Ostsiedlung, in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, the Baltics. The affected area stretched from Estonia in the north all the way to Slovenia in the south and extended into Transylvania, modern-day Romania in the east. In part, Ostsiedlung followed the territorial expansion of the Teutonic Order. According to Jedlicki, in many cases the term "German colonization" does not refer to an actual migration of Germans, but rather to the internal migration of native populations from the countryside to the cities, which adopted laws modeled on those of the German towns of Magdeburg and Lübeck. Before and during the time of German settlement, late medieval Central and Eastern European societies underwent deep cultural changes in demography, religion and administration, settlement numbers and structures.
Thus Ostsiedlung is part of a process termed Ostkolonisation or Hochmittelalterlicher Landesausbau, although these terms are sometimes used synonymously. Ethnic conflicts erupted between the newly arrived settlers and local populations and expulsions of native populations are known. In several areas subject to the Ostsiedlung, the existing population was discriminated against and pushed away from administration. In the 20th century, the Ostsiedlung was exploited by German nationalists, including the Nazis, to press the territorial claims of Germany and to demonstrate supposed German superiority over non-Germanic peoples, whose cultural and scientific achievements in that era were undermined, rejected, or presented as German. Central Europe underwent dramatic changes after the Migration Period of 300 to 700 CE; the Roman Empire had lost its dominant position. The Franks had created an empire that, besides former Roman Gaul, had united the former West Germanic-speaking peoples and adopted Christianity.
East Francia, an early predecessor of Germany, aimed to be the successor to the Christian Western Roman Empire, developed into the Holy Roman Empire. In Scandinavia, the former North Germanic-speaking peoples entered the Viking Age, affecting the whole of Europe through trade and raids; some former East Germanic-speaking peoples had entered and merged into Rome, their own culture ceasing to exist. At the same time Slav states arose and became dominant in Eastern Europe and large parts of Central Europe; the Slavs living within the reach of Francia were collectively called Wends or "Elbe Slavs". They formed larger political entities, but rather constituted various small tribes, dwelling as far west as to a line from the Eastern Alps and Bohemia to the Saale and Elbe rivers; as the Frankish Empire expanded, various Wendish tribes were conquered or allied with the Franks, such as the Obotrites, who aided the Franks in defeating the West Germanic Saxons. The conquered Wendish areas were organized by the Franks into marches, which were administered by an entrusted noble who collected the tribute, reinforced by military units.
The establishing of marches was accompanied by missionary efforts. Marches set up by Charlemagne in the territory where the Ostsiedlung would take place included, from north to south: the Danish march between the Eider and Schlei, against the Danes and the Jutes the Saxon Eastern March or Nordalbingen March between the Eider and Elbe in what is now Holstein against the Obotrites the Thuringian or Sorbian March on the Saale, against the Sorbs dwelling behind the limes sorabicus the Franconian march in what is now Upper Franconia, against the Czechs the Avar March between the Enns and the Vienna Woods, against the Avars the March of Pannonia east of Vienna the Carantanian march the Friaul marchIn most cases, the tribes of the marches were not stable allies of the empire. Frankish kings initiated numerous, yet not always successful, military campaigns to maintain their authority. Kings and emperors such as Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor and expanded the marches, creating: the Billung March on the Baltic Sea, stretching from Groswin to Schleswig Marca Geronis, a precursor of the Saxon Eastern March divided into smaller marches Austrian March the Carantania or March of Styria the Drau March the Sann March the Krain or Carniola march Windic March and White Carniola, in what is now SloveniaUnder the rule of King Louis the German of East Francia and of Arnulf of Carinthia, the first waves of settlement were led by Franks and Bavarii, reached the area of what is today Slovakia and what was Pannonia.
The pioneers were Catholics. Although the first settlements led by the Franks and Bavarii followed the conquest of the Sorbs and other Wends in the early 10th century, othe
The Kashubs are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia in modern north-central Poland. Their settlement area is referred to as Kashubia, they speak the Kashubian language, classified either as a separate language related to Polish, or as a Polish dialect. Analogously to their linguistic classification, the Kashubs are considered either an ethnic or a linguistic community; the Kashubs are related to the Poles. The Kashubs are grouped with the Slovincians as Pomeranians; the Slovincian and Kashubian languages are grouped as Pomeranian languages, with Slovincian either a distinct language related to Kashubian, or a Kashubian dialect. Among larger cities, Gdynia contains the largest proportion of people declaring Kashubian origin. However, the biggest city of the Kashubia region is Gdańsk, the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Between 80.3% and 93.9% of the people in towns such as Linia, Szemud, Chmielno, Żukowo, etc. are of Kashubian descent. The traditional occupations of the Kashubs have been fishing.
