Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The Sahrawi Republic the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, is a recognized state that claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, but controls only the easternmost one-fifth of that territory. Until 1976, Western Sahara was known as a Spanish colony. SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on February 27, 1976, in Bir Lehlou, Western Sahara, a former socialist liberation force which has since reformed its ideological and political views; the SADR government controls about 20–25% of the territory it claims. It calls the territories under the Free Zone. Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory and calls these lands its Southern Provinces; the SADR government considers the Moroccan-held territory to be occupied territory, while Morocco considers the much smaller SADR-held territory to be a buffer zone. The claimed capital of the SADR is former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, while the temporary capital moved from Bir Lehlou to Tifariti in 2008; the Sahrawi Republic maintains diplomatic relations with 40 UN states, is a full member of the African Union.
The name Sahrawi derives from the romanization of the Arabic word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي, meaning "Inhabitant of the Desert". The word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي is derived from the Arabic word Ṣaḥrā', meaning desert itself. Following the Spanish evacuation, Spain and Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords on November 14, 1975, leading to both Morocco and Mauritania moving in to annex the territory of Western Sahara. On 26 February 1976, Spain informed the United Nations that as of that date it had terminated its presence in Western Sahara and relinquished its responsibilities, leaving no Administering Power. Neither Morocco nor Mauritania gained international recognition, war ensued with the independence-seeking Polisario Front; the United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, maintains that the people of Western Sahara have a right to "self-determination and independence". The creation of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed on February 27, 1976, as the Polisario declared the need for a new entity to fill what they considered a political void left by the departing Spanish colonizers.
While the claimed capital is the former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, in Moroccan-controlled territory, the proclamation was made in the government-in-exile's provisional capital, Bir Lehlou, which remained in Polisario-held territory under the 1991 cease-fire. On February 27, 2008, the provisional capital was formally moved to Tifariti. Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community. A new 1999 Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic took a form similar to the parliamentary constitutions of many European states, but with some paragraphs suspended until the achievement of "full independence". Among key points, the head of state is constitutionally the Secretary General of the Polisario Front during what is referred to as the "pre-independence phase," with provision in the constitution that on independence, Polisario is supposed to be dismantled or separated from the government structure. Provisions are detailed for a transitory phase beginning with independence, in which the present SADR is supposed to act as Western Sahara's government, ending with a constitutional reform and eventual establishment of a state along the lines specified in the constitution.
The broad guidelines laid down for an eventual Western Saharan state in the constitution include eventual multi-party democracy with a market economy. The constitution defines Sahrawis as a Muslim and Arab people; the Constitution declares a commitment to the principles of human rights and to the concept of a Greater Maghreb, as a regional variant of Pan-Arabism. Since August 1982, the highest office of the republic is the President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a post held by the secretary-general of the Polisario, presently Brahim Ghali, who appoints the Prime Minister, presently Mohamed Wali Akeik; the SADR's government structure consists of a Council of Ministers, a judicial branch and the parliamentary Sahrawi National Council. Since its inception in 1976, the various constitutional revisions have transformed the republic from an ad hoc managerial structure into something approaching an actual governing apparatus. From the late 1980s the parliament began to take steps to institute a division of powers and disentangle the republic's structures from those of the Polisario party, although without clear effect to date.
Its various ministries are responsible for a variety of functions. The judiciary, complete with trial courts, appeals courts and a supreme court, operates in the same areas; as a government-in-exile, many branches of government do not function, has affected the constitutional roles of the institutions. Institutions parallel to government structures have arisen within the Polisario Front, fused with the SADR's governing apparatus, with operational competences overlapping between these party and governmental institutions and offices. A 2012 report mentioned the existence of the Sahrawi Bar Association. In 2016, the bar association issued a report calling for the implementation of political and civil rights
Barberino Val d'Elsa
Barberino Val d'Elsa is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 30 kilometres south of Florence. Barberino Val d'Elsa is located above the valley; the centre of town is still ringed by its original fortifications. The Piazza Barberi includes the Church of San Bartolomeo which houses a fragment of an annunciation by the school of Giotto and a bust in bronze by Pietro Tacca; the Via Francesco da Barberino leads to the 14th century Porta Senese, the Ospedale dei Pellegrini dating from 1365. The Church of Sant'Appiano was built during the 11th century and 12th century and now includes the Antiquarium Museum housing various Etruscan artefacts from the many necropoli in the area, the village of Linari, the Castle of Poppiano at Vico d'Elsa and Petrognano; the Chapel of San Michele Arcangelo was built in 1597 by Santi di Tito as a perfect 1:8 scale reproduction of the Cupola of the Cathedral of Florence. It was constructed on the site of the ancient city of Semifonte, razed to the ground by the Florentines in 1202.
