Abitain is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants Abitaonoises. Abitain is bordered on the eastern side by the Gave d'Oloron about 20 km southeast of Peyrehorade and 11 km southwest of Salies-de-Béarn. Access to the commune is by road D936 from Escos in the north, passing south down the eastern side of the commune through the village and continuing to Autevielle-Saint-Martin-Bideren in the south. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune's eastern border is the Gave d'Oloron, which joins the Gave de Pau at Peyrehorade which flows a further 10 km as the Gaves Réunis before joining the Adour river. A number of small streams flow in the commune including Le Crabé which flows into the Gave d'Oloron at the northern border of the commune and the Arrioutèque creek; the commune's name in Béarnais is Avitenh. Michel Grosclaude proposed the Gascon suffix - enh; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Census: Census of Béarn Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Regulations: Regulations of the States of Béarn Denombrement: Denombremont Terrier: Terrier of Abitain. Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne The village of Abitain formed on the left bank of the Gave d'Oloron around its Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Bearn, a building which still remains; the families of Belloc Claverie were the abbot patrons of the parish. The tomb of the last lay abbot of Abitain, who died in 1785, is in the church of Saint-Pierre. Paul Raymond, on page 2 of his 1863 dictionary, noted that in 1385 the town had 15 fires and depended on the bailiwick of Sauveterre.
In 1648 the barony of Lons became a marquisate, which included Abitain, Baleix, Juillacq, Le Leu, Samsons-Lion, Maspie, Oraàs, Peyrède, Viellepinte. The village had one at Séguabache - now a sawmill. In 1856, Ferdinand Carrère, heir to the last Lay Abbey demolished the old abbey castle to build Carrère castle in Escos. In February 1814, the town was occupied by the troops of General Morillo and by the English, facing the French entrenched in Oraàs. A famous ferry - where there was a tragic accident in 1845 - has long been in service between Moliède and Athos. List of Successive Mayors of Abitain The town is a member of seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Sauveterre-de-Béarn the Public agency for local management the inter-communal centre for social action of Sauveterre-de-Béarn. A sawmill is in operation; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. There are only the ruins of the Leu mill. Another mill, called Séguabache, is the current sawmill and is visible in the commune.
During the construction of the clock tower in 1926 what remained of the old lay abbey was destroyed. In the old abbey there was a special room where the Lord of the Manor could overlook the church choir and follow the Mass without being in the crowd; the abbey enclosure can still be seen. The Tombstone of the last lord of Abitain was discovered during the restoration of the church, it was marked on the wall of the church to preserve its memory. The Parish Church of Saint Pierre, of Romanesque origin, still has the arms of the Abitain abbots from the burial of the last abbot. There is a 16th-century window of Germanic origin. In the church is an altarpiece from the 17th century; the Cemetery contains the graves of priests and that of Father Joffre, Capuchin missionary in Canada who died at Abitain in 1909. There is the tomb of Colonel Count Pierre de Chevigne, Companion of the Liberation, one of the greats of béarnaise politics and a strong and faithful supporter of General de Gaulle; the coat of arms of Chevigne are engraved on his tomb with the motto "Quod decet".
He donated equipment to the communes of Abitain and Escos. Pierre de Chevigné, born in Toulon in 1909 and died in Biarritz in 2004 was a colonel and French politician, a Minister in the Fourth Republic and a companion of the Liberation, he was mayor of Abitain from 1935 to 1940 and from 1945 to 1965. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
Aincille is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aintzildars; the town is part of Cize Country in the former Basque province of Lower Navarre. It is located 5 km southeast of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the commune can be accessed by the D401 road from Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port in the northwest to the village. From the village the D118 road goes north to join the D18 highway. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the northeastern border of the commune is marked by the Laurhibar river, which flows north to join the Nive north of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. A stream flows to the Laurhibar in the north-east; the Urtchipea rises in the south of the commune and flows northwest gathering many tributaries and joins the Nive de Beherobie at Saint-Michel. The Sassitako erreka rises southwest of the village and flows northwest joining the Laurhibar east of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the commune name in basque is Ahintzila meaning Aintzila or Aintzil-Harrieta.
