German is a West Germanic language, spoken in Central Europe. It is the most spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, Liechtenstein, it is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of 100 million people worldwide and the most spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
German is the second most taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level, the fourth most taught non-English language in the US, the second most used scientific language as well as the third most used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom and French are the most-sought after foreign languages for businesses. German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns and adjectives, three genders, two numbers, strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, it is notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world.
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects". Modern Standard German is a West Germanic language descended from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages; the Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: North Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse; the East Germanic languages are now extinct, the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, Dutch, Yiddish and others. Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift from those that were not.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, Low Franconian can be further distinguished as Irminonic and Istvaeonic, respectively; this classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones and Istvaeones. Standard German is based on a combination of Thuringian-Upper Saxon and Upper Franconian and Bavarian dialects, which are Central German and Upper German dialects, belonging to the Irminonic High German dialect group. German is therefore related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish, Yiddish. Related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German, the various Germanic dialects spoken in the French region of Grand Est, such as Alsatian and Lorraine Franconian.
After these High German dialects, standard German is related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects or Low German/Low Saxon dialects, neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic.
County of Gützkow
The County of Gützkow was a part of the Duchy of Pomerania during the High Middle Ages, named after the central town of Gützkow and stretching from the Peene River in the South to the Ryck River in the North. It emerged from the earlier Liutician Principality of Gützkow, turned into a castellany when subdued by the Dukes of Pomerania; when the last Count of Gützkow died in 1359, the area was turned into a Vogtei, merged into Amt Wolgast in the beginning 16th century. Until the 12th century, the burgh of Gützkow was the center of a Liutizian principality; when Otto von Bamberg converted the area to Christianity in 1128, Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania, had subdued it. Otto's chroniclers reported a princeps "Mitzlaw de Gützkow". Otto levelled an important Liutizian temple and replaced it with St Nicolai's church, now the center of the town of Gützkow; the dukes of Pomerania turned the principality into a Pomeranian castellany district and appointed a castellan. In 1164 and 1177, the area was subject to Saxon raids.
Wartislaw was castellan of Gützkow until his death in 1219. His wife Dobroslawa, daughter of Bogislaw II, Duke of Pomerania, was styled Countess of Gützkow in a 1226 document approving the transfer of various lands to the nearby Stolpe Abbey. In 1234, Dobroslawa married the German noble Jaczo von Salzwedel, who expanded the old burgh on Gützkow's Schlossberg hill with stone buildings. Around 1230, German settlers were invited to the sparsely settled central and northern areas devastated by earlier warfare; the German settlement was part of the pattern of larger migrations and social changes known as Ostsiedlung. Hanshagen was named after Count Johann I of Gützkow. Konrad II von Salzwedel, Jaczo's brother and since 1233 bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cammin, advanced his relatives by enfeoffing them with lands belonging to Usedom Abbey. Gützkow was granted Lübeck law. To oppose Eldena Abbey, which dominated the northern areas and Dobroslawa in 1242 founded a Franciscan friary in Greifswald, at this time the market place of Eldena.
Hence this friary housed the tombs of the von Gützkow family. An inscription on the ceiling read: "Anno MCCLXII Fratres minores primo intraverunt hanc civitatem ad obtinendum. Vocati a Domino Jackecen comite generoso de Gutzkow, quorum corpora hic in choro requiescunt. Nota: quod generosus Comis Jackecen de Gutzkow hanc aream dedit fratibus in honorem sanctorum Petri et Pauli "The Counts of Gützkow minted their own coins. Jaczo's sons Johann I, Konrad and Jaczo II were until 1270 called Herren von Gützkow, thereafter Grafen von Gützkow; the marriage of Jaczo II and Cecislawa of Putbus was arranged by the time they were aged five and two Cecislawa being a princess of a branch of the family of the princes of Rügen who ruled the areas north of Gützkow. Other arrangements connected the Gützkow family with the House of Pomerania. In 1295, Jaczo II was a witness to the internal partition of the Duchy of Pomerania, which made Gützkow a part of Pomerania-Wolgast. Jaczo's grandson, Nikolaus of Gützkow, was in 1319 appointed by Wartislaw IV of Pomerania-Wolgast to lead a court.
