Chhole bhature, is a dish from the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. This Punjabi dish is a fried bread made from maida flour. Chhole bhature is eaten as a breakfast dish, sometimes accompanied with lassi, however, it can be a street food or a complete meal, may be accompanied by, for example, carrot pickle, green chutney and achaar
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
Milk is a nutrient-rich, white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases, it contains many other nutrients including lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals; as an agricultural product, milk called dairy milk, is extracted from farm animals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer of milk, is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products; the increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products.
China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households; the term "milk" comes from "Old English meoluc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk"". Milk consumption occurs in two distinct overall types: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product obtained from other mammals for consumption by humans of all ages. In all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later; the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the newborn baby as well as nutrients and growth factors; the makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species. For humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for up to two years of age or more.
In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, the period may be longer. Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, a host of allergic reactions. In many cultures in the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other mammals as a food product; the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, an enzyme necessary for digesting the lactose in milk. People therefore converted milk to curd and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood; this mutation allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, yogurt, ice cream, cheese.
Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, condensed milk, powdered milk, many other food-additives and industrial products. Whole milk and cream have high levels of saturated fat; the sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly; those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but sheep, yaks, water buffalo, horses and camels. India is buffalo milk in the world. In food use, from 1961, the term milk has been defined under Codex Alimentarius standards as: "the normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it, intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing." The term dairy relates to animal milk production.
A substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute. The definition above precludes non-animal products which resemble dairy milk in color and texture, such as almond milk, coconut milk, rice milk, soy milk. In English, the word "milk" has been used to refer to "milk-like plant juices" since 1200 AD. In the USA, milk alternatives now command 13% of the "milk" market, leading the US dairy industry to attempt, multiple times, to sue producers of dairy milk alternatives, to have the name "milk" limited to animal milk, so far without success; the mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. It has been suggested. Much of the argument is based on monotremes; the original adaptive significance of milk secretions may have been nutrition or immunological protection. This secretion became more copious and accrued nutritional complexity over evolutionary time. Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on
Makki di roti
Makki di roti is a flat, unleavened Punjabi bread made from corn meal eaten in Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Like most rotis in the Indian subcontinent, it is baked on a tava. Makki di roti means "bread of maize" in the Punjabi language. Makki di roti is yellow in color when ready, has much less adhesive strength — which makes it difficult to handle. Makki di roti is made during winter in Punjab and is accompanied with saag and buttermilk. In Himachal and Punjab, it is eaten with saag and Maah daal. List of breads Corn tortilla Talo "Makki di roti' and'sarson da saag' losing its sheen in Punjabi platter". Hindustan Times. January 14, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015. "This winter, Makki ki Roti is out of reach". NDTV. November 21, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2015. "Winter recipe: Sarson da saag, makki di roti". The Times of India. January 17, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015. Marwaha, P. Shakahaari. Xlibris Corporation. P. 149. ISBN 978-1-4771-7170-7
Mughlai paratha is a popular Bengali street food in Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. It can be a soft fried bread enhanced by a stuffing of keema, egg and pepper. Mughlai paratha was one of those mughlai recipes that entered in undivided Bengal during the Mughal Empire. Mughal rule influenced the cuisine of Dhaka than rural Bangladesh. During British Rule, it became a popular tiffin snack in Calcutta. Ingredients in the preparation of mughlai paratha may include whole-wheat flour, eggs, finely chopped onions, chopped green chili pepper and chopped coriander leaves. Sometimes chicken or mutton keema is used in some variants, it can be served without meat for stuffing. Bangladeshi cuisine List of Bangladeshi dishes Indian cuisine List of Indian dishes List of street foods
The mung bean, alternatively known as the green gram, maash, or moong Sanskrit मुद्ग / mudga, is a plant species in the legume family. The mung bean is cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Indian subcontinent, it is used as an ingredient in both sweet dishes. The mung bean is an annual vine with yellow flowers and fuzzy brown pods; the English word mung pronounced as'moong', originated from the Hindi word मूंग, derived from the Sanskrit word मुद्ग. Mung beans are one of many species moved from the genus Phaseolus to Vigna; the species is still incorrectly cited as Phaseolus aureus or Phaseolus radiatus. Mung beans are used in cuisines across Asia. Whole cooked mung beans are prepared from dried beans by boiling until they are soft. Mung beans are light yellow in colour. Mung bean paste can be made by dehulling and pulverizing the beans to a dry paste. Although whole mung beans are occasionally used in Indian cuisine, beans without skins are more used. Dehulled mung beans can be used in a similar fashion as whole beans for the purpose of making sweet soups.
