Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position, he chose to stay in the capital. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, portions of the Requiem, unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35; the circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music, he is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music.
Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years". Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg; this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptised the day at St. Rupert's Cathedral in Salzburg; the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" as an adult, but his name had many variants. Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
Four years he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son's birth, Leopold published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success; when Nannerl was 7, she began keyboard lessons with her father, while her three-year-old brother looked on. Years after her brother's death, she reminisced: He spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was striking, his pleasure showed that it sounded good.... In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier.... He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, keeping in time.... At the age of five, he was composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down; these early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch. There is some scholarly debate about whether Mozart was four or five years old when he created his first musical compositions, though there is little doubt that Mozart composed his first three pieces of music within a few weeks of each other: K. 1a, 1b, 1c.
In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught academic subjects. Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught, his first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative, came as a surprise to Leopold, who gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident. While Wolfgang was young, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies; these began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, at the Imperial Courts in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour followed, spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Paris, The Hague, again to Paris, back home via Zurich and Munich. During this trip, Wolfgang met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers.
A important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom he visited in London in 1764 and 1765. When he was eight years old, Mozart wrote his first symphony, most of, transcribed by his father; the family trips were difficult, travel conditions were primitive. They had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility, they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold both children; the family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. After one year in Salzburg and Wolfgang set off for Italy, leaving Anna Maria and Nannerl at home; this tour lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a maturing composer. Wolfgang met Josef Mysliveček and Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna, was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance, in the Sistine Chapel, wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, performed with success. This led to further oper
Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber
Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist. Born in the small Bohemian town of Wartenberg, Biber worked in Graz and Kremsier before he illegally left his Kremsier employer, Prince-Bishop Carl Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn, settled in Salzburg, he remained there for the rest of his life, publishing much of his music but seldom, if giving concert tours. Biber was one of the most important composers for the violin in the history of the instrument, his technique allowed him to reach the 6th and 7th positions, employ multiple stops in intricate polyphonic passages, explore the various possibilities of scordatura tuning. He wrote one of the earliest known pieces for solo violin, the monumental passacaglia of the Mystery Sonatas. During Biber's lifetime, his music was imitated throughout Europe. In the late 18th century he was named the best violin composer of the 17th century by music historian Charles Burney. In the late 20th century Biber's music the Mystery Sonatas, enjoyed a renaissance.
Today, it is performed and recorded. Biber was born in Bohemia. Little is known about his early education, other than that he may have studied at a Jesuit Gymnasium at Troppau in Bohemia, that he may have had musical education by a local organist. Before 1668 Biber worked at the court of Prince Johann Seyfried von Eggenberg in Graz, was employed by the Bishop of Olmütz, Karl II von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn, in Kremsier. Biber's associate from the early 1660s, Pavel Josef Vejvanovský, worked there as director of the Kapelle. Biber enjoyed a good reputation, his violin playing skills were highly regarded. In summer 1670 Karl II sent Biber to Absam, near Innsbruck, to negotiate with the celebrated instrument maker Jacob Stainer for the purchase of new instruments for the Kapelle. Biber never reached Stainer and instead entered the employ of the Archbishop of Salzburg, Maximilian Gandolph von Kuenburg; because Karl and Maximilian were friends, Biber's former employer refrained from taking any action.
It is not coincidental that most of the autograph compositions Biber sent to Kremsier date from the early 1670s. Biber remained in Salzburg for the rest of his life, his musical and social careers flourished: he started publishing his music in 1676, performed before the Emperor Leopold I in 1677, became deputy Kapellmeister at Salzburg in 1679 and Kapellmeister in 1684. In 1690 Biber was raised to nobility with the title of Biber von Bibern; the new Archbishop of Salzburg, Johann Ernst, Count Thun, appointed Biber lord high steward, the highest social rank Biber would attain. The composer was married on 30 May 1672 at the Bishop's summer residence, Hellbrunn Palace, just outside Salzburg, his wife Maria Weiss was a daughter of a Salzburg merchant and tradesman, Peter Weiss. Together they had 11 children. All were musically gifted. Anton Heinrich and Karl Heinrich both served as violinists at the Salzburg court, the latter was promoted to Kapellmeister in 1743. Daughters Maria Cäcilia and Anna Magdalena became nuns at Santa Clara and the Nonnberg Abbey, respectively.
