A grenadier was originally a specialized soldier, first established as a distinct role in the mid-to-late 17th century, for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations. At that time grenadiers were chosen from the strongest and largest soldiers, certain countries such as France and Argentina established units of Horse Grenadiers and for a time the British Army had Horse Grenadier Guards. Like their infantry counterparts, these horse-mounted soldiers were chosen for their size. These soldiers operate as part of a fireteam, the concept of throwing grenades may go back to the Ming China, when Chinese soldiers on the Great Wall were reported to be using this weapon. The earliest references to these soldiers in Western armies come from Austria. References appear in England during the English Civil War, however, it was King Louis XIV of France who made the grenadier an official type of soldier and company during his army reforms late in the 17th century. According to René Chartrand, Lt.
Col. Jean Martinet introduced the idea of having men detailed to throw grenades in the Régiment du Roi in 1667 and their clothing being likewise piebald and red. The first grenades were small iron spheres filled with gunpowder fused with a length of slow-match, such requirements led to grenadiers being regarded as an elite fighting force. The wide hats with broad brims characteristic of infantry during the late 17th century were discarded and replaced with caps and this was originally to allow the grenadier to sling his musket over his back with greater ease while throwing grenades. Additionally, a brimless hat permitted the greater ease in throwing the grenade overhand. By 1700, grenadiers in the English and other armies had adopted a cap in the shape of a bishops mitre, in addition to grenades, they were equipped with contemporary longarms. The uniform included a tube that held the match for lighting the fuse. Grenade usage declined significantly in the early 18th century, a fact that can be attributed to the effectiveness of massive infantry line tactics.
However, the need for assault troops remained, and the existing grenadier companies were used for this purpose. As noted, above average physical size had been considered important for the grenadiers and, in principle, height. In the British regiments of foot during the 18th century the preference was, the traditional criterion of size was only resorted to when newly raised regiments required a quick sorting of a mass of new recruits. Transferral to a company generally meant both enhanced status and an increase in subsistence pay. Whether for reasons of appearance or reputation, grenadiers tended to be the showpiece troops of their respective armies, when a regiment was in line formation the grenadiers were always the company which formed on the right flank
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana was born into a family of British nobility with royal ancestry and was the child and third daughter of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp. She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, in 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. She came to prominence in February 1981 when her engagement to Prince Charles was announced and her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Pauls Cathedral, reached a global television audience of over 750 million people. While married, Diana bore the titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, the marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and she was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.
She was involved with dozens of charities including Londons Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997, Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk. She was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the Spencer family has been closely allied with the British Royal Family for several generations. Both of Dianas grandmothers had served as ladies-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, on 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at St. Mary Magdalene Church, with wealthy commoners as godparents. Diana had three siblings, Sarah and Charles and her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an added strain to the Spencers marriage. Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, the Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Family frequently holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, and Diana played with Princes Andrew, Diana was seven years old when her parents divorced. Her mother had an affair with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969, Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents separation in 1967, but during that years Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp. Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, in 1972, Lord Althorp began a relationship with Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the only daughter of Alexander McCorquodale and Dame Barbara Cartland. They married at Caxton Hall, London in 1976, as an upper-class child at the time, Diana was first educated under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen. She began her education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Diss
American Church in Paris
The American Church in Paris is the first American church established outside the United States. It traces its roots back to 1814, and the present church building - located at 65 Quai dOrsay in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, the closest métro station is Invalides In 1814, American Protestants started worshiping together in homes around Paris and at the Oratoire du Louvre temple. The first American sanctuary was built in 1857, on rue de Berri, the American Church in Paris was then, as now, an interdenominational fellowship, for all those adhering to the historic Christian tradition as expressed in the Apostles Creed. It served both the expatriate American community, and a variety of other English-speaking people from different countries. The American Church continues to minister to many Anglophone Protestants in Paris, with programming. The church is led in worship by the pastor, associate pastor, youth pastor. Its staff is diverse in terms of background and denomination. Many more community-based services are housed in the church building, official website A Glimpse of Heaven a Documentary Film on the American Church in Paris
The Zouaves were a class of light infantry regiments of the French Army serving between 1830 and 1962 and linked to French North Africa, as well as some units of other countries modelled upon them. The zouaves, along with the indigenous Tirailleurs Algeriens, were among the most decorated units of the French Army, the regiment was to consist of sixteen hundred Zwawa Berbers, French NCOs and French officers. Twelve years later, zouaves began to be recruited exclusively from Europeans, in the 1860s, new units in several other countries called themselves Zouaves. In the 1870s, former Papal zouaves formed the cadre for a short-lived Spanish zouave unit, the zouave title was used by Brazilian units of black volunteers in the Paraguayan War, possibly due to a perceived link with Africa. In the United States, zouaves were brought to attention by Elmer E. Ellsworth. Zouave units were raised on both sides of the American Civil War of 1861-5, including a regiment under Ellsworths command. The distinctive uniforms of zouave units tended to include short open-fronted jackets, baggy trousers, the existence of the new corps was formally recognised by a Royal decree dated 7 March 1833.
