A vertical-lift bridge or just lift bridge is a type of movable bridge in which a span rises vertically while remaining parallel with the deck. The vertical lift offers several benefits over other movable bridges such as the bascule and swing-span bridge. Speaking they cost less to build for longer moveable spans; the counterweights in a vertical lift are only required to be equal to the weight of the deck, whereas bascule bridge counterweights must weigh several times as much as the span being lifted. As a result, heavier materials can be used in the deck, so this type of bridge is suited for heavy railroad use. Although most vertical-lift bridges use towers, each equipped with counterweights, some use hydraulic jacks located below the deck. An example is the 52-foot span bridge at St Paul Avenue in Milwaukee. Another design used balance beams to lift the deck, with pivoting bascules located on the top of the lift towers. An example of this kind was built at La Salle in Illinois, USA; the biggest disadvantage to the vertical-lift bridge is the height restriction for vessels passing under it.
This is a result of the deck remaining suspended above the passageway. Ryde Bridge – road – Ryde, New South Wales – opened 1935, now permanently lowered Hexham Bridge – road – Hexham, New South Wales – opened 1952 Harwood Bridge – road – Harwood Island, New South Wales – opened 1966 Bridgewater Bridge – road & rail – Bridgewater, Tasmania – opened 1946 Clyde River Bridge – road – Batemans Bay, New South Wales – opened 1956 Hobart Bridge – road – Hobart, Tasmania – opened 1943, closed 1964 and demolished afterwards BudabrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1955 EuropabrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1972 VerbrandebrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1968 HumbeekbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Willebroek – opened 1968 BrielenbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1968 RingbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Willebroek – opened 1986 VredesbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1952 Guaíba Bridge - road - Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul - opened 1958 Bridges 5, 11 and 21 on the Welland Canal, all built during the late 1920s as part of the Fourth Canal expansion project.
In addition, there are Bridges 13, 17 and 18 on the Welland Recreational Waterway. However, these bridges have not been operational since 1973. Bridges 13 and 18 have had their counterweights removed while the machinery for Bridge 17 has been dismantled. In addition, Bridge 18 no longer possesses its towers. Burlington Canal Lift Bridge, over the Burlington Canal, Ontario. Information is available from Built 1962. Pretoria Bridge over the Rideau Canal in Ottawa, Ontario Selkirk Lift Bridge over the Red River in Selkirk, Manitoba Victoria Bridge over the Saint Lawrence River connecting Saint-Lambert and Montreal, Quebec. Second Narrows Bridge Vancouver, BC over Burrard Inlet. Okanagan Lake Bridge in Kelowna, BC across Okanagan Lake – replaced in 2008. Shippagan Bridge Shippagan, NB over Shippagan Bay. Sir Ambrose Shea Bridge, Placentia, NL. Built 1961. Haimen Bridge, across Hai River in Tianjin Pont Gustave-Flaubert – crossing the Seine at Rouen, this lift bridge is the highest vertical-lift bridge in Europe, allowing ships up to 55 m tall to pass under it.
It is 670 m long, with a span of 116 metres. A striking design feature, the two road sections are mounted outside the central towers; the bridge was designed by François Gillard and Aymeric Zublena and opened to road traffic on 25 September 2008. It is named after the author Gustave Flaubert, born in Rouen. Pont de Recouvrance – over the river Penfeld in Brest – road & tramway Pont Levant de CriméeFR – over the Ourcq Canal; the central lift span is 117m long and can be lifted vertically up to 53m to let tall ships pass underneath. The bridge is 575m long with the central lift span weighing around 2,600 tonnes, its width varies from 32 to 45m and it will be used by cars, trams and pedestrians. It will reduce traffic congestion in Bordeaux. Structurae gives a length of 110 m for the lift span, making it the longest vertical-lift span in Europe. Rethe Lift Bridge in Hamburg, from 1934 Karnin Lift Bridge, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Kattwyk Bridge, in Hamburg, has a lift span 100 m long, one of the longest in Europe It's opened in a regular schedule every two hours.