Anna Magdalena was an alto singer and a violinist, in 1727 became director of the choir and the Kapelle of the Abbey. November 3, 1692, Biber was appointed Steward by his Archbishop Johann Ernst, he received his Coat of arms. Biber died in Salzburg in 1704, his grave is located in Petersfriedhof. Biber's violin music was influenced, on one hand, by the Italian tradition of Marco Uccellini and Carlo Farina, on the other, by the then-nascent German polyphonic tradition as exemplified by Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, who may have been Biber's teacher. Biber's achievements included further development of violin technique – he was able to reach the 6th and 7th positions, his left-hand and bowing techniques were far more advanced than those of contemporary Italian composers, he excelled at counterpoint writing polyphonic textures, with much use of multiple stops. Yet another area in which Biber made a substantial contribution was the art of scordatura, i.e. music for alternative tunings of the instrument.
Much of Biber's music employs various forms of number symbolism, programmatic devices, etc. as seen in the symbolic retuning of the violin for the Resurrection sonata of the Mystery Sonatas. During the latter half of the 17th century Biber was, together with the composers of the Dresden school, regarded as one of the best and most influential violinists in Europe. However, soon after his death, German violinists started following the style of Arcangelo Corelli and his imitators. Biber's finest scordatura writing is represented in two collections; the first dates from c. 1676 and is known variously as Mystery Sonatas, Rosary Sonatas, Copper-Plate Engraving Sonatas, etc. remaining unpublished during the composer's lifetime. It comprises sixteen pieces: fifteen sonatas for violin and continuo portraying the fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary, a long passacaglia for solo violin. In the extant copy of the collection, each piece is accompanied by a small engraving depicting the mystery it portrays, while the image preceding the passacaglia depicts a guardian angel with a child.
Only the first and the last pieces use normal tuning.
Alfredo Casella was an Italian composer and conductor. Casella was born in the son of Maria and Carlo Casella, his family included many musicians: his grandfather, a friend of Paganini's, was first cello in the San Carlo Theatre in Lisbon and became soloist in the Royal Chapel in Turin. Alfredo's father, was a professional cellist, as were Carlo's brothers Cesare and Gioacchino. Alfredo entered the Conservatoire de Paris in 1896 to study piano under Louis Diémer and composition under Gabriel Fauré. During his Parisian period, Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky and Manuel de Falla were acquaintances, he was in contact with Ferruccio Busoni, Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss. Casella developed a deep admiration for Debussy's output after hearing Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune in 1898, but pursued a more romantic vein in his own writing of this period, rather than turning to impressionism, his first symphony of 1905 is from this time, it is with this work that Casella made his debut as a conductor when he led the symphony's premiere in Monte Carlo in 1908.
Back in Italy during World War I, he began teaching piano at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. From 1927 to 1929 Casella was the principal conductor of the Boston Pops, where he was succeeded by Arthur Fiedler, he was one of the best-known Italian piano virtuosos of his generation and together with Arturo Bonucci and Alberto Poltronieri he formed the Trio Italiano in 1930. This group played to great acclaim in America, his stature as a pianist and his work with the trio gave rise to some of his best-known compositions, including A Notte Alta, the Sonatina, Nove Pezzi, the Six Studies, Op. 70, for piano. For the Trio to play on tour, he wrote the Sonata the Triple Concerto. Casella had his biggest success with the ballet La Giara, set to a scenario by Luigi Pirandello. Amongst his chamber works, both Cello Sonatas are played with some frequency, as is the beautiful late Harp Sonata, the music for Flute and Piano. Casella made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Aeolian Duo-Art system, all of which survive today and can be heard.
In 1923, together with Gabriele D'Annunzio and Gian Francesco Malipiero from Venice, he founded an association to promote the spread of modern Italian music, the "Corporation of the New Music." The resurrection of Antonio Vivaldi's works in the 20th century is thanks to the efforts of Casella, who in 1939 organised the now historic Vivaldi Week, in which the poet Ezra Pound was involved. Since Vivaldi's compositions have enjoyed universal success and the advent of informed performance has only strengthened his position. In 1947 the Venetian businessman Antonio Fanna founded the Istituto Italiano Antonio Vivaldi, with the composer Malipiero as its artistic director, with the purpose of promoting Vivaldi's music and putting out new editions of his works. Casella's work on behalf of his Italian Baroque musical ancestors put him at the centre of the early 20th Century Neoclassical revival in music and influenced his own compositions profoundly, his editions of Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven's piano works, along with many others, proved influential on the musical taste and performance style of Italian players in the following generations.
