors, F. Hoeger. Mount Hermon, known as "Tuxedo Junction" prior to 1906, was a stop on the South Coast Pacific Railroad from Alameda to Santa Cruz. Hotel Tuxedo was on the property. Five ladies of the group were entrusted with the selection of a new name for the area, they choose that of the peak in the Holy Land; the land was to be used as a Christian retreat center, whose dedication day, known as "The Great Day", was July 22, 1906. Speaking at the dedication was Dr. Reuben A. Torrey, President of the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, Illinois; the Zayante Inn and surrounding cottages were destroyed by fire on April 18, 1921. At the site, the Mount Hermon Christian Conference Center, with three separate facilities, operates on much of the original property.
There are several hundred owned homes, the Mount Hermon post office, a bookstore. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 0.9 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Mount Hermon had a population of 1,037; the population density was 1,166.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Mount Hermon was 964 White, 6 African American, 3 Native American, 14 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 18 from other races, 31 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 83 persons; the Census reported. There were 408 households, out of which 128 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 204 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 44 had a female householder with no husband present, 17 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 27 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 100 households were made up of individuals and 25 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54. There were 265 families; the population was spread out with 237 people under the age of 18, 81 people aged 18 to 24, 278 people aged 25 to 44, 342 people aged 45 to 64, 99 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males. There were 530 housing units at an average density of 596.1 per square mile, of which 51.5% were owner-occupied and 48.5% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 54.6% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 45.4% lived in rental housing units. Jordan Beck, NFL football player Joy Williams, singer – moved here with her family in 1993 when her father became CEO of Mount Hermon Christian Camps and Conference Center Santa Cruz Wiki - The People's Guide to Santa Cruz County, California. Mount Hermon Christian Conference Center Santa Cruz Public Libraries History of Mount Hermon Mount Hermon's Outdoor Science School
Chorizanthe pungens is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family known by the common name Monterey spineflower. It is endemic to California, where it is known from the San Francisco Bay Area south along the Central Coast, it grows in coastal habitat and that of the hills and mountains overlooking the coastline. This is a erect but sometimes spreading or prostrate plant with stems up to half a meter in length, it is green to gray to red in color and hairy in texture. The leaves are located at the base of the plant; the inflorescence is a dense cluster of flowers, each flower surrounded by six white to pink hairy bracts tipped in hooked awns. The flower itself is only a few millimeters wide with jagged tepals. There are two varieties of this species: var. pungens is the more common var. hartwegiana is known only from the Santa Cruz Mountains north of Santa Cruz. This variety, known as the Ben Lomond spineflower, is treated as a federally listed endangered species, it is found in the same type of unique habitat, known as the Zayante sandhills, as other local rare endemic life forms such as the Ben Lomond wallflower Erysimum teretifolium and the Zayante band-winged grasshopper Trimerotropis infantilis.
Threats to this plant and other endemic species include the destruction of the local habitat during sand mining. Chorizanthe pungens. Jepson eFlora 2013. Chorizanthe pungens. CalPhotos. Kluse, J. & D. F. Doak.. Demographic performance of a rare California endemic, Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegiana. The American Midland Naturalist 142:244-56
Scotts Valley, California
Scotts Valley is a small city in Santa Cruz County, United States, about thirty miles south of downtown San Jose and six miles north of the city of Santa Cruz, in the upland slope of the Santa Cruz Mountains. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,580. Principal access to the city is supplied by State Route 17 that connects Santa Cruz; the city was incorporated in 1966. Scotts Valley is named for John Scott. Ten thousand years ago there was a lake in the lowest elevation of Scotts Valley, Paleo Indians lived near its shores; the lake receded to form a peat bog. Around 2000 BC, Ohlone people occupied areas along the remaining creeks and seep areas, along with permanent and seasonal drainages, on flat ridges and terraces. Therefore, areas along watercourses are considered locations for prehistoric cultural resources. Several watercourses, including portions of Carbonera Creek, Bean Creek, MacKenzie Creek and the San Lorenzo River, are within the city. Permanent villages were placed on elevations above seasonal flood levels.
Surrounding areas were used for hunting and seed and grass gathering. Scotts Valley was named after Hiram Daniel Scott, who purchased Rancho San Agustin, including the valley, in 1850 from Joseph Ladd Majors. Before Majors, the property was owned by José Bolcoff. Bolcoff was the original settler and first European to claim title and live in what was to be Scotts Valley, he was born Osip Volkov around 1794 in Siberia. Working as a fur trader around 1815, Bolcoff jumped ship on the Monterey Bay shoreline assimilated into the Spanish culture, was well received by the Spanish authorities. Volkov had his Russian Orthodox baptism validated in Mission Soledad in 1817, was given the Spanish name José Antonio Bolcoff. Bolcoff lived with and traveled with Alta California's governor Pablo Vicente de Solá, acting as an interpreter. Becoming a Mexican citizen in 1833, Bolcoff moved his family to his 4,400-acre land grant building, an adobe casa historians speculate was located near present-day Kings Village Shopping Center.