Johann III and Johann IV were involved in a conflict with the Pomeranian dukes about their mother Margarete's possessions. Margarete's brother, Bogislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania, had handed over the areas of Konsages, Schlatkow and Bünzow as dowry; when Wartislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania, claimed these areas, they joined Pomerania's opponent Mecklenburg in the first war for the Rugian succession. After the Battle of Griebenow, the Counts of Gützkow settled the conflict, changed sides and fought for the dukes of Pomerania. In 1327 they besieged the town of Barth. In April 1328, an army led by the Counts of Gützkow and assisted by troops from Demmin and Altentreptow won the decisive Battle of Völschow against the troops of Heinrich II of Mecklenburg. In 1329 - 1334, Counts Johann III and Johann IV assisted the dukes of Pomerania-Stettin in the Pomeranian-Brandenburgian War against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In 1331, they participated in the Battle of Kremmer Damm. Due to the high war costs, they sold many areas to the town of Greifswald, e.g. in 1334 - 1351 Sanz, Müssow and Guest.
Count Johann V of Gützkow died on October 25, 1351, during the Battle of Schoppendamm near Loitz fighting in the Second War for the Rugian Succession. When his uncle Johann III died soon afterwards in 1359, the House of Gützkow became extinct in the male line; until 1378, the sisters of Johann V continued to live in Burg Gützkow. The Counts of Gützkow were succeeded by the Dukes of Pomerania, who hence added "Count of Gützkow" to their title; the Gützkow coat of arms was incorporated into the arms of Pomerania. Subsequent to the dissolution of Pomerania as independent dukedom, the line Pommern-Stettin continued the use of the subsidiary title e.g. Erich v. Gützkow-Peglow; the name Grafschaft Gützkow was further used to describe the area that the Pomeranian dukes had turned into a Vogtei. The last Vogt was Hans Owstin, mentioned in the 1480s. In the beginning of the 16th century, the Vogtei Gützkow was made part of Amt Wolgast, that comprised the area of the former Vogtei, the territory of Wusterhusen and the areas east of Gützkow.
After the Vogtei was dissolved, the area was still referred to as Grafschaft Gützkow. The area of the principality, castellany and Vogtei of Gützkow did not change over time. In the north it was bordered by the rivers Ziese. In the east, the
Ostsiedlung, in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, the Baltics. The affected area stretched from Estonia in the north all the way to Slovenia in the south and extended into Transylvania, modern-day Romania in the east. In part, Ostsiedlung followed the territorial expansion of the Teutonic Order. According to Jedlicki, in many cases the term "German colonization" does not refer to an actual migration of Germans, but rather to the internal migration of native populations from the countryside to the cities, which adopted laws modeled on those of the German towns of Magdeburg and Lübeck. Before and during the time of German settlement, late medieval Central and Eastern European societies underwent deep cultural changes in demography, religion and administration, settlement numbers and structures.
Thus Ostsiedlung is part of a process termed Ostkolonisation or Hochmittelalterlicher Landesausbau, although these terms are sometimes used synonymously. Ethnic conflicts erupted between the newly arrived settlers and local populations and expulsions of native populations are known. In several areas subject to the Ostsiedlung, the existing population was discriminated against and pushed away from administration. In the 20th century, the Ostsiedlung was exploited by German nationalists, including the Nazis, to press the territorial claims of Germany and to demonstrate supposed German superiority over non-Germanic peoples, whose cultural and scientific achievements in that era were undermined, rejected, or presented as German. Central Europe underwent dramatic changes after the Migration Period of 300 to 700 CE; the Roman Empire had lost its dominant position. The Franks had created an empire that, besides former Roman Gaul, had united the former West Germanic-speaking peoples and adopted Christianity.
