Antezant-la-Chapelle is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The river Boutonne forms most of the commune's eastern border. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department INSEE
Asnières-la-Giraud is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Asnieroises. Asnières-la-Giraud is located 7 km south of Saint-Jean-d'Angély. Access to the commune is by the D150 road from Saint-Jean-d'Angély in the north which passes through the west of the commune and the village and continues to Saint-Hilaire-de-Villefranche; the D120 road from Saint-Jean-d'Angély passes through the east of the commune and continues to Sainte-Même. The D217 road continues west to Mazeray. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of La Touzetterie on the north-eastern border, Moulin de la Laigne, La Laigne, Le Plonget, La Giraud, La Rue d'Asnières, Le Puits d'Asnières, La Tranche in the south. There are some patches of forest but most of the commune is farmland; the Loubat river flows south through the commune west of the D150 and through the village before continuing south. Geologically it is a limestone plateau of the Tithonian period List of Successive Mayors The Taxation rates are: 6.28% for housing tax, 11.80% for developed land, 37% for undeveloped land, 8% business tax.
As the community of communes levies all four taxes: 2.46%, 5.50%, 11.91%, 3.82%, this gives a total, before the department and the region, of: 8.74% for housing tax, 17.30% for developed land, 48.91% for undeveloped land, 11.82% business tax. In 2010 the commune had 922 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is old; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national average and the departmental average. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Asnières-la-Giraud and Charente-Maritime Department in 2010 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2010, INSEE.
Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2010, INSEE. Asnières-la-Giraud has always been viticultural. There are many trades in the commune: a garage, a mechanically construction business, an Emmaus warehouse, activities linked to tourism with a hotel, a rural cottage, a Youth Hostel called Chantageasse; the vineyards are in the Appellation d'origine contrôlée region of Cognac: the Fins Bois cru. The Fontaines d'Asnières milk factory at 17 Rue de la Laiterie is registered as a historical monument. An old well The Church of Saint Medard Auguste Roy de Loulay, French politician born on 26 August 1818 at Asnières-la-Giraud. Communes of the Charente department Asnières-la-Giraud on Google Maps Asnières-la-Giraud on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Annieres on the 1750 Cassini Map Asnières-la-Giraud on the INSEE website INSEE
The Éolienne Bollée is an unusual wind turbine, unique for having a stator and a rotor, as a water turbine has. The eponymous invention was first patented in 1868 by Ernest Sylvain Bollée in France. A further patent dated 1885 differed in two ways: First, in how the turbine was turned to face the wind and second, in an improvement which increased the flow of wind through the turbine was added; the turbines built according to the 1885 patent were commercially successful. Ernest Sylvain Bollée and Auguste Sylvain Bollée took out the original patent No. 79985 in 1868 for a "hydraulic wind engine". Ernest Bollée described himself as a hydraulic engineer in Sarthe. During the 1860s, due to poor health, Ernest delegated control of the three parts of his business to each of his sons. Auguste was given control of the wind engine manufacturing side of the business; the patent of 1885, with the improvements, is No.167726. In 1898 Auguste sold the business to Édouard-Émile Lebert. Auguste is estimated to have made about 260 Éoliennes.
Lebert passed the business to Gaston Duplay in 1918 and on 1 January 1926 the business passed to the Société Anonyme des Éoliennes Bollée. SAEB erected at least three 7-metre éoliennes. Operations seem to have ceased around 1931; the Éolienne Bollée was designed to be constructed in a modular form, thus allowing éoliennes of various sizes to be built. The tower could be a standard pylon type, either of triangular or square plan, or a cast-iron column with an external spiral staircase; the éoliennes built with this type of tower have a distinctive appearance. The actual turbine itself consists of two rings, the first being the stator and the second being the rotor; the stator has more blades than the rotor. A new device added to the 1885 patent was a funnel affixed to the stator, enabling the éolienne to capture wind from a larger area than the rotor, increasing its speed through the turbine. A small fantail operated upwind of the rotor, through a system of gears turned the turbine to face the wind.