From their beginning the Zouave units included a French European element, initially drawn from the demobilized Garde royal of Charles X, from March 1833 each zouave battalion was organised into ten companies, of which eight were Muslim Berbers and Arabs and two French. In 1838 a third battalion was raised, and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Major de Lamoriciere, shortly afterwards the formation of the Tirailleurs algériens, the Turcos, as the infantry corps for Muslim troops, changed the basis for enlistment of the Zouave battalions. For most of their history the Zouaves became an essentially French body. Initially serving in battalion sized units, the zouaves were reorganized as separated regiments in 1852, The 1st Zouaves were linked to Algiers, the 1st Zouaves had a continuous existence from 1852 to 1949. They were first formed as the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard in 1854 and they remained in existence under this title until 1962. At the end of the Algerian War six zouave regiments were in existence, of which the 1er was disbanded in 1960, other provisional regiments of zouaves were raised in 1914 and 1939 for the First and Second World Wars respectively.
During World War I nine regiments de marche of zouaves were created, comprising active, reserve, in World War II the number reached fourteen. The zouave regiments raised in 1914 for the First World War were the 8th and 9th, the 13th Zouaves were raised in 1919 and dissolved in 1940. The zouave regiments raised in 1939 for the Second World War were the 11th, 12th, 14th, other regiments raised in the Second World War were the 9th, 22nd, 23rd, and 29th. In addition, four mixed zouave and tirailleur regiments were raised for the First World War, the 9th Zouaves were the last French zouave unit. There was no zouave regiment in existence between 1962-82 and none now survive in the French Army, the Zouaves saw extensive service during the French conquest of Algeria, initially at the Mouzaia Pass action, at Mitidja and the siege of Constantine
Vincennes is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.7 km from the centre of Paris and it is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. The Marquis de Sade was imprisoned in Vincennes fortress in 1777, thereafter Vincennes fortress was closed and de Sade transferred to the Bastille. In 1821, the noted French poet, Alfred de Vigny, wrote his poem, La Prison, a test was conducted in 1849 on Claude-Étienne Miniés invention the Minié ball which would prove successful and years be adopted by the French army. In 1929, the commune of Vincennes lost about half of its territory when the city of Paris annexed the Bois de Vincennes, Vincennes was the site of some famous European colonial expositions in the 20th century in which fairs were held to showcase artifacts from former European colonies. The city is famous for its castle, the Château de Vincennes, and its park and it features a large military fort, now housing various army services.