East Francia, an early predecessor of Germany, aimed to be the successor to the Christian Western Roman Empire, developed into the Holy Roman Empire. In Scandinavia, the former North Germanic-speaking peoples entered the Viking Age, affecting the whole of Europe through trade and raids; some former East Germanic-speaking peoples had entered and merged into Rome, their own culture ceasing to exist. At the same time Slav states arose and became dominant in Eastern Europe and large parts of Central Europe; the Slavs living within the reach of Francia were collectively called Wends or "Elbe Slavs". They formed larger political entities, but rather constituted various small tribes, dwelling as far west as to a line from the Eastern Alps and Bohemia to the Saale and Elbe rivers; as the Frankish Empire expanded, various Wendish tribes were conquered or allied with the Franks, such as the Obotrites, who aided the Franks in defeating the West Germanic Saxons. The conquered Wendish areas were organized by the Franks into marches, which were administered by an entrusted noble who collected the tribute, reinforced by military units.
The establishing of marches was accompanied by missionary efforts. Marches set up by Charlemagne in the territory where the Ostsiedlung would take place included, from north to south: the Danish march between the Eider and Schlei, against the Danes and the Jutes the Saxon Eastern March or Nordalbingen March between the Eider and Elbe in what is now Holstein against the Obotrites the Thuringian or Sorbian March on the Saale, against the Sorbs dwelling behind the limes sorabicus the Franconian march in what is now Upper Franconia, against the Czechs the Avar March between the Enns and the Vienna Woods, against the Avars the March of Pannonia east of Vienna the Carantanian march the Friaul marchIn most cases, the tribes of the marches were not stable allies of the empire. Frankish kings initiated numerous, yet not always successful, military campaigns to maintain their authority. Kings and emperors such as Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor and expanded the marches, creating: the Billung March on the Baltic Sea, stretching from Groswin to Schleswig Marca Geronis, a precursor of the Saxon Eastern March divided into smaller marches Austrian March the Carantania or March of Styria the Drau March the Sann March the Krain or Carniola march Windic March and White Carniola, in what is now SloveniaUnder the rule of King Louis the German of East Francia and of Arnulf of Carinthia, the first waves of settlement were led by Franks and Bavarii, reached the area of what is today Slovakia and what was Pannonia.
The pioneers were Catholics. Although the first settlements led by the Franks and Bavarii followed the conquest of the Sorbs and other Wends in the early 10th century, othe
Pomerania-Stolp was one of the partitions of the Duchy of Pomerania. Centered in Słupsk, it was created from another partition of the Duchy of Pomerania, Pomerania-Wolgast, to satisfy Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania in 1368, existed until 1459, when it was inherited by Eric II of Pomerania-Wolgast. In 1474, it was merged to the partition of Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania, who four years became the sole duke of Pomerania; the Duchy of Pomerania was partitioned several times to satisfy the claims of the male members of the ruling House of Pomerania dynasty. The partitions were named after the ducal residences: Pomerania-Barth, -Demmin, -Rügenwalde, -Stettin, -Stolp, -Wolgast. None of the partitions had a hereditary character, the members of the House of Pomerania inherited the duchy in common; the duchy thus continued to exist as a whole despite its division. After the death of Barnim IV of Pomerania-Wolgast in 1366, an armed conflict arose when Barnim's brother Bogislaw V refused to share his power with Barnim's sons, Wartislaw VI and Bogislaw VI, his other brother, Wartislaw V, who in turn allied with Mecklenburg to enforce their claims.
