The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
North Coast railway line, Queensland
The North Coast railway line is a narrow gauge railway line in Queensland, Australia. It commences at Roma Street station and parallels the Queensland coast to Cairns in Far North Queensland; the line is electrified between Rockhampton. Along the way, the 1680 km railway passes through the numerous towns and cities of eastern Queensland including Nambour, Gladstone, Rockhampton and Townsville; the line though the centre of Rockhampton runs down the middle of Denison Street. The North Coast Line has one of the most interesting and complex histories of any railway in Queensland; the first section was opened in 1881, the final section in 1924, the line was opened in over 60 sections during that period. It incorporates sections of lines built by local governments and subsequently taken over by the Queensland Railways, one isolated section was closed for two years following a financial crisis and another isolated section was built as a 610 mm gauge line. Progress was hampered by several financial setbacks, debate over competing routes and parliamentary approval to connect Cairns to Rockhampton and Brisbane was not given until 1910.
Construction standards varied depending upon the era and initial purpose of the section built. There have been five major and numerous minor deviations to improve the alignment of the original line, three sections of it are duplicated. Queensland was the first jurisdiction in the world to adopt narrow gauge for its main lines, with the Main Line opening between Ipswich and Toowoomba between 1865-67. By 1880 over 1,000 km of line had been opened, connecting Brisbane to Roma and Warwick and Rockhampton to Emerald, with a line from Townsville to Charters Towers under construction; the pattern of early Queensland railway development was focused upon providing transport from inland areas to ports at the lowest possible cost. Coastal shipping provided adequate connections between the coastal communities and so priority given to building railways which would facilitate development and immigration to the interior of the colony; the first section of what is now the NCL opened on 6 August 1881. It was built to connect the mining town of Gympie to a river port at Maryborough, followed the Mary River valley.
The Queensland Government was under constant pressure to reduce expenditure, so despite the potential for the line to be part of a future main line, the line was constructed to pioneer standards with minimal earthworks, a sinuous alignment and 17.4 kg/m lightweight rails. Further south a suburban railway was opened between Roma Street and Northgate on 11 May 1882, via Normanby. A direct line from Roma Street to Bowen Hills via Central station was opened in 1890, including a 770-metre tunnel, still the longest on the system; the government formally decided to link Brisbane to Gladstone in 1883, but there was a demand for the southern connecting line to be from Esk to Kilkivan. Whilst that route may have served areas of fertile land, it was hilly terrain, the cost of earthworks would have been substantial; the coastal route would serve less promising agricultural land, but would be less expensive to build. As the Queensland parliament was dominated by rural members, both routes were surveyed in detail, taking six years due to the shortage of surveyors and the terrain involved.
By the time the surveys were finished it was apparent the inland route would be prohibitively expensive, the coastal route was approved. The first section of line formally known as the NCL was opened from North Coast Junction to Petrie and Caboolture in 1888. Coal had been discovered at Burrum, 25 km north of Maryborough, a line was constructed to serve the mine, opening in 1883; the line was extended to Bundaberg in 1888. The opening of the isolated Bowen section of railway in 1890 had resulted in there being 11 separate railway systems operating in Queensland, including the Brisbane and North Bundaberg lines; this was reduced to nine once the Burnett Bridge and the linking of the Brisbane and Maryborough systems occurred, the number of isolated systems reduced as the NCL progressed, though two lines were never connected to the remainder of the system. The coastal route was approved in 1889, with construction starting from both Caboolture and Gympie, the linking section opened in 1891, it was built to main line standard with 29.8 kg/m rail, 8 chains minimum radius curves and 1 in 50 maximum grades, equivalent to 1 in 48 on a minimum radius curve.
This section features the only two tunnels on the entire NCL, one being 191 m, the other 160 m. An example of the benefits of a connected system was the decision by the CSR sugar company in 1895 to rail sugar from Childers to Brisbane instead of using coastal shipping from Maryborough. Parliament approved the Bundaberg to Gladstone line whilst the Brisbane-Gympie competing survey work was still underway, contracts were let in 1888. A railway had opened from North Bundaberg to Mount Perry in 1884, that line starting from the opposite side of the Burnett River from the main part of Bundaberg in order to save the cost of constructing a bridge; the 534 metre bridge over the river connecting the two lines opened in 1891. Construction continued north, the next section to Rosedale opened in 1892; the largest bank in Queensland collapsed following the 1893 Brisbane flood, the subsequent financial downturn resulted in a 2-year halt in construction. The line to Gladstone opened in 1897. Gladstone has the best port in central Queensland, except for the Canoona gold rush near Rockhampton it may have become the main regional city.