The site remains a focus for archaeological study. The noble Barberini family dynasty began at Barberino Val d'Elsa in the 11th century. Schliersee, Germany Amgala, Western Sahara Publier, France Official website
Bagno a Ripoli
Bagno a Ripoli is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 7 kilometres southeast of Florence. The International School of Florence has its primary school campus in the comune. Convento dell'Incontro Official website
Borgo San Lorenzo
Borgo San Lorenzo is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 20 kilometres northeast of Florence. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 18,085 and an area of 146.1 square kilometres. Borgo San Lorenzo borders the following municipalities: Fiesole, Marradi, Palazzuolo sul Senio, Scarperia e San Piero, Vicchio. Access to the city of Borgo San Lorenzo includes a Trenitalia local rail service from Florence and Faenza. Www.comune.borgo-san-lorenzo.fi.it/
Barberino di Mugello
Barberino di Mugello is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 25 kilometres north of Florence. Barberino di Mugello borders the following municipalities: Calenzano, Castiglione dei Pepoli, San Piero a Sieve, Vaiano, Vernio. Sights include the Villa Medici of Cafaggiolo. Laurenzana, Italy Media related to Barberino di Mugello at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, artistic legacy, its influence on high culture, it is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy, the main tourist spots are Florence, Lucca, Versilia and Chianti; the village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for 40% of tourist arrivals. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val d'Orcia are internationally renowned and popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals. Triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast; the comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among, the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of 22,993 square kilometres. Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres.
Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa; the climate is mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks; the Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea. Following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.
The Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in the area of Etruria well into prehistory; the civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and Tiber from the eighth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B. C. succumbing to the Romans by the first century BCE. Throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, ensured peace.
These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather; the Roman civilization in the West of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century, the region fell to barbarians migrating through the Empire from Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Goths was re-conquered by the revived Eastern Roman Empire under the strong Emperor Justinian. In the years following 572, the Lombards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their subsequent Tuscia. Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period; the food and shelter required by the
The Mugello is a historic region and valley in northern Tuscany, in Italy, corresponding to the course of the River Sieve. It is located to the north of the city of Florence and includes the northernmost portion of the Metropolitan City of Florence; the Futa Pass connects the Mugello valley to the separate Santerno river valley. The Mugello valley was settled by a Ligurian tribe known as the Magelli, hence the name; the region was occupied by the Etruscans who have left many archeological traces and who built the first road network of the Mugello. The subsequent Ancient Roman conquest and colonization of the Mugello region dates back to the 4th century BCE, it is not only testified by several finds such as tombs and walls, but through toponymy, e.g. names of places ending with the praedial suffix -ano or -ana: Cerliano, Marcoiano, Lucignano, etc. In the Middle Ages the Mugello was home to numerous castles; the Mugello region was acquired by the Republic of Florence. Several patrician families of the area built villas here, such as those of the Medici including Villa Medicea di Cafaggiolo and Villa Medicea del Trebbio.
In 1999 a dam was constructed across the Sieve river, forming the reservoir of Lake Bilancino in the Mugello valley. The Mugello gives its name to the Mugello Circuit, an automobile race track that hosts an annual Moto GP event and to the Mugellese chicken a Bantam breed. Borgo San Lorenzo Scarperia Barberino di Mugello San Piero a Sieve Vicchio Dicomano San Godenzo Firenzuola