Through a counterweight system, it turned the turbine out of wind as the wind speed increased, thus preventing damage in strong winds, when the éolienne would be edge on into the prevailing wind. The cast-iron columns were made in 2.85-metre sections of 175 millimetres diameter, having twelve cast-iron treads or wrought iron steps forming a complete spiral around the column. A half column was available; the Éolienne Bollée is unique amongst other forms of windmill because of the stator. All windmills have a rotor, whether it is the sails on a traditional windmill or the blades of a modern wind turbine; the Éolienne Bollée is the only wind-powered turbine where the wind passes through a set of fixed blades before driving the windmill itself. The rotor is turned by the wind, through a bevel wheel drives a shaft inside the column or in the centre of the tower. At the lower end this drives a horizontal shaft through a gearbox, which drives three throw pump; the éoliennes came in four sizes: 3.53-metre, 5-metre and 7-metre diameter.
The 2.5 m éolienne has an 18 blade rotor. The 3.53 m éolienne has a 34 blade stator and a 24 blade rotor. The 5 m éolienne has a 32 blade rotor, it was claimed that a 3.53 m éolienne with a 65-millimetre pump would be able to pump: 1.4 cubic metres of water per hour in a 4-metre-per-second wind, 1.8 cubic metres of water per hour in a 5-metre-per-second wind, 3 cubic metres of water per hour in a 6-metre-per-second wind, 4 cubic metres of water per hour in a 7-metre-per-second wind. Pumps were available in seven sizes: 33-millimetre, 42-millimetre, 52-millimetre, 65-millimetre, 80-millimetre, 100-millimetre, 120-millimetre diameter. Lebert built some similar wind engines with a single rotor, lacking the stator, they were either 8.60 metres diameter. At least three of these are known to have been built, including at Rugles and Parigné-l'Évêque, Sarthe; the Clarkson wind engine consisted of a rotor or a number of rotors, one behind the other, revolving in a casing with fixed guide vanes between and of opposite pitch to those of the rotors, having a further casing to admit a fresh supply of wind to the rotors behind.
The cylindrical casings are open at each end with a larger opening facing the wind. The wind catches a number of wheels and feathered vanes fixed to a shaft revolving in bearings inside the casings; when the wind has passed between the vanes of the front wheel it is directed by the guide vanes to the second wheel and is again taken up by guides and passed to a third wheel and so on, the action each time increasing the effect of the wind on the shaft and improving efficiency. The Clarkson of which an illustration survives was erected by the Air Power Co. of Prestwich, Cheshire on the estate of Lord Derby. This small engine was designed to work in a 12-mile-per-hour wind, but could start under load in a wind of only 7 miles per hour; the wind wheel was only 5 feet diameter and is designed to lift 100 imperial gallons of water per hour to a height of 50 feet in a 12-mile-per-hour wind, or double that quantity in a 15-mile-per-hour wind. All the Air Power wind engines were fitted with roller bearings, a starting and
Ars-en-Ré is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. Called just Ars, the commune changed to its current name on 8 March 1962; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Arsais or Arsaises but they are nicknamed the Casserons: the casseron is a baby cuttlefish, a saltwater fish found on the island. Ars-en-Ré is one of 10 communes located on the Île de Ré off the coast of La Rochelle and is in the north-western part of the island some 8 km west of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Access to the commune is by the D735 road which crosses to the island from the end of National Highway N237 at La Rochelle; the D735 passes along the north coast of the island through Saint-Martin-de-Ré and continues north-west to the commune passing through the town and continuing north-west to the Baleines Lighthouse. Apart from the town there is the village of La Grange nearby on the coast and Le Martray to the east along the coast; the town occupies the centre of the commune and there are forests on the western side with the rest of the commune farmland including extensive Salt farms.