These have been joined by the hospitality industries, as well as agrotourism. The main organization that maintains the Kashubian identity is the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association; the formed "Odroda" is dedicated to the renewal of Kashubian culture. The traditional capital has been disputed for a long time and includes Kartuzy among the seven contenders; the biggest cities claiming to be the capital are: Gdańsk, Bytów. The total number of Kashubians varies depending on one's definition. A common estimate is that over 500,000 people in Poland are of the Kashubian ethnicity, the estimates range from ca. 500,000 to ca. 570,000. In the Polish census of 2002, only 5,100 people declared Kashubian national identity, although 52,655 declared Kashubian as their everyday language. Most Kashubs declare Polish national identity and Kashubian ethnicity, are considered both Polish and Kashubian. On the 2002 census there was no option to declare one national identity and a different ethnicity, or more than one ethnicity.
On the 2011 census, the number of persons declaring "Kashubian" as their only ethnicity was 16,000, 233,000 including those who declared Kashubian as first or second ethnicity. In that census, over 108,000 people declared everyday use of Kashubian language; the number of people who can speak at least some Kashubian is higher, around 366,000. Map: http://docplayer.pl/57273906-Instytut-kaszubski-acta-cassubiana-tom-xvii.html As of 1890, linguist Stefan Ramułt estimated the number of Kashubs in Pomerelia as 174,831. He estimated that at that time there were over 90,000 Kashubs in the United States, around 25,000 in Canada,15,000 in Brazil and 25,000 elsewhere in the world. In total 330,000. Kashubs are a Western Slavic people living on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Kashubs have their own unique language and traditions, having lived somewhat isolated for centuries from the common Polish population; the earliest census figures on ethnic or national structure of West Prussia and Farther Pomerania are from 1817-1823.
Karl Andree, "Polen: in geographischer, geschichtlicher und culturhistorischer Hinsicht", gives the total population of West Prussia as 700,000 - including 50% Poles, 47% Germans and 3% Jews. Kashubians are included with Poles. In all constituencies with significant Catholic Kashubian population, all Reichstag elections in 1867-1912 were won by the Polish Party. Kashubs descend from the Slavic Pomeranian tribes, who had settled between the Oder and Vistula Rivers after the Migration Period, were at various times Polish and Danish vassals. While most Slavic Pomeranians were assimilated during the medieval German settlement of Pomerania in the Pomeranian Southeast some kept and developed their customs and became known as Kashubians; the oldest known mention of "Kashubia" dates from 19 March 1238 – Pope Gregor IX wrote about Bogislaw I as dux Cassubie – the Duke of Kashubia. The old one dates from the 13th century; the Dukes of Pomerania hence used "Duke of Kashubia" in their titles, passing it to the Swedish Crown who succeeded in Swedish Pomerania when the House of Pomerania became extinct.
The westernmost parts of Kashubia, located in the medieval Lands of Schlawe and Stolp and Lauenburg and Bütow Land, were integrated into the Duchy of Pomerania in 1317 and 1455 and remained with its successors until 1945, when the area became Polish. The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, since 1945 within the People's Republic of Poland, after within the Third Polish Republic. German Ostsiedlung in Kashubia was initiated by the Pom
Florian Ceynowa was a doctor, political activist and linguist. He undertook efforts to identify Kashubian language and traditions, he and Alexander Hilferding were not the only ones to study the language and legends of the Kashubians, but they had the greatest influence and prompted others to take up investigations. The individual nature of the Kashubian character and language was first described by Hilferding, to whom we are indebted for the first data about the range of Kashubian dialects. In 1856, he and Ceynowa traveled to the Kashubia, he awakened Kashubian self-identity, thereby opposing Germanisation and Prussian authority, Polish nobility and clergy. He strove for a Russian-led pan-Slavic federation, he strove to create a program aimed at the introduction of a Kashubian standard in grammar and spelling, based on the spirit of the 1848 Revolution. He compiled treatises on Kashubian grammar, published Kashubian texts along with their translations into other Slavic languages. An important person for Kashubian literature, he was a translator of Russian texts into Kashubian language.
