Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t
Rueil-Malmaison is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, in the Hauts-de-Seine department of France. It is located 12.6 kilometres from the centre of Paris. It is one of the wealthiest suburbs of Paris. Rueil-Malmaison was called Rueil. In medieval times the name Rueil was spelled either Roialum, Rotoialum, Ruolium, or Ruellium; this name is made of the Celtic word ialo suffixed to a radical meaning "brook, stream", or maybe to a radical meaning "ford". In 1928, the name of the commune became Rueil-Malmaison in reference to its most famous tourist attraction, the Château de Malmaison, home of Napoléon's first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais; the name Malmaison comes from Medieval Latin mala mansio, meaning "ill-fated domain", "estate of ill luck". In the Early Middle Ages Malmaison was the site of a royal residence, destroyed by the Vikings in 846. Rueil is famous for the Château de Malmaison where Napoleon and his first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais lived. Upon her death in 1814, she was buried at the nearby Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul church, which stands at the centre of the city.
The Rueil barracks of the Swiss Guard were constructed in 1756 under Louis XV by the architect Axel Guillaumot, have been classified Monument historique since 1973. The Guard was formed by Louis XIII in 1616 and massacred at the Tuileries on 10 August 1792 during the French Revolution. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Rueil was located on the front line. At the end of the 19th century, Impressionist painters like Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Édouard Manet and Claude Monet came to paint the Seine River which crosses the town. Rueil is the principal location of the novel Loin de Rueil by the French novelist Raymond Queneau; the town is twinned with Surrey, in the United Kingdom. The Château de Malmaison, the residence of Napoléon's first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, is located in Rueil-Malmaison, it is home to a Napoleonic museum. The main campus of the French Institute of Petroleum research organisation is in Rueil; the city has become home to many large companies moving out of La Défense business district, located only 5 km from Rueil, a trend first established by the move of Esso headquarters to Rueil.
There are about 850 service sector companies located in Rueil, 70 of which employ more than 100 people. A business district called Rueil-sur-Seine was created near the RER A Rueil-Malmaison station to accommodate these companies; the business district is equipped with a fiber-optic network. Several major French companies have their world headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison, such as Schneider Electric and VINCI. Schneider had its head office in Rueil-Malmaison since 2000. Several large international companies have located their French headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison, such as ExxonMobil, AstraZeneca, American Express and Unilever. Rueil-Malmaison is served by Rueil-Malmaison station on Paris RER line A. Public schools: 15 preschools 15 elementary schools Six junior high schools: Les Bons-Raisins, Henri-Dunant, La Malmaison, Les Martinets, Marcel-Pagnol, Jules-Verne Two senior high schools: Lycée Richelieu, Lycée polyvalent Gustave-EiffelPrivate schools: Collège et lycée Passy-Buzenval Collège et lycée Madeleine-Daniélou Collège Notre-Dame École maternelle et élémentaire Saint-Charles-Notre Dame Ecole maternelle élémentaire Charles-Peguy Ecole Montessori Bilingue de Rueil-MalmaisonThere are tertiary educational institutions in the area.
Jean-Marie Le Pen and his wife, Jany Le Pen, live in a two-story house on the rue Hortense. Rueil-Malmaison is twinned with: ^1 Sister City Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department List of works by Eugène Guillaume INSEE Rueil-Malmaison Official website official Tourist Board of Rueil Malmaison
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Colombes is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.6 km from the centre of Paris. In 2012, Colombes was the 53rd largest city in France; the name Colombes comes from Latin columna, meaning "column". This is interpreted as referring either to a megalithic column used in ancient times by a druidic cult which stood in Colombes until its destruction during the French Revolution, or to the columns of an atrium in a ruined Gallo-Roman villa that stood in Colombes. On 13 March 1896, 17% of the territory of Colombes was detached and became the commune of Bois-Colombes. On 2 May 1910, 19% of the territory of Colombes was detached and became the commune of La Garenne-Colombes. Thus, the commune of Colombes is now only two-thirds the size of its territory before 1896; the city is divided into two cantons: Colombes-1 Colombes-2 Colombes is served by four stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line at Colombes, Le Stade, La Garenne-Colombes and Gare Les Vallées.
