Mehedinți County is a county of Romania on the border with Serbia and Bulgaria. It is located in the historical province of Oltenia, with one municipality and three communes located in the Banat; the county seat is Drobeta-Turnu Severin. In 2011, it had a population of 254,570 and the population density was 51.6/km2. Romanians - 96.1% Roma - 3% Others - 0.9% This county has a total area of 4,933 km2. In the North-West there are the Mehedinți Mountains with heights up to 1500 m, part of the Western end of the Southern Carpathians; the heights decrease towards the East, passing through the hills to a high plain - the Western end of the Romanian Plain. In the South the Danube flows, forming a wide valley, with ponds. Another important river is the Motru River in an affluent of the Jiu River. In the West side there is the Cerna River forming a passage between the Oltenia region and the Banat region. Bulgaria in the South - Vidin Province. Serbia in the West and South-West - Bor District. Caraș-Severin County in the North-West.
Gorj County in the North-East. Dolj County in the South-East; the energetic sector is developed in the county, on the Danube being two big hydro electrical power plants. In NE of Drobeta-Turnu Severin there is a heavy water complex; the predominant industries in the county are: Chemical industry. Food and beverages industry. Textile industry. Mechanical components industry. Railway and ship equipment industry. Wood and paper industry. In the North and copper are extracted; the South is agricultural, suited for growing cereals on large surfaces. Vegetables are cultivated and there are important surfaces of wines and fruit orchards; the main tourist destinations are: The city of Drobeta-Turnu Severin - the ruins of Trajan's first bridge over the Danube The city of Orșova. The Mehedinți Mountains; the Danube's Iron Gates. Baia de Aramă Monastery The Mehedinți County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: Mehedinți County has 2 municipalities, 3 towns and 61 communes Municipalities Drobeta-Turnu Severin - capital city.
Its capital was Târgu Jiu. The interwar county territory comprised a large part of the current Mehedinți County. At present, its territory comprises a large part of the current territory of Mehedinţi County except for the northern part belonging to Gorj County, while a small part of the former Severin County where Orsova was located is part of Mehedinti County, it was bordered on the west by the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in the northwest by Severin County, to the north by Hunedoara County, to the east by the counties of Gorj and Dolj, in the south by the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The county was divided into four administrative districts: Plasa Câmpul Plasa Cloșani, headquartered at Cloșani Plasa Motru, headquartered at Motru Plasa Ocolul, headquartered at Turnu SeverinSubsequently, Plasa Câmpul was disbanded and replaced with five more districts: Plasa Bâcleș, headquartered at Bâcleș Plasa Broșteni, headquartered at Broșteni Plasa Cujmir, headquartered at Cujmiru Plasa Devesel, headquartered at Devesel Plasa Vânju Mare, headquartered at Vânju Mare According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 303,878 inhabitants, ethnically divided as follows: 98.7% Romanians, 1.2% Romanies, as well as other minorities.
From the religious point of view, the population was 99.0% Eastern Orthodox, 0.5% Roman Catholic, 0.2% Jewish, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the county's urban population comprised 91.3% Romanians, 2.5% Germans, 1.3% Romanies, 1.3% Jews, 1.1% Serbs and Croats, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was composed of 92.9% Eastern Orthodox, 4.3% Roman Catholic, 1.5% Jewish, 0.4% GreekCatholic, 0.4% Lutheran, as well as other minorities
Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat; the earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one; the system has been changed several times since and the number of counties has varied over time, from the 71 județe that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since the last of, in 1997. According to a 2011 census data from the National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Iași County as the most populous and Covasna County the least.
The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres; the earliest organization into județe, ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century. Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes with administrative and judicial functions. After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with județ as the basic administrative unit. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county.
Until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept intact, with few adjustments, the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model. Ten ținuturi were ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch; the ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased. Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war. Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.
After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950, but changed it back in 1968. The county borders set were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war. In 1981, Giurgiu and Călărași were split from Ialomița and the former county of Ilfov, while in 1997, Ilfov County, a dependency of the municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated; the county borders set in 1968 are still in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s. At present, Romania is divided into one municipality; each of the counties is further divided into communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.