Jean-Baptiste Orpustan wrote the name of the commune in the form Aïncille. He indicated that in Basque the inhabitants are referred to as Aintzildar; the following table details the origins of the commune name. Sources: Mérimée: Presentation of the Commune of Aincille on the Ministry of Culture website Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Intendance: Intendance of Pau Part of Aincille territory next to the communes of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan, Bustince-Iriberry, Çaro, Mendive, Saint-Jean-le-Vieux, Saint-Michel, was taken on 11 June 1842 to form of the commune of Estérençuby. List of Successive Mayors of Aincille The commune belongs to six intercommunal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the AEP association of Ainhice the energy association for Pyrenees-Atlantiques the intercommunal association for the development and management of the slaughterhouse at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association for the watershed of the Nive the association to support Basque culture.
The town is part of the production area of Irouléguy AOC and the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. Economic activity is agricultural. Aincille had long received saline since the 17th century and had the distinction of being a corporation with ownership of twenty-nine old houses of the town and was reunited with the royal domain in 1683. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Aincille is Eastern Low Navarrese; the commune has several sites that are registered as historical monuments: Houses and Farms The Idiondoa Farmhouse The Ahadoberria Farmhouse The commune has several religious sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Croix de Carrefour Wayside Cross A Cemetery Cross The Parish Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint John the Baptist The church contains two items that are registered as historical objects: A Processional Cross A Statue: Virgin and child Church Picture Gallery Stained Glass Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINTZILLA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aincille on Lion1906 Aincille on the 1750 Cassini Map Aincille on the INSEE website INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ainhoa is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ainhoars; the commune of Ainhoa is in the traditional Basque province of Labourd. Ainhoa is some 20 km due south of Bayonne and is directly on the Spanish border which forms the southern border of the commune; the commune is mountainous and forested in the south-east portion but with farmland in the northwest of the commune. There is one border crossing to Spain on the southern border at the village of Dantxana. Ainhoa and Sare, together with the two Spanish communes of Zugarramurdi and Urdazubi, form a cross-border territory, called Xareta. Straddling the border with Spain, it is a passage for the Way of St. James from Bayonne to Pamplona; the commune's border with Spain is in the Dancharia area and accesses the area of Dantxarinea d'Urdazubi. The commune is connected to Espelette in the north-east by Highway D20 which passes through the village and continues south to the Spanish border.
Highway D305 branches continues west to join Highway D4 before Cherchebruit. A network of small country roads covers all parts of the commune. Located in the watershed of the Adour, the Nivelle river runs along the southern border and forms the border between France and Spain. Numerous streams arise in the commune and flow down to the Nivelle including the Opalazioko erreka, the Lapitxuri and its tributaries, the Larreko erreka, the Erdiko erreka, the Farendeiko erreka, the Haitzagerriko erreka, the Barretako erreka. Paul Raymond mentions the Haïçaguerry, a tributary of the Nivelle, which descended to Gorospila on the Spanish border, which crossed the territory of Ainhoue; the commune name in basque is the same - Ainhoa. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggested that the name could come from the Basque aino which means "goat"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table.
Map: The Map of the Government-General of Guyenne and Gascony and the neighbouring region Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Lhande: Pierre Lhande, Basque-French DictionaryOrigins: Saint-Claire: Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne The ancient redoubt of Urrizti reflects the ancient past of the area. Paul Raymond noted on page 4 of his 1863 dictionary that the parish of Ainhoa was in the gift of the Abbot of Urdax; the Curacy of Ainhoa was created by the Priory of the Premonstratensian of Urdazubi in the 13th century. On 27 April 1238 the new king Theobald I of Navarre purchased the toll rights instituted by Viscount Juan Pérez de Baztan, Ainhoa being at the borders between the Duchy of Aquitaine since 1151, run by the Angevin Kings of England and the Navarrese kingdom; such tolls were charged to pilgrims and traders traveling to Santiago de Compostela on the Way of St. James in Galicia, Spain.