The commune has 19 elementary schools. Secondary schools: Junior high schools: Robert Paparemborde, Marguerite Duras, Gay Lussac, Moulin Joly, Jean-Baptiste Clément, Lakanal Senior high schools: Lycée Guy de Maupassant, Lycee Polyvalent Claude Garamont, Lycee Polyvalent Anatole de France Quilapayún, Groupe de musique Chilien qui s'exila en 1973 à Colombes Jordan Aboudou, basketball player Lens Aboudou, basketball player Kelly Berville, footballer Zoumana Camara, footballer Pierre Clayette, artist Mathieu Cossou, karateka Simone Jorry, deaf/hoh rights activist Claude Mérelle, actress Eliaquim Mangala, footballer Samuel Nadeau, basketball player Alexandre Postel, writer Steven Nzonzi, footballer Kevin Thalien, basketball player Elodie Thomis, footballer Axel Tony, singer Jonathan Toto, footballer Eddy Viator, footballer Rama Yade, moved into a council flat in Colombes with her mother and three sisters at the age of fourteen. Pierpoljak, reggae singer The stadium was built in 1907. Named the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, the Olympic Stadium of Colombes was the site of the opening ceremony and several events of the 1924 Summer Olympics.
The arena's capacity was increased to 60,000 for the 1938 World Cup. The stadium lost its importance after the restoration in 1972 of Paris' 49,000-seat Parc des Princes. In the 1990s, three of the four grandstands were torn down due to decay and the stadium's capacity was down to 7,000. Through November 2017, it had been home to the Racing 92 rugby club playing in France's Top 14, but Racing has since moved to the new U Arena in Nanterre; the RCF Paris football club, which plays in the fourth division, remains at Yves-du-Manoir. The stadium will be the field hockey venue at the 2024 Summer Olympics. Frankenthal, Germany Legnano, Italy Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE permanent dead link] Official website Colombes in postal card History of the Olympic Stadium Article: Chariots of Fire stadium reprieved
Paris metropolitan area
The Paris metropolitan area is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris and its surrounding suburbs. Created and used from 1996 by France's national INSEE statistical bureau to match international demographic standards, the aire urbaine is a statistical unit that describes the suburban development around centres of urban growth: it is composed of a couronne périurbaine ) surrounding a more densely built and densely populated pôle urbain, a single or group of densely-built unité urbaine communes. From 2011, the INSEE classified its largest aires urbaines into aires métropolitaines and grandes aires urbaines. From Paris became France's largest metropolitan area. In France, the'Paris metropolitan area' term's use is limited to demographic and statistical studies, and, to date, it is unused in economical statistics, but in recent years the media has begun using it to describe the electoral tendencies of France's largest cities. In 2010 the government passed a law that invited France's largest city'metropoles' to work together as an intercommunitary entities, but the lack of response by the following year moved the government to make the cooperation for many of France's largest cities obligatory, Paris became a case study all on its own.
This latter initiative created the "Métropole du Grand Paris", a Paris-centred intercommunal cooperation effort enacted from January 1, 2016. The territory it covers is much smaller than the INSEE'Paris metropolitan area' statistical area: it includes Paris, its neighbouring three départements, a few bordering communes in the departments beyond; as of 2010, the INSEE statistical Paris metropolitan area, with its 17,174 km², extends beyond Paris' administrative Île-de-France region, a region commonly referred to as the région parisienne. The area had a population of 12,405,426 as of the January 2013 census, making it the largest urban region in the European Union. Nearly 19% of France's population resides in the region; the Paris metropolitan area expands at each population census due to the rapid population growth in the Paris area. New communes surrounding. At the 1968 census, the earliest date for which population figures were retrospectively computed for French aire urbaines, the Paris metropolitan area had 8,368,459 inhabitants in an area that only encompassed central Île-de-France.
