Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona
Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in Barcelona and its influence area, it is formed of five comarques: Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Vallès Occidental and Vallès Oriental. It has been suggested by local authorities that Alt Penedès and Garraf should form a separate administrative entity called Vegueria del Penedès, as Penedès was a historical territory, or vegueria, with two comarques: Baix Penedès and Anoia. To a large extent coincides with the Barcelona metropolitan area. Àmbit metropolità is the most populous vegueria with 5,012,961 inhabitants, a density of 1,549 inhabitants/km2. The vegueria was a feudal land division in the Principality of Catalonia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Duchy of Athens during the Middle Ages and into the Modern Era until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1716, it was the primary division of a county in Catalonia and the basic territorial entity of government in Sardinia and Athens after those countries became part of the Crown of Aragon.
The office of a veguer was called a "vigeriate". In 1936, Catalonia was reconstituted into comarques. Although these were abolished in 1939 they were reconstituted again in 1987; each comarca was grouped with two to four others into a vegueria, of which there were nine, with their capitals at Barcelona, Tremp, Manresa, Reus and Tortosa. Since the 1987 reconstitution it has been decided that Vegueries be formally re-established in 2011. Under the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, the four provinces which make up Catalonia are due to be replaced by seven vegueries, which will take over many of the functions of the comarques; as of October 2010, whereas the final boundaries of the new vegueries have yet to be formally approved, they are expected to incorporate historical boundaries: Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona, Alt Pirineu i Aran, Camp de Tarragona, Comarques Centrals, Comarques Gironines and Terres de l'Ebre. Catalonia Comarques of Catalonia Barcelona metropolitan area Statistical Institute of Catalonia National Statistics Institute of Spain
Aran is an administrative entity in Catalonia, consisting of the Aran Valley, 620.47 square kilometres in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida. This valley constitutes one of only two areas of contiguous Spain that are located on the northern side of the Pyrenees. Hence, this valley holds the only Catalan rivers to flow into the Atlantic Ocean; the Garonne river flows through Aran from its source on the Pla de Beret near the Port de la Bonaigua. It is joined by the Joèu river, it reappears in the Val dera Artiga de Lin before reaching the Aran valley through France and to the Atlantic Ocean. The Noguera Pallaresa river, whose source is only a hundred meters from that of the Garonne, flows the opposite way towards the Mediterranean. Aran borders France on the north, the Spanish Autonomous Community of Aragon to the west and the Catalan comarques of Alta Ribagorça to the south and Pallars Sobirà to the east; the capital of the comarca is Vielha, with 5,474 inhabitants.
The entire population of the valley is about 9,991. As of 2001, a plurality of people in Aran spoke Spanish as their native language, followed by Aranese Catalan with 7.56% having a different native language. Speakers of languages other than the local Aranese are people born outside the valley, or their children. In 1313, James II of Aragon granted administrative and political autonomy to the Aran Valley, the legal details of which are described in a Latin manuscript called the Querimonia; the devolution of power was a reward for the Aranese pledging allegiance to James II in a dispute with the kingdoms of France and Mallorca over control of the valley. This situation was suppressed in 1834, when the Valley was integrated into the new Province of Lérida, in the context of creation of the liberal state. On 19 October 1944, Spanish Communist Party guerrillas invaded the valley in an attempt to bring about the fall of the Spanish dictatorship, they took control of several villages until October 27, 1944, but were forced to retreat back into France after Franco sent reinforcements to defend Vielha.
Before the construction of the Vielha tunnel, opened in 1948, the Aran valley had no direct communication with the south side of the mountains during winter. In 1990 the autonomy of Aran was restored by the Parliament of Catalonia, as well the establishment of the Occitan as official language. In 2015 the powers of Aranese institutions were increased. Aranese is the standardized form of the local Gascon variety of the Occitan language. Aranese has been taught at school since 1984. Like several other minority languages in Europe that faced decline, Aranese is experiencing a renaissance; the name Aran comes from Basque haran. Maps and road signs in Spain use the name "era Val d'Aran" to refer to the valley, where era is the Aranese singular feminine article; the same practice goes for all towns and other locations in Aran, for example, the Aranese spelling Vielha is used instead of Catalan and Spanish Viella to refer to the capital of Aran. Basque toponyms reveal; the growing influence of Latin began to drive Basque out after the turn of the first millennium.
Administratively, Aran is a "unique territorial entity" equivalent to a comarca with additional powers, informally referred to as a comarca. This status was most formalised in February 2015; the area is divided into six administrative divisions called terçons. The current arrangement of the divisions dates from the 15th century. Since 1991, Aran has an autonomous government called the Conselh Generau; the major political parties are the Unity of Aran - Aranese Nationalist Party, the Aranese Democratic Convergence (the local chapter of the. The Occitan Republican Left party was founded in 2008; the main economic activity in the valley is tourism. Other primary sectors of the economy include forest products, cattle ranching and agriculture, all of which have become progressively less important since the opening of ski resorts. Many native animals of Aran are in danger of extinction. There are programs to reintroduce and/or protect: Brown bear Rock ptarmigan Aran rock lizard Bearded vulture Page of the Conselh Generau d'Aran Information from the Generalitat de Catalunya Touristic information about the Val d'Aran Smith, Dominic.