Ponte Due GiugnoES – road – Fiumicino, Rome– rebuilt in 1945 Ampera Bridge – an automobile lift bridge located in Palembang that cross the Musi River. This bridge is still used since 1970 never lift its road deck again, its counterweights removed in 1990. Chikugo River Lift Bridge – connecting Ōkawa and Saga, Saga. Constructed as a railway bridge in 1935, it is 507 m long, with a central span 24 m long that weighs 48 t and rises 23 m; the railway closed in 1987, but the bridge reopened to pedestrians in 1996 and was designated an important cultural property in 2003. Rotterdam -'De Hef', designed by Pieter Joosting, opened October 31, 1927 Gouwe – three identical lift bridges crossing the Gouwe river at Alphen aan den Rijn and Waddinxveen, built in 1930. Botlek BridgeNL – in Rotterdam Finland Railway Bridge, in Saint-Petersburg Rostov-on-Don Railway Bridge, in Rostov-on-Don The two-storey bridge Reichsbahnbrücke https://de.wikipedia.o
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Jacques Chaban-Delmas was a French Gaullist politician. He served as Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1969 to 1972, he was the Mayor of a deputy for the Gironde département. Jacques Chaban-Delmas was born Jacques Michel Pierre Delmas in Paris, he studied at the Lycée Lakanal before attending the École Libre des Sciences Politiques. In the resistance underground, his final nom de guerre was Chaban; as a general of brigade in the resistance, he took part in the Parisian insurrection of August 1944, with general de Gaulle. He was the youngest French general since François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, during the First French Empire. A member of the Radical Party, he joined the Gaullist Rally of the French People, which opposed the Fourth Republic's governments. In 1947, he became mayor of Bordeaux, for 48 years his electoral fief; as a member of the National Assembly, he sat with the RPF. In 1953, when the RPF group split, Chaban-Delmas became head of the Union of Republicans for Social Action and president of the National Centre of Social Republicans party.
He "tied up" with centre-left parties and joined Pierre Mendès-France's cabinet one year as Minister of Public Works. He took part in the centre-left coalition Republican Front, he was France's Defence Minister in 1957–1958. His governmental participation during the Fourth Republic inspired the distrust of de Gaulle and some Gaullists. Following Gen. de Gaulle's return to power in 1958, Chaban-Delmas agreed to the advent of the French Fifth Republic and the new Constitution. He took part in the foundation of the Union for the New Republic and was elected, against de Gaulle's will, chairman of the National Assembly, he kept this function until the end of de Gaulle's presidency in 1969. Unlike some Gaullists, for instance, Jacques Soustelle, he supported de Gaulle's policy to end the Algerian War of Independence. During the 1959 UNR Congress, he was the first politician to evoke a "reserved presidential domain," composed chiefly of defence and diplomacy; this interpretation of the Constitution of 1958 has survived.
In 1969, when Georges Pompidou acceded to the presidency, he chose Chaban-Delmas, who had concluded that the May 68 crisis was the consequence of a strained and conflicted society, as prime minister. Chaban-Delmas tried to promote what he called "a new society", based on dialogue between the different social forces in French society. Amongst other reforms, government authority over the mass media was relaxed, while legislation was passed on social welfare coverage for the poor and elderly which consolidated France's profile as a welfare state. In addition, regular increases were made to the minimum wage which prevented greater wage disparities. A new legal aid scheme was introduced, along with a number of new social welfare benefits; as a result of his social policies, Chaban-Delmas was viewed as too "progressive" by the "conservative" wing of the Gaullist movement. He was suspected of wanting to "tie up" again with the centre-left. Indeed, his advisers who inspired the "new society" programme were considered as close to the centre-left.
Besides, a latent conflict opposed Chaban-Delmas to the presidential circle. They accused him of trying to weaken the presidency in favour of himself; the satirical paper Le Canard Enchaîné accused him of breaking the law through tax evasion and in 1972, Chaban-Delmas canvassed for a vote of confidence in the Assembly. He did obtain this. Two years following the death in office of President Pompidou, Chaban-Delmas ran for the presidency himself, he was supported by the "lords of gaullism", but 43 personalities close to the late president, led by Jacques Chirac, published the Call of the 43 in favour of the candidacy of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Chaban-Delmas was defeated on the first ballot of the 1974 presidential election, winning only 15.10% of the vote. Chirac became President Giscard d'Estaing's prime minister. Chaban-Delmas stood in the Gaullist Party and, in spite of Chirac's leadership, returned to the chair of the National Assembly. Due to his friendship with President Mitterrand, his name was mentioned as a possible prime minister during the first "cohabitation", but he instead became president of the National Assembly for the third time and Chirac again became premier.