The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government. Communes of Romania Development regions of Romania List of Romania county name etymologies Former administrative divisions of Romania List of Romanian counties by population List of cities and towns in Romania List of Romanian counties by foreign trade Municipiu Blog of the Romanian Royalty House showing various maps with the previous administrative divisions of Romania. Current and historical divisions of Romania at Statoids.com "Geopolitical Entities and Their Codes". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Drobeta-Turnu Severin is a city in Mehedinți County, Romania, on the left bank of the Danube, below the Iron Gates. The city administers three villages: Dudașu Schelei, Gura Văii, Schela Cladovei; the city's population is 92,617, up from 18,628 in 1900. It is situated in western Oltenia, at the edge of the Topolnița depression, 220 km south-east of Timişoara, 113 km west of Craiova and 353 km west of Bucharest; the region's climate gives Severin warm summers and mild winters, meaning the city is home to magnolia trees, Caucasian nut trees, ginkgo biloba as well as the almond trees, lilacs and chestnut trees more common throughout Europe. The climate in the region can be classified as a "sub-Mediterranean climate"; the city was linked by historians with the Roman Emperor Severus. The name of Turnu refers to a tower on the north bank of the Danube built by the Byzantines. Thus, the name of the city would mean "Northern Tower". Another possibility is that Severin's name was taken in memory of Severinus of Noricum, the patron saint of the medieval colony Turnu a suffragane of the Diocese of Kalocsa..
The first written document, mentioning the city 1,870 years earlier, was commemorated in 1992. The city was called Drobeta by the Romans; the tower which supplied the Turnu part of the city's name stood on a small hill surrounded by a deep moat. Near Turnu Severin are the remains of the largest in the Empire. Here, the Danube is about 1,200 metres broad. Built in only three years by the famous architect Apollodorus of Damascus, the bridge was considered the most daring work in the Roman world; the bridge was built on 20 pillars of stone blocks, was 1135 m long, 14.55 m wide and 18.60 m high. Each bridge head had its own portal monument, whose remains can still be seen on both sides of the Danube. Oaks from 200 hectares of forest were used for the wooden parts of the construction; the bridge was composed of twenty arches supported by stone pillars. Only two of them are still visible at low water. Drobeta became, from a strategic perspective, a town at the crossing of land and water roads which led to the north and south of the Danube.
It became the first urban center in the region and the third of Dacia after Sarmizegetusa and Apullum. During the reign of Emperor Hadrian, the settlement was declared a city in 121 AD. At this point the population had reached 14,000. During the reign of Septimius Severus, the city was raised to the rank of a colony, which gave its residents equal rights with citizens of Rome; as a colony, Drobeta was a thriving city with temples, a basilica, a theater, a forum, a port and guilds of craftsmen. In the middle of the 3rd century, Drobeta covered an area of 60 hectares and had a population of 40,000 inhabitants. After the retreat of the Roman administration from Dacia in the 4th century, the city was preserved under Roman occupation as a bridge head on the north bank of the Danube until the 6th century. Destroyed by Huns in the 5th century, it was rebuilt by Justinian I; the fortress of Severin was built by the Kingdom of Hungary under Ladislaus I as strategical point against the Second Bulgarian Empire.
Along with the forming of the Vallachian Voivodeships, the Severin fortress was a reason for a war over a period of several generations between Oltenian Voievodes and Hungarians. The war ended with the Battle of Posada. Romanians fought the Ottoman Empire, which threatened the area of the Danube. In this context, castles on the banks of the river, the area from Iron Gates to Calafat, began to be restored; when the Hungarians attacked Oltenia and conquered Severin's fortress, Andrew II of Hungary organized the Banate of Severin. The first Ban of Severin, was mentioned in 1233; this year may be taken as the date of birth of a new castle over the ruins of Drobeta, under the name Severin. It was a basis for the Banate of Terra Zeurino. Severin's name was taken in memory of Severinus of Noricum, the patron saint of the medieval colony Turnu a suffragane of the Diocese of Kalocsa. In 1247, the Hungarian Kingdom brought the Knights of St. John to the country, giving them Severin as a residence, where they built the medieval castle of Severin.