On May 25, 1368, a compromise was negotiated in Anklam, made a formal treaty on June 8, 1372 in Stargard, resulted in a partition of Pomerania-Wolgast. Bogislaw V received most of the Farther Pomeranian parts. Excepted was the land of Neustettin, to be ruled by his brother Wartislaw V, was integrated into Bogislaw's part-duchy only after his death in 1390; this eastern partition became known as Pomerania-Stolp. The situation of the descendants of Bogislaw V, who ruled Pomerania-Stolp, differed somewhat from the situation of their western counterparts; the area was more sparsely settled and dominated by powerful noble families, so not much income could be derived by the dukes. On the other hand, the Stolpian branch of the House of Pomerania had relatives among the royal houses of Denmark and Poland. Casimir IV and Elisabeth, the children of Bogislaw V and his first wife Elisabeth, the daughter of Casimir III of Poland, where both raised at the Polish court in Kraków. Elisabeth would become Holy Roman Empress after her marriage with Charles IV, Casimir was adopted by and designated heir of his grandfather.
Yet, his ambitions were thwarted when Ludwig of Hungary overruled the testament of Casimir of Poland in 1370, Casimir of Pomerania-Stolp only for a short time took the land of Dobrin as a fief. During the Polish–Teutonic wars, the Pomeranian dukes changed sides between Poland and the knights frequently. Wartislaw VII and Barnim V allied with the Teutonic Order. In 1390 however, after Jogaila had promised to hand part of the heritage of Casimir IV, Wartislaw VII's stepbrother, over to Wartislaw, the latter concluded an alliance with Poland and received the Polish castellany of Naklo and some adjacent areas as a fief in return, declaring himself a vassal of Jagiełło III in Pyzdry. Scholars offer somewhat different interpretations of the treaty of Pyzdry. According to scholars such as Juliusz Bardach, Władysław Czapliński, Marceli Kosman, Tadeusz Ładogórski, Andrzej Nowakowski, Michał Sczaniecki and Kazimierz Ślaski, Wartislaw's oath was for all territory held by him and meant that Pomerania-Stolp itself become a Polish fief.
Other descriptions of the treaty included an oath of vassalage of Wartislaw VII to Jagiello without specifying a territory: Gòrski, Labuda,. Czacharowski refers to Naklo being held as a Polish fief. With respect to the discourse in Polish historiography and Buchholz say that however the treaty is interpreted, it did not have any significance for the future; the vassalage was short-lived. Eric II of Pomerania-Stolp, grand-grandchild of Danish king Valdemar IV in contrast became king of the Kalmar Union in 1397. Eric however failed in his most ambitious plan, to make Bogislaw IX Of Pomerania-Stolp king of both the Kalmar Union and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Eric had to leave Denmark in 1449 and ruled Pomerania-Rügenwalde, a small partition of Pomerania-Stolp, until his death in 1459. Pomerania-Stolp was a crucial point in the knights' land supply route. Bogislaw VIII of Pomerania-Stolp allied with both the Teutonic Knights and Poland, but supported the latter after the war had started in 1409 by blocking his lands for the knights' troops and allowing his nobles to kidnap those who were travelling his lands.
For his aid, he was granted the Lauenburg and Bütow areas and others, but those were lost in the First Peace of Thorn in 1411. Eric II of Pomerania--Stolp allied with the Polish king Casimir IV in his Thirteen Years' War against the Teutonic Knights. On January 3, 1455, he in turn was granted the Bütow Land at the Pomerelian frontier; when Lauenburg was retaken by the knights in 1459, the Polish king was upset and ravaged the Stolp area. Eric reconciled with the king on August 21, 1466, bought the town from the knights on October 11, six days before the Second Peace of Thorn, signed by Eric in 1467. Pomerania-Wolgast was reunited following the death of both Barnim
History of Pomerania (1806–1933)
History of Pomerania covers the history of Pomerania from the early 19th century until the rise of Nazi Germany. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means " by the sea". From the Napoleonic Wars to the end of World War I, Pomerania was administered by the Kingdom of Prussia as the Province of Pomerania and Province of West Prussia. After World War I Pomerania was divided between Germany. After the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II as Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, Western Pomerania was part of the Free State of Prussia within the Weimar Republic, while the eastern part became a part of Poland, organized into the Pomeranian Voivodeship; the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic was established from the bulk of West Prussia, causing an exodus of the German minority there. Poland build a large Baltic port at Gdynia; the Danzig area became. The industrial revolution affected the Stettin area and the infrastructure, while most Pomerania retained a rural and agricultural character.