Military clashes between the "English run" Basques of Aquitaine and the Navarrese in 1249 led the Seigneur of Ainhoa, in 1250, to recognize the suzerainty of King Henry III of England. By 1265 Gonzalvo Juanis, Seigneur of Ainhoa known as Gonzalvo Ibáñez or Gonzalvo Yáñes, did not recognize either the English or the Navarrese; however he opened the way to conquest based on old historical claims. Garda Arnaut de Espelette, with loyalty to the "English run" Basques of the Duchy of Aquitaine, sent a letter, dated 29 July 1289 praying the Ainhoa people to adequately connive with him; the outcome of such frontier business was to set up an "undivided" land as had been done previously with the nearby Aldudes close to the Baztan valley. Documents from Estella dated September 1369, some 80 years proved that the people from Ainhoa paid taxes to both the King of Navarre and the "English" Seneschal of the Landes territory in return for their fiscal and personal privileges; when "English run" Bayonne surrendered to the French in 1451 it is not known if these "undivided status" villages on the English-Navarrese frontier were taken by the French as well.
In the Spanish Invasion of 1636 in the Labourd territories many villages, including Ainhoa, were razed. Because of the 1659 "Treaty of the Pyrénées" whereby the Spanish-born Queen regent of France Anne of Austria with the help of Cardinal Mazarin, the First Minister of France, set up an advantageous peace and obtained Maria Theresa of Spain as a wife for her son Louis XIV of France. Ainhoa was repopulated again. Disputes between the new settlers and the old residents concerning the use of communal lands for cattle grazing and fodder and the access by newcomers to town hall positions, church grants, etc. had to be settled by the autonomous Parliament of Bordeaux in the sense of paying for access to village privileges. Ainhoa was destroyed during the Thirty Years War and rebuilt; the only remains from before the destruction are the Machitorénéa House. In 1724, following the revolts in Saint-Jean-le-Vieux Mouguerre and Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, the people of Ainhoa revolted against the salt tax and against other new taxes.
This was a prelude to the uprisings in all of Labourd in 1726 against the said taxes. Bayonne and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port followed in 1748; the Law of 4 March 1790 determined a new administrative landscape of France by creating departments and districts. This resulted in the creation of the department of Basses-Pyrénées and reuniting the Béarn, the
Angaïs is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angaïsaises. Angaïs is located in the urban area of Pau 6 km south of Ousse. Access to the commune is by the D38 road from Ousse in the north-west passing through the town and continuing south to Baudreix; the D215 comes from near Assat in the west passing through the town and continuing south-east to Beuste. The D938 passes through the south-western corner of the commune and the D839 from Boeil-Bezing forms the southern border of the commune; the north-east of the commune is forested for about 25% of the total land area with the rest of the commune outside the town area farmland. Bus route 835 of the Interurban Network of Pyrenees Atlantiques from Bénéjacq to Pau services the commune; the Lagoin river flows through the centre of the commune from south-east to north-west continuing to join the Gave de Pau near Pau. The commune name in béarnais is Angais.
Brigitte Jobbe-Duval indicated. She mentioned that the people were nicknamed éleveurs de mules; the breeding of these animals had been one of the most productive industries of the Nay plain and of the commune of Angaïs. The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Homages: Homages of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Assat: Fors de Béarn Census: Census of Béarn Navarrenx: Notaries of Navarrenx Paul Raymond noted on opage 6 of his 1863 dictionary that the commune once had a Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. In 1385 there were 4 fires in the commune and it depended on the bailiwick of Pau. On 2 February 1617 Louis de Colom, lay abbot of Angaïs and a trustee of Béarn, made an important speech which united the Catholics and Protestants of Béarn to resist the king's wishes, to oppose the execution of any act that may lead to political annexation of Béarn to France.