Bolcoff relinquished his interest in the Rancho San Augustin and accepting $400 from Joseph Ladd Majors known as Don Juan José Mechacas. July 7, 1846, marked the shift of power in the region from Mexico to the United States. Hiram Scott built the Greek revival style Scott House in 1853. Situated behind City Hall, it is a Santa Cruz County Historical Trust Landmark and is on the National Register of Historic Places; the house stood on Scotts Valley Drive, near where a Bank of America branch is now located. From the 1840s, money-making activity in Scotts Valley centered on several industries: lumber, the milling of grain, most the tanning of hides and working of leather. Beginning in the 1930s, peat moss was removed from Scotts Valley and taken to San Francisco to supply soil for difficult indoor plants such as gardenias; when the peat ran out and gravel were quarried and sold. The area was the site of Santa's Village, a Christmas-themed amusement park which opened on May 30, 1957, on a 25-acre site, Lawridge Farm, part of the former Rancho San Augustin.
"Residents" of the park included Santa, Mrs. Santa, elves and gnomes who operated the rides and sold tickets. There was a petting zoo, a bobsled ride, a whirling Christmas tree ride, a train ride, as well as a Fairy Tale Land; the park was sold in 1966 but continued to be operated under lease by the Santa's Village Corporation. When that corporation went bankrupt in 1977; the owner considered launching a Knott's Berry Farm type of complex but was denied a permit by the city of Scotts Valley, the park closed for good in 1979. Scotts Valley's most famous resident was film director Alfred Hitchcock, who lived in a mountaintop estate above the Vine Hill area from 1940 to 1972. Florence Owens Thompson, made famous by Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother photograph, died in Scotts Valley in 1983. From its early years as a stop on the stage route across the mountains, the Scotts Valley area has provided services to travelers. With the growing popularity of the automobile in the early 20th century, the area became commercialized and tourism developed as a local industry.
In the early 1920s, Edward Evers established Camp Evers at the junction of the State Highway and Mt. Hermon Road. Camp Evers consisted of a small store, gas pumps, dance hall and tents, becoming a resort and rest stop for travelers; the Beverly Gardens were established in the 1930s and featured a collection of exotic birds and animals, a restaurant, cabins. Axel Erlandson opened The Tree Circus in 1947, featuring trees grafted and trained in strange and unusual shapes. Bright "life size" painted dinosaurs overlooking Highway 17 were added to the Tree Circus in 1964 when it changed its name to The Lost World. Surviving trees have since been moved to Gilroy Gardens. Santa's Village, one of three locations in America's first theme park chain, was established in 1956, it was the most popular of the many attractions, attracting millions of visitors to Scotts Valley for over twenty years, it was the last of Scotts Valley's theme parks to close its doors, in 1979. H. Glenn Holland, who had developed a Santa's Village elsewhere the previous year, leased 25 acres at the former Lawridge Farm, a portion of the former Rancho San Augustin for the Scotts Valley location of Santa's Village.
The park maintained a correct team of Mexican burros that lived on the back 20-acre field. Four reindeer from Unalakleet, pulled Santa's sleigh. All the buildings were designed to look like log chalet-type structures, replete
The family Scarabaeidae as defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide called scarabs or scarab beetles. The classification of this family has undergone significant change in recent years. Several subfamilies have been elevated to family rank, some reduced to lower ranks; the subfamilies listed in this article are in accordance with those in Bouchard. Scarabs are stout-bodied beetles, many with bright metallic colours, measuring between 1.5 and 160 mm. They have distinctive, clubbed antennae composed of plates called lamellae that can be compressed into a ball or fanned out like leaves to sense odours; the front legs of many species are broad and adapted for digging. In some groups males have prominent horns on the head and/or pronotum to fight over mates or resources; the C-shaped larvae, called grubs, are white. Most adult beetles are nocturnal, although the flower chafers and many leaf chafers are active during the day; the grubs live underground or under debris, so are not exposed to sunlight.
Many scarabs are scavengers that recycle carrion, or decaying plant material. Others, such as the Japanese beetle, are plant-eaters; some of the well-known beetles from the Scarabaeidae are Japanese beetles, dung beetles, June beetles, rose chafers, rhinoceros beetles, Hercules beetles and Goliath beetles. Several members of this family have structurally coloured shells which act as left-handed circular polarisers. In Ancient Egypt, the dung beetle now known as Scarabaeus sacer was revered as sacred. Egyptian amulets representing the sacred scarab beetles were traded throughout the Mediterranean world. List of genera of Scarabaeidae Scarab artifact Grapevine beetle Dung beetle - Scarabaeidae dung beetles play an important role in temperate and tropical environments
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
An elytron is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles and a few of the true bugs. An elytron is sometimes referred to as a shard; the elytra serve as protective wing-cases for the hindwings underneath, which are used for flying. To fly, a beetle opens the elytra and extends the hindwings, flying while still holding the elytra open, though some beetles in the families Scarabaeidae and Buprestidae can fly with the elytra closed. In some groups, the elytra are fused together; some of the ground beetles are a good example of this. The term is used to describe the hard scales of some polychaete worms, notably the Polynoidae; these outgrowths of the body wall are distinguished from chaeta, which grow from follicles and thus possess roots