Chaban-Delmas retired towards the end of his eighth term as Mayor of Bordeaux. Governmental functions Prime minister: 1969–1972 Minister of Public Works and Tourism: June–August 1954 / 1954–1955 Minister of Housing and Reconstruction: September–November 1954 Minister of State: 1956–1957 Minister of Defence and Armed Forces: 1957–1958 Electoral mandates National Assembly of France President of the National Assembly: 1958–1969 / 1978–1981 / 1986–1988 Member of the National Assembly for the Gironde 2nd: 1946–1969 / 1972–1997. Elected in June 1946, reelected in November 1946, 1951, 1956, 1958, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1981, 1988, 1993. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Aquitaine: 1974–1979 / 1985–1988. Elected in 1986. Regional councillor of Aquitaine: 1974–1979 / 1985–1988. Elected in 1986. Municipal Council Mayor of Bordeaux: 1947–1995. Reelected in 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 1983, 1989. Municipal councillor of Bordeaux: 1947–1995. Reelected in 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 19
Alain Marie Juppé is a French politician, a member of The Republicans. He was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997 under President Jacques Chirac, during which period he faced major strikes that paralyzed the country, became unpopular, he left office after the victory of the left in the snap 1997 elections. He had served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1993 to 1995, as Minister of the Budget and Spokesman for the Government from 1986 to 1988, he was President of the political party Union for a Popular Movement from 2002 to 2004 and mayor of Bordeaux from 1995 to 2004. After the ghost jobs affair in December 2004, Juppé suspended his political career until he was re-elected as mayor of Bordeaux in October 2006, he served as Minister of State for Ecology and Sustainable Development in 2007, but resigned in June 2007 after failing in his bid to be re-elected in the 2007 legislative election. He was Minister of Defence and Veterans Affairs from 2010 to 2011 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2011 to 2012.
He announced in 2015 his intention to contest his party's primary election ahead of the 2017 presidential election. He came in second place in the first open primary of the right and centre, in the run-off, he lost to François Fillon. At the beginning of 2019, he accepted a nomination to become a member of the French Constitutional Council and subsequently announced that he would be resigning as mayor of Bordeaux. Juppé was born Alain Marie Juppé on 15 August 1945, in Aquitaine, his father was Robert Juppé, a Gaullist resistant at the end of World War II coming from a railwaymen family who became a farmer, his mother was Marie Darroze, the devoted Catholic daughter of a judge. His secondary studies have taken place at the Victor-Duruy high school. At 17, he graduated with a baccalauréat, he came to Paris for a literary preparatory classe at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1964 to get a Classics agrégation in 1967. He completed his degrees at the National School of Administration.
From 1969 to 1970, he executed his compulsory military service. Alain Juppé's profession, outside politics, is Inspector of Finances, a position from which he was on leave to hold his various elected and appointed offices, he retired from the Inspection of Finances on 1 January 2003. As a senior civil servant, he met Jacques Chirac at the end of the 1970s and became his adviser in the city council of Paris. In 1981, he was selected to be one of the first Young Leaders of the French-American Foundation. A member of the RPR since its foundation in 1976, he lost his first attempts to be elected during the 1978 legislative elections and the 1979 cantonal elections, he moved to Paris to work with Chirac as one of the closest advisors to the mayor. In 1979, he was elected at the national board of the party. Two years he became the second manager of Chirac's campaign for the presidential election. Chirac ended third with 18% of the vote. With Michel Aurillac, he led the club 89 a think tank, indeed a sort of counter-government to prepare the 1986 legislative elections.
The victory of the RPR-UDF alliance in this ballot made Socialist President Mitterrand appointing Chirac as his Prime Minister. He was minister of budget and spokesperson of Jacques Chirac's government from 1986 to 1988, he contributed to the free-market policy of Edouard Balladur, minister of Finances, during these years. During the 1988 presidential election, he combined these positions with those of spokesman of Chirac's campaign and head of his support committee, he was secretary general of the Rally for the Republic political party from 1988 to 1995. His role was to maintain Chirac's leadership on the party against the rise of the younger generation of "renovators" and of sovereignist Gaullists such as Philippe Séguin and Charles Pasqua. Pasqua humorously wrote in his Memoirs: "The RPR was now ruled like the North-Korean Communist Party... without the enlightened leadership of Kim Il-sung". He led the RPR-UDF alliance with former President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing for the 1989 European elections but resigned from the European Parliament some months because he was only needed to be a kind of electoral locomotive.