The generazione dell'ottanta, including Casella himself, Respighi and Alfano — all composers born around 1880, the post-Puccini generation — concentrated on writing instrumental works, rather than the operas in which Puccini and his musical forebears had specialised. Members of this generation were the dominant figures in Italian music after Puccini's death in 1924. Casella, passionate about painting, accumulated an important collection of art and sculptures, he was the most "international" in outlook and stylistic influences of the generazione dell'ottanta, owing at least in part to his early musical training in Paris and the circle in which he lived and worked while there. He died in Rome. Casella's students included Clotilde Coulombe, Stefan Bardas, Maria Curcio, Francesco Mander, Branka Musulin, Maurice Ohana, Robin Orr, Primož Ramovš, Nino Rota, Maria Tipo, Gaetano Giuffrè, Camillo Togni, Bruna Monestiroli, he was married in Paris in 1921 to Yvonne Müller. Their granddaughter is actress their great-granddaughter is actress Asia Argento.
Symphony No. 1 in B minor, Op. 5 Italia, Rapsodia per Orchestra, op. 11 Symphony No. 2 in C minor, Op. 12 Suite in C major, Op. 13 Suite from the Ballet Le Couvent sur l'Eau, Op. 19 Pagine di Guerra, Op. 25bis Pupazzetti, Op. 27bis Elegia Eroica, Op. 29 Concerto per Archi, Op. 40bis La Giara, Suite Sinfonica, Op. 41bis Serenata per piccola orchestra, Op. 46bis Marcia Rustica, Op. 49 La Donna Serpente, Frammenti Sinfonici Seria I, Op. 50bis La Donna Serpente, Frammenti Sinfonici Seria II, Op. 50ter Introduzione, Aria e Toccata per Orchestra, O
Classical period (music)
The Classical period was an era of classical music between 1730 and 1820. The Classical period falls between the Romantic periods. Classical music is less complex, it is homophonic, using a clear melody line over a subordinate chordal accompaniment, but counterpoint was by no means forgotten later in the period. It makes use of style galant which emphasized light elegance in place of the Baroque's dignified seriousness and impressive grandeur. Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before and the orchestra increased in size and power; the harpsichord was replaced as the main keyboard instrument by the piano. Unlike the harpsichord, which plucked strings with quills, pianos strike the strings with leather-covered hammers when the keys are pressed, which enables the performer to play louder or softer and play with more expression. Instrumental music was considered important by Classical period composers; the main kinds of instrumental music were the sonata, string quartet and the solo concerto, which featured a virtuoso solo performer playing a solo work for violin, flute, or another instrument, accompanied by an orchestra.
Vocal music, such as songs for a singer and piano, choral works, opera were important during this period. The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert. Ludwig van Beethoven is regarded either as a Romantic composer or a Classical period composer, part of the transition to the Romantic era. Franz Schubert is a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, Gioachino Rossini, Carl Maria von Weber; the period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Gluck, Haydn, Salieri and Beethoven all worked in Vienna. In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture and the arts known as Classicism; this style sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity those of Classical Greece. Classical music used formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, a "clearer", "cleaner" style that used clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and "tone colors".
In contrast with the richly layered music of the Baroque era, Classical music moved towards simplicity rather than complexity. In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase, giving orchestras a more powerful sound; the remarkable development of ideas in "natural philosophy" had established itself in the public consciousness. In particular, Newton's physics was taken as a paradigm: structures should be well-founded in axioms and be both well-articulated and orderly; this taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. This move meant that chords became a much more prevalent feature of music if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part; as a result, the tonal structure of a piece of music became more audible. The new style was encouraged by changes in the economic order and social structure; as the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, while public taste preferred lighter, funny comic operas.
This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of, the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic groundwork of a piece of music played by a keyboard and accompanied by a varied group of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol, theorbo. One way to trace the decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the disappearance of the term obbligato, meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. In Baroque compositions, additional instruments could be added to the continuo group according to the group or leader's preference. By 1800, basso continuo was extinct, except for the occasional use of a pipe organ continuo part in a religious Mass in the early 1800s. Economic changes had the effect of altering the balance of availability and quality of musicians. While in the late Baroque, a major composer would have the entire musical resources of a town to draw on, the musical forces available at an aristocratic hunting lodge or small court were smaller and more fixed in their level of ability.