Ceynowa was a pioneer of the nationalist movement among the Kashubian people in the mid-19th century. He was part of an attempt to take the Prussian garrison in Preußisch Stargard during 1846, but the operation failed when his 100 combatants, armed only with scythes, decided to abandon the site before the attack was carried out. De terrae Pucensis incolarum superstitione in re medica: dissertatio inauguralis medica / quam... publice defendet auctor Florianus Ceynowa, Berlin: Schlesinger, 1851, no ISBN. Xążeczka dlo Kaszebov przez Wójkasena, Danzig: 1850, no ISBN Kurze Betrachtungen über die kaßubische Sprache, als Entwurf zur Grammatik, ed. introd. and comm. by Aleksandr Dmitrievič Duličenko and Werner Lehfeldt, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998, ISBN 3-525-82501-3. "Mały zbiór wyrazów kaszubskich maja̜cych wie̜ksze podobieństwo w je̜zyku rosyjskim aniżeli w je̜zyku polskim", Hanna Popowska-Taborska, in: Uwagi o Kaszubszczyźnie, Jerzy Treder on behalf of the Muzeum Piśmiennictwa i Muzyki Kaszubsko-Pomorskiej, Wejherowo: Muzeum Piśmiennictwa i Muzyki Kaszubsko-Pomorskiej, 22001, ISBN 83-911638-6-5 / 83-88487-75-2.
Sbjor pjesnj svjatovih, ktòre lud skovjanjskj vkròlestvje pruskjm spjevacj lubj, Schwetz: J. Hauste, 1878, no ISBN. Sto frartovek a potudrovéj czéscj Pomorza Kaszubśkjego, osoblivje z zjemj Svjeckjèj, Koczevja i Boròv, Schwetz: no year, no ISBN. Zarés do grammatiki kašébsko-slovjnskje mòvé, Posen: Simon, 1879, no ISBN. J. Drzeżdżon, Współczesna literatura kaszubska 1945-1980, Warszawa 1986 G. Stone, Slav outposts in Central European history: the Wends and Kashubs, London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2016, pp. 233-6,287 Jerzy Treder: Kashubian to Polish. Language Contacts
Friedrich Lorentz was a German historian. He is the author of publications in the field of linguistics and Kashubian culture; as he wrote Kashubian is language having 76 different subdialects itself. Slovinzische Texte S.-Peterburg: Izdanìe Vtorogo Otdělenìâ Imperatorskoj Akademìi Nauk, 1905. Kaszubi: kultura ludowa i język translated as "The Cassubian civilization" by Friedrich Lorentz and A. Fischer with Tadeusz Lehr-Spławiński, London and Faber, 1935. G. Stone: Slav outposts in Central European history: the Wends and Kashubs, London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2016, p. 286
Early Middle Ages
Historians regard the Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE. They marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history; the alternative term "Late Antiquity" emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, precedes the High Middle Ages; the period saw a continuation of trends evident since late classical antiquity, including population decline in urban centres, a decline of trade, a small rise in global warming and increased migration. In the 19th century the Early Middle Ages were labelled the "Dark Ages", a characterization based on the relative scarcity of literary and cultural output from this time. However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to survive, though in the 7th century the Rashidun Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate conquered swathes of Roman territory.
Many of the listed trends reversed in the period. In 800 the title of "Emperor" was revived in Western Europe with Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire affected European social structure and history. Europe experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system, which adopted such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plough. Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, although the Viking expansion affected Northern Europe. Starting in the 2nd century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, population. Archaeologists have identified only 40 per cent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks from the 3rd century as from the first. Estimates of the population of the Roman Empire during the period from 150 to 400 suggest a fall from 65 million to 50 million, a decline of more than 20 per cent; some scholars have connected this de-population to the Dark Ages Cold Period, when a decrease in global temperatures impaired agricultural yields.
