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Pomegranate

The pomegranate is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideae, that grows between 5 and 10 m tall. The pomegranate originated in the region extending from Iran to northern India, has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region, it was introduced into Spanish America in the late 16th century and into California by Spanish settlers in 1769. The fruit is in season in the Northern Hemisphere from September to February, in the Southern Hemisphere from March to May; as intact sarcotestas or juice, pomegranates are used in baking, juice blends, meal garnishes and alcoholic beverages, such as cocktails and wine. Today, it is cultivated throughout the Middle East and Caucasus region and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, the drier parts of southeast Asia, parts of the Mediterranean Basin, it is cultivated in parts of Arizona and California. In the 20th and 21st centuries, it has become more common in the shops and markets of Europe and the Western Hemisphere.

The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin pōmum "apple" and grānātum "seeded". Stemming from the old French word for the fruit, pomme-grenade, the pomegranate was known in early English as "apple of Grenada"—a term which today survives only in heraldic blazons; this is a folk etymology, confusing the Latin granatus with the name of the Spanish city of Granada, which derives from Arabic. Garnet derives from Old French grenat by metathesis, from Medieval Latin granatum as used in a different meaning "of a dark red color"; this derivation may have originated from pomum granatum, describing the color of pomegranate pulp, or from granum, referring to "red dye, cochineal". The French term for pomegranate, has given its name to the military grenade. A shrub or small tree growing 5 to 10 m high, the pomegranate has multiple spiny branches and is long-lived, with some specimens in France surviving for 200 years. P. granatum leaves are opposite or subopposite, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad.

The flowers are bright red and 3 cm in diameter, with three to seven petals. Some fruitless varieties are grown for the flowers alone. Red-purple in color, the pomegranate fruit husk has two parts: an outer, hard pericarp, an inner, spongy mesocarp, which comprises the fruit inner wall where seeds attach. Membranes of the mesocarp are organized as nonsymmetrical chambers that contain seeds inside sarcotestas, which are embedded without attachment to the mesocarp. Containing juice, the sarcotesta is formed as a thin membrane derived from the epidermal cells of the seeds; the number of seeds in a pomegranate can vary from 200 to about 1,400. Botanically, the edible fruit is a berry with seeds and pulp produced from the ovary of a single flower; the fruit is intermediate in size between a lemon and a grapefruit, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded shape and thick, reddish husk. In mature fruits, the juice obtained by compressing the seeds yields a sour flavor due to low pH and high contents of polyphenols, which may cause a red indelible stain on fabrics.

The pigmentation of pomegranate juice results from the presence of anthocyanins and ellagitannins. P. granatum is grown for its fruit crop, as ornamental trees and shrubs in parks and gardens. Mature specimens can develop a distinctive overall form. Pomegranates are drought-tolerant, can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they can be prone to root decay from fungal diseases, they can be tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −12 °C. Insect pests of the pomegranate can include the pomegranate butterfly Virachola isocrates and the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus, fruit flies and ants are attracted to unharvested ripe fruit. Pomegranate grows from seed, but is propagated from 25 to 50 cm hardwood cuttings to avoid the genetic variation of seedlings. Air layering is an option for propagation, but grafting fails. P. granatum var. nana is a dwarf variety of P. granatum popularly planted as an ornamental plant in gardens and larger containers, used as a bonsai specimen tree.

It could well be a wild form with a distinct origin. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit; the only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate, endemic to the Socotraan archipelago of four islands located in the Arabian Sea, the largest island of, known as Socotra. The territory is part of Yemen, it differs in having smaller, less sweet fruit. P. granatum has more than 500 named cultivars, but evidently has considerable synonymy in which the same genotype is named differently across regions of the world. Several characteristics between pomegranate genotypes vary for identification, consumer preference, preferred use, marketing, the most important of which are fruit size, exocarp color, seed-coat color, hardness of seed, juice content and its acidity and astringency; the pomegranate is native to a region from modern-day Iran to northern India. Pomegranates have been cultivated throughout the Middle East, South Asia, Mediterranean region for several millennia, thrive in the drier climates of California and Arizona.

Pomegranates may have been domesticated as early as the 5th millennium BC, as they were one of the first fruit trees to be domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean region. Carboniz

Henry Norris Russell Lectureship

The Henry Norris Russell Lectureship is awarded each year by the American Astronomical Society in recognition of a lifetime of excellence in astronomical research. The idea for the lectureship came from society President Harlow Shapley in 1945, who led the fund raising drive to collect $10,000 from the membership. One of the major contributors was the Mexican Ambassador to the United States, as Russell had been an important representative at the dedication ceremony for the Mexican National Observatory; the goal was reached in December 1946. The first Russell lecturer was fellow American astronomer Henry Norris Russell, for whom the award is named. Russell gave; this list of lecturers is from the American Astronomical Society's website. List of astronomy awards Henry Norris Russell Lectureship

Confessions of Fire

Confessions of Fire is the debut studio album by Harlem rapper Cam'ron. It was released on July 21, 1998, its singles were "Carriage," featuring Mase, "357" and "Feels Good" featuring Usher. The album was certified gold by the RIAA with over 500,000 copies sold; the album debuted and peaked at no. 6 on The Billboard 200, selling over 107,000 copies in its first week of release. Leftover tracks "Pull It" Sample credits "357" contains a sample of "Magnum P. I. Theme" by Mike Post. "A Pimp's A Pimp" contains a sample of "Don't Turn the Lights Off" by The Originals. "D Rugs" contains a sample of "Mother's Theme" by Willie Hutch and "I'm Your Pusherman" by Curtis Mayfield. "Feels Good" contains a sample of ``" by Teddy Pendergrass. "Fuck You" contains a sample of "Phuck U Symphony" by Millie Jackson. "Me & My Boo" contains a sample of "Being With You" by Smokey Robinson. "Prophecy" contains a sample of "Fragile" by Sting. "Me, My Moms & Jimmy" contains samples of "Genius Of Love" by Tom Tom Club and "Mama Used to Say" by Junior.

"Wrong Ones" contains a sample of "As We Lay" by Shirley Murdock. "Horse & Carriage" contains samples of "Cuban Cabby" by Desi Arnaz and "Who Is He?" by Bill Withers. "Death" contains a sample of "Suicidal Thoughts" by The Notorious B. I. G.. "We Got it" contains a sample of "Say What" by Idris Muhammad