This fort and a plain known as the Polygon has historically been an important proving ground for French armaments. The city is home to the Service Historique de la Défense. In 1933 Georges Saupique was commissioned to work on one of three dessus-de-porte to be placed above the doors of the new Vincennes town hall salle des fêtes. The Vincennes porcelain factory continued until 1756, when the production was transferred to new buildings at Sèvres, Vincennes is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 1, Bérault and Château de Vincennes. Vincennes is served by Vincennes station on Paris RER line A, the public transport network includes 11 bus lines,46,56,112,114,115,118,124,210,215,318 and 325. Vincennes is twinned with, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany The commune has eight public preschools, six elementary schools. Enrollments peaked at 32,000 with more than 40% of students holding full-time jobs off the campus, alphonse Halimi, boxer Vélodrome de Vincennes Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Notes Vincennes town council website
A girder bridge, in general, is a bridge that uses girders as the means of supporting the deck. A bridge consists of three parts, the foundation, the superstructure, and the deck, a girder bridge is very likely the most commonly built and utilized bridge in the world. Its basic design, in the most simplified form, can be compared to a log ranging from one side to the other across a river or creek, in modern girder steel bridges, the two most common shapes are plate girders and box-girders. The term girder is used interchangeably with beam in reference to bridge design. However, some authors define beam bridges slightly differently from girder bridges, a beam may be made of concrete or steel - many shorter bridges, especially in rural areas where they may be exposed to overtopping and corrosion, will utilize concrete box beams. The term girder is used to refer to a steel beam. In a beam or girder bridge, the beams themselves are the support for the deck. Material type and weight all affect how much weight a beam can hold, due to the properties of inertia, the height of a girder is the most significant factor to affect its load capacity.
Longer spans, more traffic, or wider spacing of the beams will all result in a deeper beam. In truss and arch-style bridges, the girders are still the main support for the deck, all bridges consist of two main parts, the substructure, and the superstructure. The superstructure is everything from the pads, up - it is what supports the loads and is the most visible part of the bridge. The substructure is the foundation, what transfers the loads from the superstructure to the ground, both parts must work together to create a strong, long-lasting bridge. The superstructure consists of parts, The deck is the roadway or walkway surface. In roadway applications it is usually a reinforced concrete slab. The deck includes any road lanes, sidewalks, parapets or railings, the supporting structure consists of the steel or concrete system supporting the deck. This includes the girders themselves, diaphragms or cross-braces, and the truss or arch system, in a girder bridge this would include only the girders and the bracing system.
The girders are the primary support, while the bracing system both allows the girders to act together as a unit, and prevents the beams from toppling. The job of the pads is to allow the superstructure to move somewhat independently of the substructure
Louis XIV initiated the project by an order dated 24 November 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers, the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant, the selected site was in the suburban plain of Grenelle. By the time the project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. It was felt that the veterans required a chapel, Jules Hardouin-Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruants designs after the elder architects death. This chapel was known as Église Saint-Louis des Invalides, and daily attendance of the veterans in the services was required. Shortly after the chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. The domed chapel was finished in 1708, because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history.
On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons, Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, the building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée dartillerie was located within the building to be joined by the musée historique des armées in 1896, the two institutions were merged to form the present musée de larmée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris, the building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers. On the north front of Les Invalides Hardouin-Mansarts chapel dome is large enough to dominate the long façade, at its far end, the Pont Alexandre III links this grand urbanistic axis with the Petit Palais and the Grand Palais.
The Pont des Invalides is next, downstream the Seine river, the Hôpital des Invalides spurred William III of England to emulation, in the military Greenwich Hospital of 1694. The buildings still comprise the Institution Nationale des Invalides, an institution for disabled war veterans. The institution comprises, a retirement home a medical and surgical centre a centre for medical consultations. In 1676 Jules Hardouin-Mansart was commissioned with the construction of a place of worship on the site and he designed a building which combined a royal chapel with a veterans chapel. In this way, the King and his soldiers could attend mass simultaneously, while entering the place of worship though different entrances, when the Army Museum at Les Invalides was founded in 1905, the veterans chapel was placed under its administrative control
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine,30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city, examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864, a number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, on the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple.
Small statues of the dea Sequana Seine goddess and other ex voti found at the place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea, commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine,560 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges, the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime,105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne, from the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine.