"Language planning in the Val d’Aran: The recent work of the Conselh Generau d’Aran’s ‘Oficina de Foment e Ensenhament der Aranés’ and its effects on the Aranés-speaking population.". 2003
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Maresme is a comarca located along the Catalan Mediterranean coast in Spain, between the comarques of Barcelonès and Selva, bordering with Vallès Oriental. Its capital and largest city is Mataró. Maresme's territory occupies a long and narrow area between the Mediterranean Sea and the hills of Serralada Litoral, Montnegre's and Corredor's hills in the northern half and Sant Mateu's hills in the southern half; this particular shape has conditioned the history of this comarca. The main distinct elements of its geography are the characteristic rieres; these short, intermittent water streams, which cross the comarca transversally every hundred meters, produce powerful and dangerous floods when it rains. Maresme has been very well connected with the rest of the comarca as well as with Barcelona thanks to old Camí Ral and railroad. Communications were enhanced in recent years with the construction of the C-32's Barcelona–Mataró section, the first autopista in Spain, its subsequent enlargement, the Mataró-Palafolls's section.
Official comarcal web site All the tourist information and services Maresme
Berguedà is an inland comarca in Catalonia, lying in the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees, in the Catalan Central Depression. The northern half of Berguedà, known as Alt Berguedà, consists of the upper Llobregat Valley and the mountainous areas surrounding it, its northern border is a veritable mountain barrier: Berguedà is separated from Cerdanya by a chain of 2,000-meter peaks. These include the mountain ranges of Moixeró, Puig d'Alp and Puigllançada. In this area the population is centered in the Llobregat Valley and the valleys of the rivers Bagà, Bastareny and Saldes. To the east are the mountain ranges of Catllaràs and Rasos de Tubau, to the west the high ranges of Pedraforca, Verd and Rasos de Peguera; the more populous Baix Berguedà is the southern part of the comarca. It lies along the foothills of the Pyrenees, transitioning into the plains of the Catalan Central Depression. In addition to towns of medieval origin such as Gironella, Casserres, or Puig-reig, it includes a large number of industrial colonies built along the Llobregat river after the Industrial Revolution.
Alt Berguedà is cold, with snow in the winter on the higher peaks. Average annual precipitation exceeds 1000 mm in the warmer seasons; the vegetation consists of forests of Scots pine and oak. Shadier areas have European beech and, less silver fir. Above 1700 meters, Mountain Pine dominates and above 2200 meters the vegetation consists of alpine meadows; the southern half of Berguedà consists with a dry Mediterranean climate. Average annual precipitation is 700 to 900 mm, with little precipitation in the summer. Average annual temperatures fall between 11 and 13 °C, with cold winters, but without excessively hot summers; the occurring vegetation is carrascara in dry areas with poor soil and oaks where there is better soil and more rain. In the center and to the west, Portuguese oak dominates, to the north downy oak. Nowadays, these are intermixed with Aleppo pine. Berguedà has always been sparsely populated. In 1860 there were 31,544 inhabitants, but by 1887 the population had fallen to a low of 23,257.
The 1900 census showed a slight rebound to 27,217 inhabitants. For the next 60 years, growing opportunities in mining, forestry, cattle ranching, agriculture led to a slow but steady increase, with 39,600 inhabitants in 1930, 41,938 in 1950 and 47,953 in 1960. With a decline in the local economy coinciding with greater opportunity elsewhere, another decline of the economy and population set in, with the population falling to 44,446 in 1970, 42,152 in 1981, a mere 40,555 today. Industrial activity is located in between Berga and Puig-reig; the opening of the Cadí Tunnel and the general improvement of the roads in recent years may improve the economic potential of the Llobregat Valley and of Berguedà in general. Agriculture, cattle ranching and forestry have proven complementary to one another and compatible with tourism; the growth in tourism has provided some jobs and has been a key factor in reducing emigration from Alt Berguedà. Many farmhouses have been converted to tourism-related uses. Berguedà is well known for Pedraforca Mountain, for its pastoral and mountain scenery, for its many Romanesque churches.