In 1992, Chirac and Juppé supported the treaty of Maastricht against the majority of the RPR's members. The Gaullist fringe considered him as a traitor. In 1993, he was made Édouard Balladur's Foreign Minister. Along with President Mitterrand, he advocated a French expedition in Rwanda to save the most possible of threaten lives, while Prime minister Balladur and Defense minister François Léotard were fearing a slip toward a colonial intervention. Juppé defended the Turquoise Operation at the United Nations; some controversies have emerged on this subject. From a general point of view, he has been considered to be one of the best Foreign ministers in France's recent history. Although he held the position of president of the RPR, he participated in the debate and endorsed Jacques Chirac instead of Balladur in the 1995 presidential election; because he supported Jacques Chirac against Edouard Balladur during the 1995 presidential campaign, he succeeded him as Prime Minister becoming president of the RPR. Jacques Chirac claimed Alain Juppé was "the best among us".
However, in November/December 1995, his plan for Welfare State reform caused the biggest social conflict since May 68 and, under duress, abandoned it. He became the most unpopular Prime Minister
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Libération, popularly known as Libé, is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. It is one of three French newspapers of record along with Le Figaro. For its first six or seven years it was a uniquely vibrant and pluralist publication and hugely influential; this was due to its refusal to take paid advertising which meant there was no direct or indirect pressure from advertisers. It was paid by subscriptions. Classified adverts in the back pages were free; these and the exciting content attracted people to buy it regularly. Another innovation was the "note de la claviste" a comment very witty or apt, inserted by the claviste—the typesetter; the cartoons were unique and savage and side-splitting. It has been described as a far-left newspaper, it has been described as open and pluralist. It went through a number of shifts during the 1980s and 1990s to take a less open, social democrat position, it was the first French daily to have a website.
It had a circulation of about 101,000 in 2013. Edouard de Rothschild's acquisition of a 37% capital interest in 2005 and editor Serge July's campaign for the "yes" vote in the referendum establishing a Constitution for Europe the same year alienated it from a number of its left-wing readers, its editorial stance is centre-left. Libération was founded by Jean-Paul Sartre, Philippe Gavi, Bernard Lallement, Jean-Claude Vernier, Pierre Victor alias Benny Lévy and Serge July and has been published from 3 February 1973, in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. Sartre remained editor of Libération until 24 May 1974; the paper was run along non-hierarchical lines, with all staff – from the editor-in-chief to the janitor – receiving the same salary, but this gave way to a "normal set-up". In the early 1980s it began to take advertisements and allowed external bodies to have a stake in its financing, which it had refused before, but continued to maintain a left leaning editorial stance. After several crises, Libération temporarily stopped being published in February 1981.
It resumed publication on 13 May with Serge July as new director. Although Libération is not affiliated with any political party, it has, from its theoretical origins in the May 1968 turmoil in France, a left-wing slant. According to co-founder and former director Serge July, Libé was an activist newspaper that, does not support any particular political party, acts as a counter-power, has bad relations with both left-wing and right-wing administrations. Libé's opinion pages publish views from many political standpoints. An example of their proclaimed independent, "counter-power" slant is when in 1993 Libération leaked Socialist president François Mitterrand's illegal wiretapping program. Libération is known for its sometimes alternative points of view on social events. For instance, in addition to reports about crimes and other events, it chronicles daily criminal trials, bringing in a more human vision of petty criminals; as Serge July puts it, "the equation of Libération consisted in combining counter-culture and political radicalism".
The editors' decision, in 2005, to support the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was criticized by many of its readers, who decided to vote "no" to a treaty seen as too neoliberal, lacking social views deemed necessary to the solid foundation of a "European nation". On 11 December 2010, Libération started hosting a mirror of the WikiLeaks website, including the United States diplomatic cables and other document collections, in solidarity with WikiLeaks, in order to prevent it from being "suffocated" by "governments and companies that were trying to block functioning without a judicial decision". In June 2015, Libération, working with WikiLeaks, reported that the United States National Security Agency had been secretly spying on the telephone conversations of presidents Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande from at least 2006 through 2012. In 2005 Libération badly needed funds, Serge July strove to convince the board to allow Édouard de Rothschild to buy a stake in the paper.