This was a spur to having simpler parts for ensemble musicians to play, in the case of a resident virtuoso group, a spur to writing spectacular, idiomatic parts for certain instruments, as in the case of the Mannheim orchestra, or virtuoso solo parts for skilled violinists or flautists. In addition, the appetite by audiences for a continual supply of new music carried over from the Baroque; this meant that works had to be performable with, at best, one or two r
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i
Darius Milhaud was a French composer and teacher. He was a member of Les Six—also known as The Group of Six—and one of the most prolific composers of the 20th century, his compositions make extensive use of polytonality. Milhaud is considered one of the key modernist composers. Milhaud was born in the son of Sophie and Gabriel Milhaud, his father was from a Jewish family from Aix-en-Provence, his mother was from a Sephardi Jewish family from Italy. Milhaud began as a violinist turning to composition instead. Milhaud studied in Paris at the Paris Conservatory where he met his fellow group members Arthur Honegger and Germaine Tailleferre, he studied composition under harmony and counterpoint with André Gedalge. He studied with Vincent d'Indy. From 1917 to 1919, he served as secretary to Paul Claudel, the eminent poet and dramatist, the French ambassador to Brazil, with whom Milhaud collaborated for many years, setting music for many of Claudel's poems and plays. While in Brazil, they collaborated on a ballet, son désir.
On his return to France, Milhaud composed works influenced by the Brazilian popular music he had heard, including compositions of Brazilian pianist and composer Ernesto Nazareth. Le bœuf sur le toit includes melodies by Nazareth and other popular Brazilian composers of the time, evokes the sounds of Carnaval. Among the melodies is, in fact, a Carnaval tune by the name of "The Bull on the Roof", he produced Saudades do Brasil, a suite of twelve dances evoking twelve neighborhoods in Rio. Shortly after the original piano version appeared, he orchestrated the suite. On a trip to the United States in 1922, Darius Milhaud heard "authentic" jazz for the first time, on the streets of Harlem, which left a great impact on his musical outlook; the following year, he completed his composition La création du monde, using ideas and idioms from jazz, cast as a ballet in six continuous dance scenes. In 1925, Milhaud married Madeleine, an actress and reciter. In 1930 she gave birth to a son, the painter and sculptor Daniel Milhaud, the couple's only child.
The invasion of France by Nazi Germany forced the Milhauds to leave France in 1940 and emigrate to the United States. He secured a teaching post at Mills College in Oakland, where he composed the opera Bolivar and collaborated with Henri Temianka and the Paganini Quartet. In an extraordinary concert there in 1949, the Budapest Quartet performed the composer's 14th String Quartet, followed by the Paganini Quartet's performance of his 15th; the following year, these same pieces were performed at the Aspen Music Festival in Colorado, by the Paganini and Juilliard String Quartets. The jazz pianist Dave Brubeck became one of Milhaud's most famous students when Brubeck furthered his music studies at Mills College in the late 1940s. In a February 2010 interview with JazzWax, Brubeck said he attended Mills, a women's college to study with Milhaud, saying, "Milhaud was an enormously gifted classical composer and teacher who loved jazz and incorporated it into his work. My older brother Howard was his assistant and had taken all of his classes."
Brubeck named his first son Darius. Milhaud's former students include popular songwriter Burt Bacharach. Milhaud "Don't be afraid of writing something people can remember and whistle. Don't feel discomfited by a melody."From 1947 to 1971, he taught alternate years at Mills and the Paris Conservatoire, until poor health, which caused him to use a wheelchair during his years, compelled him to retire. He taught on the faculty of the Aspen Music Festival and School, he died in Geneva at the age of 81, he was buried in the Saint-Pierre Cemetery in Aix-en-Provence. Darius Milhaud was prolific and composed for a wide range of genres, his opus list ended at 443. Milhaud was an rapid creator, for whom the art of writing music seemed as natural as breathing, his most popular works include Le bœuf sur le toit, La création du monde and Saudades do Brasil. His autobiography is titled Notes sans musique revised as Ma vie heureuse. There is a Darius Milhaud Collection at Mills College in California. There is another Darius Milhaud Collection at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts in New York City.