Another oft-visited sight is the Mountain of Queralt, served by many hiking trails and offers views of much of Berguedà and the surrounding comarques. The comarca boasts many medieval bridges and has preserved many old town centers, most notably those of Berga and Bagà. Berguedà is well known for its many traditional festivals; the most famous is the Patum, a week-long celebration held in Berga every summer. During the Patum, representations of different mythological beasts and historical figures take to the streets, concerts and banquets are organized in the town. Another well-known celebration is the Fia-faia, held every Christmas Eve in Bagà and Sant Julià de Cerdanyola; this pre-Christian tradition marks the winter solstice, with participants carrying lighted bundles of Cephalaria leucanta from a bonfire in the mountains to the west of either town to the main square. Official website Information about Berguedà on the Generalitat de Catalunya website. Berguedà County Tourist information "Berguedà Actual" - local news site covering Berguedà
Pallars Jussà is a comarca in Catalonia, Spain. It was established as a comarca in 1936, out of the old county of Pallars; the name means "Lower Pallars". Its capital and largest municipality is Tremp. Pallars County of Pallars Jussà Cabdella Lakes Official comarcal web site Information about Pallars Jussà from the Generalitat de Catalunya
Lleida is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain. It is the capital city of the province of Lleida. Geographically, it is located in the Catalan Central Depression, it is the capital city of the Segrià comarca, as well as the largest city in the province. It had 137,387 inhabitants as of 2010, including the contiguous municipalities of Sucs. Lleida is one of the oldest towns in Catalonia, with recorded settlements dating back to the Bronze Age period; until the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the area served as a settlement for an Iberian people, the Ilergetes. The town became a municipality, named Ilerda, under the reign of Augustus, it was reconquered in 1149, after being ruled by the Moors for many centuries, who had conquered the town in the 8th century. In 1297, the University of Lleida was founded. During the following centuries, the town was damaged by several wars such as the Reapers' War in the 17th century and the Spanish Civil War in the 20th century. Since the city has been in a constant urban and demographic growth.
In ancient times the city, named Iltrida and Ilerda, was the chief city of the Ilergetes, an Iberian tribe. Indíbil, king of the Ilergetes, Mandoni, king of the Ausetanes, defended it against the Carthaginian and Roman invasions. Under the Romans, the city was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis, was a place of considerable importance as well as geographically, it stood upon an eminence, on the right bank of the river Sicoris, the principal tributary of the Ebre, some distance above its confluence with the Cinga. Its situation induced the legates of Pompey in Spain to make it the key of their defense against Caesar, in the first year of the Civil War. Afranius and Marcus Petreius threw themselves into the place with five legions; the resources exhibited by the great general, in a contest where the formation of the district and the elements of nature seemed in league with his enemies, have been extolled. It ended by the capitulation of Afranius and Petreius, who were conquered as much by Caesar's generosity as by his strategy.
In consequence of the battle, the Latin phrase Ilerdam videas is said to have been used by people who wanted to cast bad luck on someone else. Under the Roman empire, Ilerda was a flourishing city, a municipium, it minted its own coins. It had a fine stone bridge over the Sicoris. In the time of Ausonius the city had fallen into decay, it was part of Visigothic and Muslim Hispania until it was conquered from the Moors by Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1149. It used to be the seat of a major university, the oldest in the Crown of Aragon, until 1717, when it was moved by Philip V to the nearby town of Cervera; the University of Lleida is nowadays active again since 1991. During the Reapers' War, Lleida was occupied by the rebel forces. In 1644 the city was conquered by the Spanish under D. Felipe da Silva. Lleida served as a key defense point for Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War, fell to the Insurgents, whose air forces bombed it extensively, in 1937 and 1938; the November 2, 1937 Legion Condor attacks against Lleida became infamous since they were aimed to the school known as Liceu Escolar de Lleida.
48 children and several teachers died in it that day, 300 people were killed on the November 2 bombings altogether, the town would be bombed and sieged again in 1938, when it was conquered by Franco's forces. After some decades without any kind of population growth, it met a massive migration of Andalusians who helped the town undergo a relative demographic growth. Nowadays it is home to immigrants of 146 different nationalities. During 2007 Lleida was the year's Capital of Catalan Culture. Lleida has a temperate semi-arid climate. Winters are foggy though cooler than places on the coast while summers are hot and dry. Frosts are common during winter although snowfall can fall, averaging 1 or 2 days. Precipitation is low, with an annual average of 369 millimetres with a peak in April and May and another peak in September and October. Lleida is divided in the following districts by the Observatori Socioeconòmic de Lleida: Lleida is served by the RENFE, Spanish state railway's Madrid-Barcelona high-speed rail line, serving Barcelona, Calatayud and Madrid.
Lleida has a new airport opened in January 2010, a minor airfield located in Alfès. The town is the western terminus of the Eix Transversal Lleida-Girona, a railway covering the same distance is under planning. Lleida's only passenger railway station is Lleida Pirineus, it is served by both Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya train lines. In the future a Rodalies Lleida commuter network will connect the town with its adjacent area and the main towns of its province, improving the existing network with more train frequency and newly built infrastructure. A second railway station is Pla de la Vilanoveta in an industrial area, only used by freight trains. A future railway museum will be located in its facilities. Since 2008 the bulk of public transpo