In the same year the First Huguenot Rebellion occurred. The Barony of Angaïs was created in 1656 by Louis XIV and consisted of Beuste and Sendets. Isaac de Navailles appears to have been the first Baron, Henri de Navailles-Labatut was Baron of Angaïs in the mid-19th century; the Uzerte of Angaïs refers to a local phenomenon of plague, documented in 1789. The inhabitants of Angaïs stated that every year the plague was transported by clear water - which rose above the village on the plain on the upper side of the wooded area - in April and June, it caused fatal diseases in animals. The poisoned water harmed plants, such as maize, flax and vegetables in gardens. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of six inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Pays de Nay; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-Iraty. The Château of Angaïs is registered as an historical monument; the Parish Church of Notre-Dame is registered as an historical monument. Inside the church the Altar and Retable in the south side chapel are registered as historical objects; the Chemin Henri-IV borders the commune in the north-east. It is a walking trail that connects the Château of Franqueville to Bizanos near Pau at the Lake of Lourdes, it alternates forest trails with dirt roads and offers walkers panoramic views of the Pyrenees, the foothills, the plains. About 35 kilometres long, the route can be divided up between the various roads, it is possible to go on foot, on horseback, or by bicycle but motor vehicles are forbidden. The commune has a primary school. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Angaïs on Lion1906 Angais on the 1750 Cassini Map Angaïs on the INSEE website INSEE
Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is located in the former province of Soule, it is located some 35 km west by 10 km north of Larrau. The commune can be accessed by the small D247 road from the village to Tardets-Sorholus in the north-east; the D149 goes north to Camou-Cihigue. There is the D117 road which goes west from the village to Mendive. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, most of the southern border of the commune is formed by the Alphoura river which flows through the village and continues northeast to join the Saison near Alos-Sibas-Abense; the Alphoura is fed by many tributaries rising in the commune including the Ardounc. The Escalérako erreka flows west with its many tributaries. Paul Raymond mentioned a brook that rises at Alçay and flows into the Alphoura; the commune name in Basque is Altzai-Altzabeheti Zünharreta. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, the base altz meaning "aulne" was used for the both toponyms Alcay and Alçabéhéty.
Beheti means "at the bottom". The name Sunharette comes from the Basque zunharr using the romanized locative suffix ette meaning the "place of elm"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini1: Alçabéhéty on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Cassini2: Sunharette on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini databaseOrigins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Chronicles: Chronicles of Arthez-Lassalle Soule: Custom of Soule In 1790 Sunharette was the chief town of a canton, part of the District of Mauleon; the canton included the communes of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette, Alos-Sibas-Abense, Camou-Cihigue, Lacarry-Arhan-Charritte-de-Haut, Lichans-Sunhar, Ossas-Suhare. In 1833, the three communes of Alçay, Alçabéhéty, Sunharette merged to form a single joint commune.
List of Successive Mayors The town is part of seven intercommunal organisations: the Community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the association to support Basque culture. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. According to the 2006 classification of INSEE, showing the median household incomes for all communes with more than 50 households Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is ranked 20,901st with an average income of €14,927 per year; the commune has two sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Seven Ibarnaba Tumuli in the Esquirassy district The Ten Ibarletta Tumuli in the Esquirassy districtOther sites of interestThe Gaztelu zahar of Maide korralea meaning "the enclosure of Maide" is attributed to Maidé, mythological beings incorporating some of the traits of Jentils and Laminak. The Romanesque Parish Church of Saint-Pierre is registered as an historical monument; the church contains a Processional Cross, registered as an historical object. The Belhygagne peaks and Gaztelia are the highest points in the commune at 1,072 and 1,345 metres high.
Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ALTZAI-ALTZABEHETI-ZUNHARRETA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Lion1906 Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Google Maps Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Sunharete and Alcabehety on the 1750 Cassini Map Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on the INSEE website INSEE
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign Principality of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, the city is located 100 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 50 kilometres from Spain; this position gives it an exceptional panorama across the mountain range of the Pyrenees as well as on the hillsides of Jurançon. The name of Horizons Palois aims to protect this vision, in particular with the famous Boulevard des Pyrénées which extends for 1.8 kilometres from the Château de Pau to the Parc Beaumont. Alphonse de Lamartine said: "Pau has the world's most beautiful view of the earth just as Naples has the most beautiful view of the sea." Archaeology has asserted. It wasn't until the first half of the 12th century that the first mentions of Pau as a settlement are found; the town originated from the construction of its castle from the 11th century by the Viscounts of Béarn, to protect the ford, a strategic point for access to the Bearn valleys and to Spain.
The city thus took its name from the stockade. The village, built around the castle took advantage of its strategic position as well as the protection of the Viscounts of Béarn to develop over the following centuries. Pau became the capital of Béarn in 1464, thus becoming the political and economic centre of this small State which continued to defend its independence from the neighbouring French and Spanish territories; the town and its castle took on a new dimension by becoming the seat of the Kings of Navarre, at the capture of Pamplona, by the Kingdom of Castile in 1512. Pau became a leading political and intellectual centre under the reign of Henry d'Albret and his wife Marguerite; the history of Pau is marked by the birth of Henry of Bourbon 13 December 1553 in the castle of his grandparents. He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV; the image of the city is since associated with that of this monarch made famous for his willingness to put an end to the endless Wars of Religion.
With the end of Béarnaise independence in 1620, Pau lost its influence but remained the same at the head of a autonomous province. It was home to the Parliament of Navarre and Béarn which wrote its texts in Occitan until the Revolution and its dismantling to create the Department of Basses-Pyrénées, it was during the 18th century when another famous person was born in Pau, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte who became Marshal of the Empire and King of Sweden, today still the ruling dynasty of Sweden and of Norway when that country was under the Swedish monarchy. The Belle Époque marked a resurgence for the Béarnaise capital with a massive influx of wealthy foreign tourists, they came to spend the winter to take advantage of the benefits of Pau's climate described by the Scottish physician Alexander Taylor. Pau turned with the construction of many villas and mansions to accommodate these wintering rich people, the city developed all elements of modernity for their comfort: baths and railway station, it was at this time that Pau became one of the world capitals of the nascent aerospace industry under the influence of the Wright brothers, crowned heads pressed there to observe the flight of the first flying school in the world.
With the decline of tourism during the 20th century, the Pau economy shifted towards the aviation industry and to that of petrochemicals with the major discovery of the Lacq gas field in 1951. Pau today is a city of about 80,000 inhabitants, the main urban area of Pau and of the Communauté d'agglomération Pau Béarn Pyrénées with 30 neighbouring communes which carry out local tasks together; the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, founded in 1972, accounts for a large student population. The city plays a leading role for Béarn but for a wide segment of the Adour area. An administrative capital, it boasts a dense economic fabric including service activities. Pau plays the role of cultural capital with many events, including sports. Pau's heritage extends over several centuries, its diversity and its quality allowed it to obtain the label of City of Art and History in 2011; the name of its people is Palois and the motto of Pau is in Latin: Urbis palladium et gentis. Pau is 50 km from the Pyrenees.
Spain is 50 km away. The frontier is crossed by the col du Pourtalet. Access to the crossings accounts for Pau's strategic importance. Pau is located 30 km from Tarbes and Lourdes, 25 km from Oloron; the conglomeration of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz is at Bordeaux 190 km. To the north: Buros and Morlaàs To the east: Bizanos and Idron To the south: Gelos and Jurançon To the west: Lons and Billère Pau is served by the Pau Pyrénées Airport 10 km away. Limited scheduled flights serve Amsterdam, Southampton, Dublin and Paris. A TGV rail line runs from Bayonne to Toulouse; the A64 autoroute goes to the east. The A65 autoroute was opened in December 2010, linking Pau with the Dordogne. The