The Western Jewish History Center, of the Judah L. Magnes Museum, in Berkeley, California has librettos for Milhaud's opera, David, as well as a program for its American premiere, in Los Angeles, at the Hollywood Bowl, photocopies of newspaper coverage in the B'nai B'rith Messenger of Los Angeles, of this event; the Beloved Vagabond L'Inhumaine Land Without Bread Madame Bovary The Beloved Vagabond The Citadel of Silence Rasputin Mollenard Espoir: Sierra de Teruel The
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring is a ballet and orchestral concert work by Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. It was written for the 1913 Paris season of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes company; when first performed at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées on 29 May 1913, the avant-garde nature of the music and choreography caused a sensation. Many have called the first-night reaction a "riot" or "near-riot," though this wording did not come about until reviews of performances in 1924, over a decade later. Although designed as a work for the stage, with specific passages accompanying characters and action, the music achieved equal if not greater recognition as a concert piece and is considered to be one of the most influential musical works of the 20th century. Stravinsky was a young unknown composer when Diaghilev recruited him to create works for the Ballets Russes; the Rite was the third such project, after Petrushka. The concept behind The Rite of Spring, developed by Roerich from Stravinsky's outline idea, is suggested by its subtitle, "Pictures of Pagan Russia in Two Parts".
After a mixed critical reception for its original run and a short London tour, the ballet was not performed again until the 1920s, when a version choreographed by Léonide Massine replaced Nijinsky's original, which saw only eight performances. Massine's was the forerunner of many innovative productions directed by the world's leading ballet-masters, gaining the work worldwide acceptance. In the 1980s, Nijinsky's original choreography, long believed lost, was reconstructed by the Joffrey Ballet in Los Angeles. Stravinsky's score contains many novel features for its time, including experiments in tonality, rhythm and dissonance. Analysts have noted in the score a significant grounding in Russian folk music, a relationship Stravinsky tended to deny; the music influenced many of the 20th-century's leading composers and is one of the most recorded works in the classical repertoire. Igor Stravinsky was the son of Fyodor Stravinsky, the principal bass singer at the Imperial Opera, St Petersburg, Anna, née Kholodovskaya, a competent amateur singer and pianist from an old-established Russian family.
Fyodor's association with many of the leading figures in Russian music, including Rimsky-Korsakov and Mussorgsky, meant that Igor grew up in an intensely musical home. In 1901 Stravinsky began to study law at Saint Petersburg University while taking private lessons in harmony and counterpoint. Stravinsky worked under the guidance of Rimsky-Korsakov, having impressed him with some of his early compositional efforts. By the time of his mentor's death in 1908 Stravinsky had produced several works, among them a Piano Sonata in F♯ minor, a Symphony in E♭ major, which he catalogued as "Opus 1", a short orchestral piece, Feu d'artifice. In 1909 Feu d'artifice was performed at a concert in St. Petersburg. Among those in the audience was the impresario Sergei Diaghilev, who at that time was planning to introduce Russian music and art to western audiences. Like Stravinsky, Diaghilev had studied law, but had gravitated via journalism into the theatrical world. In 1907 he began his theatrical career by presenting five concerts in Paris.
In 1909, still in Paris, he launched the Ballets Russes with Borodin's Polovtsian Dances from Prince Igor and Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade. To present these works Diaghilev recruited the choreographer Michel Fokine, the designer Léon Bakst and the dancer Vaslav Nijinsky. Diaghilev's intention, was to produce new works in a distinctively 20th-century style, he was looking for fresh compositional talent. Having heard Feu d'artifice he approached Stravinsky with a request for help in orchestrating music by Chopin to create the ballet Les Sylphides. Stravinsky worked on the opening "Nocturne" and the closing "Valse Brillante". Stravinsky worked through the winter of 1909–10, in close association with Fokine, choreographing The Firebird. During this period Stravinsky made the acquaintance of Nijinsky who, although not dancing in the ballet, was a keen observer of its development. Stravinsky was uncomplimentary when recording his first impressions of the dancer, observing that he seemed immature and gauche for his age.
On the other hand, Stravinsky found Diaghilev an inspiration, "the essence of a great personality". The Firebird was premiered on 25 June 1910, with Tamara Karsavina in the main role, was a great public success; this ensured that the Diaghilev–Stravinsky collaboration would continue, in the first instance with Petrushka and The Rite of Spring. In a note to the conductor Serge Koussevitzky in February 1914, Stravinsky described The Rite of Spring as "a musical-choreographic work, pagan Russia... unified by a single idea: the mystery and great surge of the creative power of Spring". In his analysis of The Rite, Pieter van den Toorn writes that the work lacks a specific plot or narrative, should be considered as a succession of choreographed episodes; the French titles are given in the form given in the four-part piano score published in 1913. There have been numerous variants of the English translat