Since 1850, the net migration rate was negative, German Pomeranians emigrated to Berlin, the west German industrial regions and overseas. Many immigrated to the United States the state of Wisconsin, founded in 1848. After Prussia lost the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in late 1806, French troops marched north into the Pomeranian province. Fortified Stettin surrendered without battle, the province became occupied by the French forces. Only fortified Kolberg resisted, the French laid a siege in March 1807. Ferdinand von Schill was among the defendants; the siege was not successful and was lifted only when Prussia surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte in the Peace of Tilsit on July 2. Napoleonic occupation thwarted Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden's plans to construct a fortified port city on Rügen, Gustavia. Constructions had begun in 1806, but the unfinished town was levelled by the French forces in the following year; the terms of surrender included high war reparations. The agreed withdrawal of the French troops was delayed repeatedly.
In November 1808, the French troops left the province except for Stettin, which forced the provincial government to move to Stargard in 1809. The Kriegs- und Domänenkammer was renamed Royal-Prussian government, while the former government was renamed Supreme State Court. In 1812, French troops invaded Swedish Pomerania, occupied Prussian Pomerania again; the Prussian troops took quarter in Kolberg. After Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg, who commanded a Prussian corps with a significant Pomeranian share, had left the coalition with France in the Convention of Tauroggen of December 30, 1812, the Prussian military called the Pomeranians to arms in February 1813. In February, Russian troops reached Farther Pomerania. In March, all French forces left Pomerania, except for Stettin, held by the French until December 5, 1813. After the war, Prussia after diplomatic efforts of Karl August von Hardenberg in the Congress of Vienna gained Swedish Pomerania by paying 2,6 million Taler to Denmark and granting her the Duchy of Lauenburg, paying an additional 3,5 million Taler to Sweden on June 7, 1815.
On October 23, Swedish Pomerania was merged into the Prussian province, both now constituting the Province of Pomerania. After Napoleon's break-up of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Western Part was the member of the German Confederation. After foundation of the German Empire of 1871, the whole of Pomerania was included into the newly created state; the Province of Pomerania was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 until 1934. Although there had been a Prussian Province of Pomerania before, the Province of Pomerania was newly reconstituted in 1815, based on the "decree concerning improved establishment of provincial offices", issued by Karl August von Hardenberg on 30 April, the integration of Swedish Pomerania, handed over to Prussia on October 23; the Hardenberg decree reformed all Prussian territories, which henceforth formed ten provinces with similar administration. After the implementation of the reform, the new Province of Pomerania consisted of her predecessor and Swedish Pomerania, but of the Dramburg and Schivelbein counties.
The province was headed by a governor with his seat in Stettin. It was subdivided into government regions headed by a president. Two such regions were planned. Hardenberg however, who as the Prussian chief diplomat had settled the terms of session of Swedish Pomerania with Sweden at the Congress of Vienna, had assured to leave the local constitution in place when the treaty was signed on June 7, 1815; this circumstance led to a creation of a third government region, Regierungsbezirk Stralsund, for the former Swedish Pomerania at the expense of the Stettin region. In early 1818, governor Johann August Sack had reformed the county shapes, yet adopted the former shape in most cases. Köslin government region comprised nine counties, Stettin government region thirteen, Stralsund government region four; the new parliament assembled first on October 3, 1824. Based on two laws of June 5 and July, 1823, the Landtag was constituted by 25
Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)
The Province of Pomerania was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945. Pomerania was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, an expansion of the older Brandenburg-Prussia province of Pomerania, became part of the German Empire in 1871. From 1918, Pomerania was a province of the Free State of Prussia until it was dissolved in 1945 following World War II, its territory divided between Poland and Allied-occupied Germany. Stettin was the provincial capital; the name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means "Land at the Sea". The province was created from the former Prussian Province of Pomerania, which consisted of Farther Pomerania and the southern Western Pomerania, former Swedish Pomerania, it resembled the territory of the former Duchy of Pomerania, which after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 had been split between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden. The districts of Schivelbein and Dramburg belonging to the Neumark, were merged into the new province. While in the Kingdom of Prussia, the province was influenced by the reforms of Karl August von Hardenberg and Otto von Bismarck.