Pomona railway station
Pomona railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the town of Pomona in the Shire of Noosa. Pomona railway station opened in 1891 with completion of the line from Cooran to Cooroy. Following withdrawal of staff from the station buildings, Noosa Council in 2000 negotiated the removal of the historic station structures closer to the town center, on the opposite side of the tracks. Today the old station is an art tourist information center; the current station consists of one platform with a steel shelter. In 2009, the platform was extended with plywood materials. Intended as an interim arrangement until a permanent extension was built, the temporary platform remains. Opposite the platform lies a passing loop, used for one train to overtake another, or for when two trains traveling in opposite directions pass each other; the temporary platform was washed away, had to be rebuilt, following flooding in 2012. The temporary platform remains in a flood-prone location.
However, it is due to be replaced with a permanent longer platform, due to be completed in May 2019. The cross-tracks path via the railway station, earmarked for closure, will remain open following protests from local residents. Brisbane-Gympie North train services operate twice a day from the Pomona railway station, but the Queensland Government is being lobbied to introduce more daytime shuttle trains between Gympie North and Nambour once temporary station platforms are replaced at Pomona and Eumundi. Pomona is serviced by two daily City network services in each direction. Sunbus' route 632 Noosa Junction to Cooran serves Pomona station, but none of its services are timed to connect with train services. Media related to Pomona railway station at Wikimedia Commons Pomona station Queensland Rail Pomona station Queensland's Railways on the Internet
Darren Hanlon is an Australian singer/songwriter who plays urban folk music. Darren Hanlon has released five solo albums, four EPs and nine singles on Candle Records and Flippin Yeah industries, as well as several compilation tracks. After the dissolving of Candle Records he has started his own pseudo-label called Flippin Yeah Records in 2008, he self-published his first'zine in late 2017. Before becoming a solo artist in 1999, he was a member of the Simpletons, contributed backing guitar and keyboards for the Lucksmiths, the Dearhunters, Mick Thomas. Hanlon is known for his engagement with his audiences, through his down-to-earth storytelling at live gigs, he has toured with the Weather Station, Michael Hurley, Billy Bragg, David Dondero, Tim Kasher, Violent Femmes, The Magnetic Fields, Courtney Barnett. Described as having a certain brilliance, Darren Hanlon is a spectacular songwriter. In 2015 Hanlon released his latest offering'Where Did You Come From?' Songs were recorded in New Orleans, Muscle Shoals and Clarksdale, with an array of musicians he met along the way, from instrumentalists of popular music Spooner Oldham, David Hood, Howard Grimes, to unknown buskers and street musicians.
Hanlon performs Christmas concerts. In 2017 Christmas tour was his 12th year and brought with him the Space Lady for a special performance from the US. A number of his shows were sold out last year including his Canberra performance at the Ainslie and Gorman Arts Centre. Hello Stranger Little Chills Fingertips And Mountaintops I Will Love You At All Where Did You Come From? Pointing Ray Guns At Pagans Early Days Methods Of Getting Rid Of Hiccups Christmas Songs 2005 Covers for Lovers "Video Party Sleepover" "A to Z" "I Wish That I Was Beautiful For You" "Happiness Is A Chemical" "Elbows" "Electric Skeleton/Butterfly Bones" "All These Things" "Butterfly Bones" "When You Go" Turning his creativity to the written word, Darren Hanlon planned to write a series of stories based on conversations he has with barbers, he is called the'Cutting Remarks' series. Darren Hanlon - Official Website Flippin Yeah Industries - Official Website
The Bruce Highway is a major highway in Queensland, Australia. Commencing in the state capital, Brisbane, it passes through areas close to the eastern coast on its way to Cairns in Far North Queensland; the route is part of the Australian National Highway and part of Highway 1. Its length is 1,679 kilometres; the highway is named after Harry Bruce. Bruce was the state Minister for Works when the highway was named after him, in the mid-1930s, was considered to be a good bloke; the highway once passed through Brisbane, but was truncated at Bald Hills when the Gateway Motorway became National Highway 1 upon its opening in December 1986. The highway is the biggest traffic carrier in Queensland, it joined all the major coastal centres. As a result, the highway is being shortened; the road is a dual carriageway from Brisbane to Cooroy with some dual carriageway lengths at Gympie, many of these upgrades being completed in the 1980s and 1990s. The highway commences just south of the bridge over the Pine River at the Gateway Motorway interchange, 21 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district.