Inside the strong fort a Gothic church was erected. This was the headquarters of the Catholic episcopate of Severin, there until 1502; the knights withdrew in 1259, while the fortress remained in the range of the cannons of Turks and Tatars who wanted to cross the Danube. The Hungarians still wanted to attack Oltenia. Severin fortress was the most important strategic redoubt on the Danube, its conquest meant to gain an important bridgehead in the region. Romanian Voivodes have fought for this powerful fortress, conquering it or claiming it from time to time. Litovoi and Basarab I died at this fortress, which humiliated Carol Robert of Anjou at Posada in 1330. Mircea the Elder established Bănia Severinului and, in 1406, concluded a treaty of alliance with Sigismund of Hungary right in Severin. After the death of Mircea, Sigismund freed the Severin Fortress occupied by the Turks, made some concessions to the monasteries of Vo
Orșova is a port city on the Danube river in southwestern Romania's Mehedinți County. It is one of four localities in the county located in the Banat historical region, it is situated just on the spot where the Cerna River meets the Danube. At the 2011 census, 95.2% of inhabitants were Romanians, 1.3% Czechs, 1% Roma, 0.9% Germans, 0.7% Serbs and 0.5% Hungarians. The locality was the site of a Roman port in Dacia Malvensis, the site of a castrum named Dierna. In 1925, a confusion by the scholar Nándor Fettich misplaced the important Magyar burial site discovered at Cheglevici into the Orșova region; the location of that discovery, testifying to the presence of the Magyars since the early 10th century, was clarified for the archeological community. King Ladislaus I of Hungary decisively defeated the Cumans near Orșova in 1091, it was a major border fortification in the Middle Ages. The city was captured by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1522. Orșova became part of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1687 at the start of an Ottoman-Habsburg War, but Ottoman forces recaptured it in 1690.
The Treaty of Passarowitz gave the city back to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1718. Treaty of Belgrade gave the city back to the Ottoman Empire in 1739; the Treaty of Sistova gave the city back to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1791. The city remained in Hungary until the end of World War I, it was included in the Mehedinți county during the administrative reform of 1968. The Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen was buried near Orșova from 1848 till 1853. During the works at the Iron Gates, the old center of the town was flooded and Orșova was developed on higher ground, including the southern side of the Almăj Mountains and the villages of Jupalnic and Coramnic. Flooded was the neighboring Ada Kaleh, with the scattering of the Turkish community of the Danube island. Ada Kaleh and its inhabitants, as well as the ancient city, are still present in the memory of its surviving locals; the town is a center for the extraction of bentonite and granite. The industry is centered on energy production and engine manufacturing, assembly parts for electricity production and the processing of feldspar, quartz, wood, etc.
The Orșova shipyard was constructed in 1890 and like a small reparation shop for the vessels which participated to the navigable channel from Iron Gate Romania- Sip Yugoslavia and had a continuously development along time. After the year 1991 the name was changed and the organizational profile. A wind farm is being developed on a hill nearby. Ignat Bednarik, painter Alexander Fölker, handball player Stefan Fröhlich, Luftwaffe general
Communes of Romania
A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2,686 communes in Romania; the commune is the rural subdivision of a county. Urban areas, such as towns and cities within a county, are given the status of municipality. In principle, a commune can contain any size population, but in practice, when a commune becomes urbanised and exceeds 10,000 residents, it is granted city status. Although cities are on the same administrative level as communes, their local governments are structured in a way that gives them more power; some urban or semi-urban areas of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants have been given city status. Each commune is administered by a mayor. A commune is made up of one or more villages which do not themselves have an administrative function. Communes, like cities, correspond to the European Union's level 2 local administrative unit. Florești, in Cluj County, is the largest commune in Romania, with over 22,000 inhabitants. Cities of Romania Municipalities of Romania Counties of Romania