The Industrial Revolution affected the Stettin area and the infrastructure, while most of the province retained a rural and agricultural character. From 1850, the net migration rate was negative. After World War I, democracy and the women's right to vote were introduced to the province. After Wilhelm II's abdication, it was part of the Free State of Prussia; the economic situation worsened due to the consequences of worldwide recession. As in the previous Kingdom of Prussia, Pomerania was a stronghold of the nationalist conservatives who continued in the Weimar Republic. In 1933, the Nazis established a totalitarian regime, concentrating the province's administration in the hands of their Gauleiter, implementing Gleichschaltung; the German invasion of Poland in 1939 was launched in part from Pomeranian soil. Jewish and Polish populations were classified as "subhuman" by the German state during the war and subjected to repressions, slave work and executions. Opponents were executed. Besides the air raids conducted since 1943, World War II reached the province in early 1945 with the East Pomeranian Offensive and the Battle of Berlin, both launched and won by the Soviet Union's Red Army.
Insufficient evacuation left the population subject to murder, war rape, plunder by the successors. When the war was over, the Oder–Neisse line cut the province in two unequal parts; the smaller western part became part of the East German State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The larger eastern part was attached to post-war Poland as Szczecin Voivodeship. After the war, ethnic Germans were expelled from Poland and the area was re-settled with Poles]. Most of the territory of the province lies within the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, which share the same city-–now Szczecin-–as its capital; until 1932, the province was subdivided into the government regions (Regierungsbezirk Köslin and Stralsund. The Stralsund region was merged into the Stettin region in 1932. In 1938, Grenzmark Posen-Westpreußen was merged into the province; the provincial capital was Stettin, the Regierungsbezirk capitals were Köslin, Stettin and Schneidemühl, respectively. In 1905 the Province of Pomerania had 1,684,326 inhabitants, among them 1,616,550 Protestants, 50,206 Catholics, 9,660 Jews.
In 1900 Polish was the native language of 14,162 of the inhabitants, there were 310 whose native language was Kashubian. The area of the province amounted to 30,120 square kilometres. In 1925, the province had an area of 30,208 square kilometres, with a population of 1,878,780 inhabitants. Although there had been a Prussian Province of Pomerania before, the Province of Pomerania was newly constituted in 1815, based on the "decree concerning improved establishment of provincial offices", issued by Karl August von Hardenberg on 30 April, the integration of Swedish Pomerania, handed over to Prussia on 23 October; the Hardenberg decree reformed all Prussian territories, which henceforth formed ten provinces with similar administrations. After the implementation of the reform, the new Province of Pomerania consisted of its predecessor and Swedish Pomerania, but of the Dramburg and Schivelbein counties; the province was headed by a governor with his seat in Stettin. It was subdivided into government regions headed by a president.
Two such regions were planned. Hardenberg however, who as the Prussian chief diplomat had settled the terms of session of Swedish Pomerania with Sweden at the Congress of Vienna, had assured to leave the local constitution in place when the treaty was signed on 7 June 1815; this circumstance led to a creation of a third government region, Regierungsbezirk Stralsund, for the former Swedish Pomerania at the expense of the Stettin region. In early 1818, Governor Johann Au