Mung beans in some regional cuisines of India are stripped of their outer coats to make mung dal. In Bangladesh and West Bengal the stripped and split bean is used to make soup-like dal known as Moog dal. In the South Indian States of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, in Maharashtra steamed whole beans are seasoned with spices and fresh grated coconut in a preparation called "Pesalu" పెసలు in Telugu or Usli in Kannada or Sundal சுண்டல் in Tamil or "Usal" उसळ in Marathi. In Chinese cuisine, whole mung beans are used to make a tángshuǐ, or dessert, otherwise translated, "sugar water", called lǜdòu tángshuǐ, served either warm or chilled. In Hong Kong, dehulled mung beans and mung bean paste are made into ice cream or frozen ice pops. Mung bean paste is used as a common filling for Chinese mooncakes in East Taiwan. In China, the boiled and shelled beans are used as filling in glutinous rice dumplings eaten during the dragon boat festival; the beans may be cooked until soft, blended into a liquid and served as a beverage, popular in many parts of China.
In Korea, skinned mung beans are ground with some water to make a thick batter. This is used. In the Philippines, ginisáng monggó known as monggó guisado or balatong, is a savoury stew of whole mung beans with prawns or fish, it is traditionally served on Fridays of Lent, when the majority Roman Catholic Filipinos traditionally abstain from meat. Variants of ginisáng monggó may be made with chicken or pork. Mung bean paste is a common filling of pastries known as hopia popular in Indonesia, the Philippines and further afield in Guyana. In Indonesia, mung beans are made into a popular dessert snack called es kacang hijau, which has the consistency of a porridge; the beans are cooked with sugar, coconut milk, a little ginger. A staple diet in some parts of the Middle East is Mung beans and rice. Both are cooked together like a pilaf rice dish called maash wa ruzz which means mung beans and rice. Mung beans are germinated by leaving them in water for four hours of daytime light and spending the rest of the day in the dark.
Mung bean sprouts can be grown under artificial light for four hours over the period of a week. They are simply called "bean sprouts". However, when bean sprouts are called for in recipes, it refers to mung bean or soybean sprouts. Mung bean sprouts are stir-fried as a Chinese vegetable accompaniment to a meal with garlic, spring onions, or pieces of salted dried fish to add flavour. Uncooked bean sprouts are used in filling for Vietnamese spring rolls, as well as a garnish for phở, they are a major ingredient in a variety of Malaysian and Peranakan cuisine, including char kway teow, hokkien mee, mee rebus, pasembor. In Korea cooked mung bean sprouts, called sukjunamul, are served as a side dish, they are blanched cooled in cold water, mixed with sesame oil, garlic and other ingredients. In the Philippines, mung bean sprouts are made into lumpia rolls called lumpiang togue. In India, mung bean sprouts are cooked with green chili and other spices in the state of Gujarat. In Indonesia the food are used as fillings like Tahu Isi and complementary ingredient in many dishes such as rawon and soto.
In northern China and Korea, soybean sprouts, called kongnamul in Korean, are more used in a variety of dishes. The "blue sprouts" are toxic since they contain small quantities of hydrogen cyanide, like potato sprouts do. Mung bean starch, extracted from ground mung beans, is used to make transparent cellophane noodles. Cellophane noodles become slippery when they are soaked in hot water. A variation of cellophane noodles, called mung bean sheets or green bean sheets, are available. In Korea, a jelly called.
Keema matar is a dish from the Indian subcontinent associated with the Mughals. "Keema matar" was popularly eaten in the courts of Mughal India. In royal families of the Indian subcontinent, the dish was served at special occasions and events like weddings and celebrations etc. In Mughal families it was included in weekly menu; the dish was named as "Keema matar" but now in common language it is spoken as "Matar Qeema". Ingredients of this dish are specified in its name i.e "Matar" and "Keema". Meats used include beef. All other ingredients include indian spices and water with banaspati ghee. pea Mince aloo matar List of legume dishes Food portal