Early in the 3rd century Germanic peoples migrated south from Scandinavia and reached the Black Sea, creating formidable confederations which opposed the local Sarmatians. In Dacia and on the steppes north of the Black Sea the Goths, a Germanic people, established at least two kingdoms: Therving and Greuthung; the arrival of the Huns in 372–375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns, a confederation of central Asian tribes, founded an empire, they had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Goths sought refuge in Roman territory; however many bribed the Danube border-guards into allowing them to bring their weapons. The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting unit; the Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain the formation in combat, while cavalry tended to scatter when faced with opposition. While a barbarian army could be raised and inspired by the promise of plunder, the legions required a central government and taxation to pay for salaries, constant training and food.
The decline in agricultural and economic activity reduced the empire's taxable income and thus its ability to maintain a professional army to defend itself from external threats. In the Gothic War, the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople. By this time, the distinction in the Roman army between Roman regulars and barbarian auxiliaries had broken down, the Roman army comprised barbarians and soldiers recruited for a single campaign; the general decline in discipline led to the use of smaller shields and lighter weaponry. Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, on the way with reinforcements. While the Romans were engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one-third of the Roman army managed to escape; this represented the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since the Battle of Cannae, according to the Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus.
The core army of the Eastern Roman Empire was destroyed, Valens was killed, the Goths were freed to lay waste to the Balkans, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibbon comments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of justice which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians."The empire lacked the resources, the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army destroyed at Adrianople, so it had to rely on barbarian armies to fight for it. The Eastern Roman Empire succeeded in buying off the Goths with tribute; the Western Roman Empire proved less fortunate. Stilicho, the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhine frontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy by the Visigoths in 402–03 and by other Goths in 406–07. Fleeing before the advance of the Huns, the Vandals and Alans launched an attack across the frozen Rhine near Mainz.
There soon followed the bands of the Alamanni. In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, the Western Roman Emperor Honorius had Stilicho summarily beheaded. Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of t
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia, Central Asia, as well as in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration. Slavs are the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe. Present-day Slavic people are classified into East Slavs, West Slavs, South Slavs. Slavs can be further grouped by religion. Orthodox Christianity is practiced by the majority of Slavs; the Orthodox Slavs include the Belarusians, Macedonians, Russians, Rusyns and Ukrainians and are defined by Orthodox customs and Cyrillic script, as well as their cultural connection to the Byzantine Empire.
Their second most common religion is Roman Catholicism. The Catholic Slavs include Croats, Kashubs, Poles, Slovaks and Sorbs and are defined by their Latinate influence and heritage and connection to Western Europe. There are substantial Protestant and Lutheran minorities among the West Slavs, such as the historical Bohemian Hussites; the second-largest religion among the Slavs after Christianity is Islam. Muslim Slavs include the Bosniaks, Gorani, Torbeši, other Muslims of the former Yugoslavia. Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are diverse both genetically and culturally, relations between them – within the individual groups – range from ethnic solidarity to mutual hostility; the oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th century AD Procopius, writing in Byzantine Greek, using various forms such as Sklaboi, Sklabēnoi, Sthlabenoi, or Sklabinoi, while his contemporary Jordanes refers to the Sclaveni in Latin. The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne.
These forms point back to a Slavic autonym which can be reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověne. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is considered a derivation from slovo denoting "people who speak", i. e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud. Ancient Roman sources refer to the Early Slavic peoples as Veneti, who dwelled in a region of central Europe east of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, west of the Iranian Sarmatians in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD; the Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni first appear in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under emperor Justinian I, such as Procopius of Caesarea and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire.
Jordanes, in his work Getica, describes the Veneti as a "populous nation" whose dwellings begin at the sources of the Vistula and occupy "a great expanse of land". He describes the Veneti as the ancestors of Antes and Slaveni, two early Slavic tribes, who appeared on the Byzantine frontier in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae had a single name in the remote past; the name Sporoi derives from Greek σπείρω. He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, believe in one god, "the maker of lightning", to whom they made sacrifice, they lived in scattered housing, changed settlement. In war, they were foot soldiers with small shields and battle axes clothed, some entering battle naked with only genitals covered, their language is "barbarous", the two tribes are alike in appearance, being tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline to the dark type, but they are all ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts..."
Jordanes described the Sclaveni having forests for their cities. Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers and marshes. Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius who slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I for asking the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars. According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic-speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of