By the 1999 census the Paris metropolitan area was larger than Île-de-France and had 11,174,743 inhabitants in 14,518 km². By the 2012 census it had reached 12,341,418 inhabitants in 17,174 km², an area larger than Île-de-France; the table below shows the population growth of the Paris metropolitan area, i.e. the urban area and the commuter belt surrounding it.: Grand Paris Metropolitan Areas of France Île-de-France Document about the functioning of Paris Metropolitan Area Document about the extension of Paris Metropolitan Area
Émerainville–Pontault-Combault is a French railway station on the Paris-Est–Mulhouse-Ville railway, located in Émerainville, Seine-et-Marne département, Ile-de-France region. It bears the name of Pontault-Combault commune as its territory reaches the south and the west of the building, it serves a district of Marne-la-Vallée. The station is put into service on February 9, 1857, by the Compagnie des chemins de fer de l'Est, when the section from Nogent–Le Perreux to Nangis opens, it is a SNCF station served by RER line E trains. Émerainville–Pontault-Combault station, whose elevation is 109 meters, is located at kilometric point 27.224 of the Paris–Mulhouse railway, between Les Yvris–Noisy-le-Grand and Roissy-en-Brie stations. The Est company puts in operation Émerainville station at the opening of the section from Nogent–Le Perreux to Nangis to commercial service; that section opens with only one track, the second is put into service on April 23, 1857. In 2000, a contract between the state and the Ile-de-France region organizes the expansion of the RER E from Villiers-sur-Marne to Tournan.
On February 14, 2002, the STIF board of directors approves of the pilot. On December 14, 2003, the line is cut from its historical network to Paris Est, linked with RER E leading to Haussmann–Saint Lazare underground station; that integration modify journeys and timetables, improves the station services. Platforms are raised from 0.55 meters to 0.92 meters to facilitate access to the carriages. Facilities improve accessibility to people with limited mobility. Screens on the platforms show real time information. From 1883 to 1959, the station was the start of a private standard gauge railway serving Menier chocolate factory in Noisiel, it measured 10 km, including a 1.6 km section inside the factory. It included a branch serving La Ferme du Buisson cultural center, it was in the Menier family domain and included five railroad crossings. Menier branch was refurbished with a marshalling yard in Émerainville and an extension to the west, with a unique track, along A4 autoroute and rounding Lognes–Émerainville aerodrome heading to Pariest industrial park in Lognes.
That is a 7.5 km track serving SEVM companies, carrying 118000 tons of freight a year. The line is disused in 2005 as the two companies move and the line manager refuse to pay for the maintenance; as a Transilien network station, commercial services are available everyday, as well as facilities and assistance to people with limited mobility. The station is equipped with vending machines for Transilien and main lines tickets, with real time traffic information system. Several facilities are present, such as a press booth and a vending machine proposing drinks and sweets; the station is served in both directions by one train every 30 minutes off-peak and in the evening. It is served by two to four trains an hour during peak times. Several car parks are set nearby; the station is served by bus companies: SITUS line 2 Seine-et-Marne Express line 18 RATP Group lines 206, 212 and 421 Sit'bus lines A, B, C and D Noctilien night line N142 List of stations of the Paris RER Paris-Est–Mulhouse-Ville railway RER E Plancke, René-Charles.
Histoire du chemin de fer de Seine-et-Marne: tome I de la vapeur au TGV. Le Mée-sur-Seine: Amatteis. ISBN 978-2868491053. Émerainville–Pontault-Combault station at Transilien, the official website of SNCF
Aulnay-sous-Bois is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department in the Île-de-France region in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 13.9 km from the Kilometre zero. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aulnaysiennes; the commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located in the Paris area and is 19 km north-east of Notre-Dame Cathedral, 1 km east of Le Bourget Airport, 5 km south-west of Charles de Gaulle Airport; the commune stretches over a length of 6.5 km from north to south and a width ranging from 1.4 to 4.3 km from east to west and covers an area of 1,620 hectares. The town is surrounded by the A3 autoroute in the west. Route nationale 2 passes through the heart of the commune from west to east with the N370 coming from the south-east along the eastern border to join the N2; the D44 passes through from north-west to south-east and the D115 from Bobigny in the south-west passes through the centre and continues to Villepinte in the east.