Its harbour is the largest on the Ile de Ré and is located at the bottom of the Fier d'Ars, reached by a channel through the Salt farms. A lock closes the tidal basin. A new basin with 130 berths is to be created in future at the channel entrance. There are 150 moorings on buoys in the outer harbour and the channel has a capacity of 550 berths dedicated to the pleasure craft. A beach on the south coast of the island, bordered by a dyke to protect the land, extends to the Baleins Lighthouse at the western tip of the island; the Prince of Soubise was defeated here in 1624. The port was important during the "salt era" until the beginning of the 20th century; the Gabelle or Salt tax was significant in the area. List of Successive Mayors; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is old. The ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national average and the departmental average; as with national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is less than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Ars-en-Ré and Charente-Maritime Department in 2010 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2010, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2010, INSEE; the village is a member of Les Plus Beaux Villages de France. Since 2011 the commune has belonged to the network "Villages of stone and water", a label initiated by the General Council to promote exceptional sites with the distinction of being located near a body of water. Ars-en-Ré has a large number of buildings that have been registered as historical monuments by the Ministry of Culture; these are: There are a large number of items in Ars-en-Ré that are registered as historical objects and in private collections.
For a complete list of these items with links to descriptions and photos click here. Other sites of interestThe Port with its new tidal basin at the entrance of the access channel. Le Martray, the nearest place to the main island; the Fiers d'Ars. The surfing spot at Grignon Point. Many religious buildings and monuments are registered as historical monuments at the Ministry of Culture: The Priory of Saint-Étienne in the Place Carnot The Priory contains a large number of items that are registered as historical objects. For a complete list including links to descriptions and photos click here; the Convent of the Sisters of Wisdom at Rue du Havre A Monumental Cross at the Port A Monumental Cross on the Route de Saint-Clément The Pinaud Cross on the Route de Saint-Clément A Monumental Cross on N735 The Church of Saint-Étienne. Its bell tower, painted in black and white, serves as a Daymark for sailors; the Convent of the Sisters of Charity The Protestant Church Ars-en-Ré The Church Birds Fishing and Boats Mathurin Renaud, born in Ars-en-Ré, an important historical figure: a pioneer of New France and one of the first inhabitants of Charlesbourg.
William Barbotin and engraver. Marie-Thérèse Dethan-Roullet, was born here. Lionel Jospin, former Prime Minister of France, had a house here. Claude Barma, former Italian Film director, father of Catherine Barma, was buried here. In the Narthex of the church there is a representation of John Vianney, the famous "Curé of Ars" although he was a priest in the commune of Ars-sur-Formans in Ain. Communes of the Charente department Ars-en-Ré official website Île de Ré on the official site of the department of Charente-Maritime Ars-en-Ré on Lion1906 Ars-en-Ré on Google Maps Ars-en-Ré on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ars on the 1750 Cassini Map Ars-en-Ré on the INSEE websi
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Ardillières is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ardilliérois or Ardilliéroises Ardillières is located some 25 km south-east of La Rochelle and 20 km east of Châtelaillon-Plage. Access to the commune is by the D111 road from Ciré-d'Aunis in the west passing through the commune and the village and continuing to the east; the D208 road goes north-east from the village to join the D939 at Le Cher. The D205E2 goes north-west from the village to Le Thou. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Les Perrieres, Toucherit and Bois des Mottes; the commune is farmland apart from a few small patches of forest. The southern portion of the commune is covered with a network of canals which link to the Charras Canal which crosses the south of the commune from west to east. List of Successive Mayors; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is young; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is lower than the national average and the departmental average. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Ardillières and Charente-Maritime Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the commune has several sites and buildings that are registered as historical monuments: The Château d'Ardillières. There are two round towers; the 17th century lodging is surrounded by farm buildings of the same period and recent constructions.
The medieval cellar is remarkable. The Pierre Levée Dolmen The Pierre-Fouquerée Dolmen Other sites of interestThe Charras Canal A Mill, it contains a Lintel, registered as an historical object. A Wind Farm Rural cottages; the Church has a Bronze Bell, registered as an historical object. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, Squire of Iberville and Ardillières, founder of the Louisiana colony in 1700 where he built the Fort of Biloxi. Communes of the Charente department Ardillières on the National Geographic Institute website Ardillières on Lion1906 Ardillières on Google Maps Ardillières on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ardillières on the 1750 Cassini Map Ardillières on the INSEE website INSEE