The board agreed on 20 January 2005. Social conflicts arose shortly after. On 25 November 2005, the paper went on strike. Rothschild, who had promised he would not interfere in editorial decisions, decided that he wasn't playing an active enough role in the paper's management. In May 2006 the paper announced a week-end magazine called Libé week-end, with a supplement called Ecrans, another called R. On 13 June 2006, Serge July told the editorial staff that Édouard de Rothschild was refusing to invest more money in the paper unless Louis Dreyfus and himself left the paper. July had accepted; the journalists were shocked. The next day, they published a public statement praising the paper's founder and expressing their worries about journalistic independence. Serge July left the paper on 30 June 2006. A debate between Bernard Lallement, the first administrator-manager of Libération and Edouard de Rothschild took place in Le Monde newspaper. In a column published on 4 July 2006, Lallement argued that July's departure was the end of an era where "writing meant something".
Lallement painted a bleak picture of Libération's future, as well as that of the press as a whole. Criticizing Rothschild's interference, Lallement quoted Sart
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean at Bordeaux; the name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the Aquitanian name meaning "stony river". The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret, the Ratera-Saboredo cirque 42°36′26″N 0°57′56″E), or the slopes of Pic Aneto; the Uelh deth Garona at 1,862 metres above sea level has been traditionally considered as the source of the Garonne. From this point a brook runs for 2.5 kilometres until the bed of the main upper Garonne valley. The river runs for another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont de Rei, 40.5 kilometres in total. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the head of the upper Garonne valley, its upper lake at 2,600 metres above sea level is the origin of the Ruda-Garona river, running for 16 kilometres until the confluence with the Beret-Garona brook, another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont del Rei, 54 kilometres in total.
At the confluence, the Ruda-Garona carries 2.6 cubic metres per second of water. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque has been pointed by many researchers as the origin of the Garonne; the third thesis holds that the river rises on the slopes of Pic Aneto at 2,300 metres above sea level and flows by way of a sinkhole known as the Forau de Aigualluts through the limestone of the Tuca Blanca de Pomèro and a resurgence in the Val dera Artiga above the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees. This underground route was suggested by the geologist Ramond de Carbonnières in 1787, but there was no confirmation until 1931, when caver Norbert Casteret poured fluorescein dye into the flow and noted its emergence a few hours 4 kilometres away at Uelhs deth Joèu in the Artiga de Lin on the other side of the mountain. From Aigualluts to the confluence with the main river at the bed of the upper Garonne valley at 800 metres above sea level, the Joèu has run for 12.4 kilometres, carrying 2.16 cubic metres per second of water, while the main river is carrying 17.7 cubic metres per second.
Despite the lack of universal agreement upon definition for determining a stream's source, the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution agree that a stream's source should be considered as the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the "most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs", the source of the Garonne, according to the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution convention upon determining a stream's source; the Garonne follows the Aran Valley northwards into France, flowing via Toulouse and Agen towards Bordeaux, where it meets the Gironde estuary. The Gironde flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Along its course, the Garonne is joined by three other major rivers: the Ariège, the Tarn, the Lot. Just after Bordeaux, the Garonne meets the Dordogne at the Bec d'Ambès, forming the Gironde estuary, which after 100 kilometres empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
Other tributaries include the Gers. The Garonne is one of the few rivers in the world. Surfers and jet skiers could ride the tidal bore at least as far as the village of Cambes, 120 kilometres or 75 miles from the Atlantic, further upstream to Cadillac, although the tidal bore appears and disappears in response to changes in the channel bathymetry. In 2010 and 2012, some detailed field studies were conducted in the Garonne's Arcins channel between Arcins Island and the right bank close to Lastrene township. A striking feature of the field data sets was the large and rapid fluctuations in turbulent velocities and turbulent stresses during the tidal bore and flood flow; the European sea sturgeon known as the Atlantic sturgeon or common sturgeon, is now a Critically Endangered species status. This species of sturgeon that can reach a length of 6 m and weigh 400 kg and can reach an age of 100 year Previously found on most coasts of Europe, it has now become so rare that they ONLY breed in the Garonne river basin in France.
Conservation projects are under way to save this fish from extinction with species reintroduction from aquaculture with the first releases being made in 1995. Aran Valley: Vielha, Bossòst Haute-Garonne: Saint-Gaudens, Toulouse Tarn-et-Garonne: Castelsarrasin Lot-et-Garonne: Agen, Aiguillon Gironde: Langon, Bordeaux Following the flow of the river: The Garonne plays an important role in inland shipping; the river not only allows seagoing vessels to reach the port of Bordeaux but forms part of the Canal des Deux Mers, linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. From the ocean, ships pass through the Gironde estuary up to the mouth of the Garonne. Ships continue on the tidal river Garonne up to the Pont de Pierre in Bordeaux. Inland vessels continue upstream to Castets-en-Dor