The Ourcq Canal passes through the south-eastern end, adjacent to Livry-Gargan. Distribution of urban zones is: Residential: 44% Industrial: 30% Housing Estates: 11% Natural areas: 15% The north of Aulnay-sous-Bois consists of large housing estates, industrial areas, parks: The Rose des Vents The Etangs The Merisier The City of Emmaus Balagny La Garenne Ambourget Savigny The Gros Saule The central area, called the district of Vieux Pays, is older with its Church of Saint-Sulpice built in the 12th century and its farm, it includes La Roseraie, Maximilien Robespierre, Le Vieux Pays, Tour Eiffel, Hotel de Ville. The south, across the railway line, is residential in nature, it is bordered by the Canal de l'Ourcq. It includes Chanteloup, Central Station, Pont de l'Union, Nonneville; when the construction of Clos Saint-Lazare at Stains ended, urbanization of the northern districts of Aulnay-sous-Bois began. The idea was to create an area of factories, it was on this basis that the area of Rose des Vents was built in 1969 in the northern part of Aulnay-sous-Bois.
This "Great Housing Estate" was built on former agricultural land. Its mission was to provide shelter for workers and managers for a new Citroën plant to be located a few hundred metres away. Beyond the Rose des Vents, known as the City of 3000, all of the housing estates in the northern districts total 6,500 housing units including 745 detached houses. 24,000 people, or 30% of the population of Aulnay-sous-Bois, are housed on 4% of the territory. The city is served by: Autoroutes: A1, A3, A104 National Roads: N2 and N370 Departmental Routes: D115, D44, D40, D401 The commune is traversed by the main railway line from Paris to Soissons and Hirson which serves the Aulnay-sous-Bois railway station where all buses and semi-direct services of and the Transilien Paris to Crépy-en-Valois stop and it is the terminus of the line; the station has a ride with a parking fee. Since November 2006, the classic commuter train the Ligne des Coquetiers between Aulnay-sous-Bois to Bondy has been replaced by a Tram-train that takes the same route and allows connection to the and.
Two branches are planned: the first to Clichy-sous-Bois and Montfermeil on the Gargan heights. Between September 2009 to January 2011, the Aulnay-sous-Bois station has had work done to allow access to all platforms for disabled persons including: the development of four lifts, the rehabilitation of the railway station and underpasses, the installation of new lighting. Aulnay-sous-Bois station is served by bus routes: RATP 251 TRA 605 607a 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 637 680 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 15 RATP N140Villepinte Station is located halfway between Aulnay-sous-Bois and Villepinte and it provides access to the district of Rose des Vents. Villepinte station is served by buses: TRA 609 615 617 642 683 In 2023 a station on line 16 in the Grand Paris Express project is planned north of the commune on the embankment of the former N2 road, its platforms will be at a depth of 15 metres. The city is served by various bus networks: RATP 148 251 350 TRA 605 607a 607b 609 610 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 634 637 680 683 684 686 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 1 15 32A 43 44 45 93 100 RATP N42 N140In the medium term, it is proposed the creation of a "transverse" line by merging TRA 614 627 637 lines.
In addition, it is planned to create a circular line to connect different parts of the city to avoid "reloading" for trips between all economic areas of the city and its public facilities. There is a taxi rank at Aulnay-sous-Bois station. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located 5 km from Charles de Gaulle Airport; the airport can be reached by the A1 and A3 autoroutes. "Aulnay" is a common French toponym and may derive from the Medieval Latin alnetum meaning "alder grove" after the alder trees which covered Aulnay-sous-Bois in ancient times. An alternative derivation is th