From there on, the river is only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes and this canal has been abandoned for many years. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second
Trained at the École nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he went to the Villa Medici after winning the Prix de Rome in 1841, towards the end of Louis-Philippes reign. He treated with equal eclecticism religious subjects such as Saint John the Evangelist and modern themes and he produced pieces for public fountains, such as that at Nîmes with James Pradier or some of the statues decorating the new Louvre building inaugurated by Napoleon III in 1857. Two other soldiers, the Artilleur and Chasseur à pied, were contributed by Auguste Arnaud and these monumental works were removed when the bridge was refaced in 1963. The Zouave, to which Parisians had become attached, was re-attached to the bridge near the bank of the Seine. Georges Diebolt was the contemporary of better known such as James Pradier, Antoine-Louis Barye. Among Diebolts students was the sculptor Louis-Léon Cugnot
The Faubourg Saint Germain is a historic district of Paris. The faubourg has long known as the favorite home of the French high nobility. It is currently part of the 7th arrondissement, in its early history, Faubourg Saint-Germain was an agricultural suburb of Paris, lying west of the historical Saint-Germain-des-Prés urban district. In 1670, Louis XIV initiated a project of grandiose home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers, the king chose a site at the western end of the Faubourg and commissioned architect Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards, jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruants designs after the elder architects death. The construction of the Invalides opened a new district to urbanizing, offering large empty spaces between the new monument and the old city limit, the Faubourgs history had started. The district became so fashionable within the French aristocracy that the phrase le Faubourg has been used to describe French nobility ever since.
The oldest and most prestigious families of the French nobility built outstanding residences in the such as the Hôtel Matignon. After the Revolution many of these mansions, offering magnificent inner spaces, many receptions rooms, the French expression les ors de la Republique, referring to the luxurious environment of the national palaces comes from that time. During the Restoration of the Bourbon dynasty, the Faubourg recovered its past glory as the most exclusive high nobility district of Paris, home to the Ultra Party, it was the political center of the country. But after the Fall of Charles X during the July Revolution, the Faubourg remained the center of French upper class social life. Nowadays, the Faubourg-as the rest of the 7th arrondissement- is still is one of the most exclusive districts of Paris, the Faubourg Saint-Germain is the eastern part of the current 7th arrondissement, roughly the area between the Invalides, the 13th arrondissment and the 6th arrondissements border
The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed, the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world,6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the height as an 81-storey building. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres on each side, due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second-tallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct, the tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top levels upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union, tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift.
Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853, sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffels scheme and its rivals, after some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. Eiffel was to all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition. He established a company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
And for twenty years … we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful shadow of the column of bolted sheet metal. Gustave Eiffel responded to criticisms by comparing his tower to the Egyptian pyramids. Will it not be grandiose in its way, and why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris. Indeed, Garnier was a member of the Tower Commission that had examined the various proposals, some of the protesters changed their minds when the tower was built, others remained unconvinced. Guy de Maupassant supposedly ate lunch in the restaurant every day because it was the one place in Paris where the tower was not visible
An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side, a viaduct may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today. Possibly the oldest existing bridge is the Mycenaean Arkadiko bridge in Greece from about 1300 BC. The stone corbel arch bridge is used by the local populace. The well-preserved Hellenistic Eleutherna Bridge has a corbel arch. The 4th century BC Rhodes Footbridge rests on an early voussoir arch, a more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges, mostly of stone, in as many as 26 different countries. Roman arch bridges were usually semicircular, although a number were segmental arch bridges, Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones of the same in size and shape. The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct.
Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e. g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome, Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium. The outside was covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. The Romans introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction, trajans bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood. This was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length, while the longest extant Roman bridge is the 790 m long Puente Romano at Mérida. The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch, in medieval Europe, bridge builders improved on the Roman structures by using narrower piers, thinner arch barrels and lower span-rise ratios on bridges. Gothic pointed arches were introduced, reducing lateral thrust.
The 14th century in particular saw bridge building reaching new heights, the bridge at Trezzo sullAdda, destroyed in the 15th century, even featured a span length of 72 m, not matched until 1796. Constructions such as the acclaimed Florentine segmental arch bridge Ponte Vecchio combined sound engineering with aesthetical appeal, the three elegant arches of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita constitute the oldest elliptic arch bridge worldwide. In China, the oldest existing bridge is the Zhaozhou Bridge of 605 AD. The Zhaozhou Bridge, with a length of 167 feet and span of 123 feet, is the worlds first wholly stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge, Bridges with perforated spandrels can be found worldwide, such as in China