The highway has changed its route numbering from National Highway 1 to the M1 or A1. Major cities along the route include Maryborough, Mackay and Cairns; the highway passes the Glasshouse Mountains and pastures in the Sunshine Coast, the Gunalda Range, Mount Larcom, the arid countryside north of Rockhampton. Commencing in Bald Hills at the junction of the Gateway Motorway and Gympie Arterial Road, the Bruce Highway is a motorway standard road for its first 136 kilometres to Kybong, where it becomes a two-lane sealed highway for most of its remainder; the first 2.5 kilometres to the Dohles Rocks Road interchange has eight lanes and a variable speed limit of up to 100 kilometres per hour. The next 22 kilometres to the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange has six lanes and a maximum speed limit of 100 kilometres per hour. From there to Kybong the road has four lanes and, with one short exception, a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour; this section of the Bruce Highway crosses the Pine River into the Moreton Bay Region, passing through urban areas before crossing the Caboolture River and reaching the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange after 24.5 kilometres.
It runs past or through Murrumba Downs, Kallangur, Mango Hill, North Lakes, Narangba and Morayfield. On the way it is crossed by the Redcliffe Peninsula railway line and passes the Caboolture BP Travel Centre; the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange provides access to the D'Aguilar Highway via a service road. After the D'Aguilar Highway interchange the Bruce passes through rural areas and the Beerburrum and Beerwah State Forests, entering the Sunshine Coast Region before reaching the Caloundra Road interchange after a further 36.1 kilometres. It passes the southern entry to Steve Irwin Way, a bypassed section of the highway, which provides access to Beerburrum, Glass House Mountains, Australia Zoo and Landsborough before terminating at the Caloundra Road interchange; the next 5.6 kilometres to the Sunshine Motorway interchange, providing access to the Sunshine Coast, has a speed limit of 100. The speed limit reverts to 110. After another 7.5 kilometres the Maroochydore Road interchange provides access to Maroochydore and Woombye.
The Bli Bli Road interchange, after a further 7 kilometres, provides access to Bli Nambour. The Yandina -- Coolum Road interchange, after 6.7 kilometres, provides access to Coolum. The Eumundi interchange, after 8.4 kilometres, provides access to Noosa. The Cooroy interchange, after 7.2 kilometres, provides access to Cooroy and Noosa. Total distance from Caloundra Road to this interchange is 42.4 kilometres. The 33 kilometres to the end of the M1 at Kybong includes three interchanges that provide access to the Old Bruce Highway. From Kybong the highway is designated A1, it has numerous parts with lower speed limits, including urban areas, high crash zones and roadwork sites. After 8 kilometres from Kybong the Mary Valley Road interchange provides access to the west of the Mary River; the highway passes through the Gympie urban fringe, with several at grade intersections providing access to various parts of the city. North of Gympie, 14.3 kilometres from the Mary Valley Road interchange, the Wide Bay Highway interchange is reached, providing access to Kilkivan.
Total distance from the Cooroy interchange is 55.4 kilometres. The 73.9 kilometres from the Wide Bay Highway interchange to the Maryborough–Biggenden Road interchange at Maryborough passes through Tiaro and the Gympie Road exit to Maryborough before crossing the Mary River. With the completion of Section C of the Bruce Highway - Cooroy to Curra upgrade project in February 2018 the M1 has now been extended to Kybong, 10 kilometres south of Gympie; the Bruce Highway from Kybong to Gympie remains signed as A1. Section D of the project (Wo