Pont du Gard
The Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct that crosses the Gardon River near the town of Vers-Pont-du-Gard in southern France. The Pont du Gard is the highest of all elevated Roman aqueducts and it was added to UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites in 1985 because of its historical importance. The aqueduct bridge is part of the Nîmes aqueduct, a 50-kilometre system built in the first century AD to carry water from a spring at Uzès to the Roman colony of Nemausus. Because of the terrain between the two points, the mostly underground aqueduct followed a long, winding route that called for a bridge across the gorge of the Gardon River. The bridge has three tiers of arches, stands 48.8 m high, and descends a mere 2, the aqueduct formerly carried an estimated 200,000 m3 of water a day to the fountains and homes of the citizens of Nîmes. After the Roman Empire collapsed and the fell into disuse. It attracted increasing attention starting in the 18th century, and became an important tourist destination, today it is one of Frances most popular tourist attractions, and has attracted the attention of a succession of literary and artistic visitors.
The location of Nemausus was somewhat inconvenient when it came to providing a water supply, the only real alternative was to look to the north and in particular to the area around Ucetia, where there are natural springs. The Nîmes aqueduct was built to water from the springs of the Fontaine dEure near Uzès to the castellum divisorum in Nemausus. From there, it was distributed to fountains and private homes around the city, the straight-line distance between the two is only about 20 km but the aqueduct takes a winding route measuring around 50 km. This was necessary to circumvent the southernmost foothills of the Massif Central and they are difficult to cross, as they are covered in dense vegetation and garrigue and indented by deep valleys. It was impractical for the Romans to attempt to tunnel through the hills, a roughly V-shaped course around the eastern end of the Garrigues de Nîmes was therefore the only practical way of transporting the water from the spring to the city. The aqueducts average gradient is only 1 in 3,000 and it varies widely along its course, but is as little as 1 in 20,000 in some sections.
The Pont du Gard itself descends 2.5 cm in 456 m, the average gradient between the start and end of the aqueduct is far shallower than was usual for Roman aqueducts – only about a tenth of the average gradient of some of the aqueducts in Rome. This height limit governed the profile and gradients of the entire aqueduct, the gradient profile before the Pont du Gard is relatively steep, descending at 0.67 metres per kilometre, but thereafter it descends by only 6 metres over the remaining 25 kilometres. It is estimated that the aqueduct supplied the city with around 200,000 cubic metres of water a day that took nearly 27 hours to flow from the source to the city. The water arrived in the castellum divisorum at Nîmes – an open, shallow and it would have been surrounded by a balustrade within some sort of enclosure, probably under some kind of small but elaborate pavilion. When it was excavated, traces of a roof, Corinthian columns
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Pont Flavien is a Roman bridge across the River Touloubre in Saint-Chamas, Bouches-du-Rhône department, southern France. The single-arch crossing, which was built from limestone, was on a Roman road - the Via Julia Augusta - between Placentia and Arles, the bridge probably replaced an earlier wooden structure on the same site. It measures 21.4 metres long by 6.2 metres wide, the two arches at either end, each standing 7 metres high with a single wide bay, are constructed of the same local stone as the bridge and are broader than they are tall. At the corners of the arches are fluted Corinthian pilasters at the top of which are carved eagles, lucius Donnius Flavos was evidently a figure of some importance and probably owned land in the vicinity of the bridge. He was a Romanised Gaul who is likely to have been an aristocrat of the Avatici and he was probably a significant player in the affairs of the nearby city of Arelate, as he served the imperial cult, most likely in one of the citys temples.
He may have built his mausoleum nearby, though its location remains unknown, as the inscription indicates, the bridge was constructed at Flavos instigation following his death. Its stylistic elements are typical of funerary monuments, the frieze of the arches decorated with a wave pattern symbolises the constant rebirth of life. The combination of arches and a bridge may have intended to symbolise the passage of life. Because the Pont Flavien was a monument it did not have the triumphal imagery normally associated with Roman arches and does not bear any portrait of Flavos. He would most likely have been depicted in figure at his tomb but this, in the 20s BC, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa carried out a programme of road building in Provence on behalf of the Emperor Augustus, constructing the Via Julia Augusta. This would have given Flavos an opportunity to make his mark in a visible way, proclaiming his dedication to Roman values. Considering the date of the stylistic elements, the Pont Flavien was most likely built some time between 20 and 10 BC.
The bridge was used until as late as the latter part of the 20th century. It has been resurfaced to prevent the collapse of the bridge. The western arch has collapsed at least twice, the first time was in the 18th century and it was rebuilt in 1763 by Jean Chastel, who restored the sculptures. The second collapse was during the Second World War, when the arch was first damaged when a German tank collided with it and it was rebuilt in 1949 and some years a modern bridge was built 50 metres to the south to bypass it. The Pont Flavien is now reserved for use only. In 1977, prior to the landscaping of the surrounding area, list of Roman bridges Roman architecture Roman engineering Media related to Pont Flavien at Wikimedia Commons Pont Flavien at Structurae Pont Flavien
Aquileia was founded as a colony by the Romans in 180/181 BC along the Natiso River, on land south of the Julian Alps but about 13 kilometres north of the lagoons. In fact, the chosen for Aquileia was about 6 km from where an estimated 12,000 Celtic Taurisci nomads had attempted to settle in 183 BC. However, since the 13th century BC, the site, on the river and it is, theoretically not unlikely that Aquileia had been a Gallic oppidum even before the coming of the Romans. However, few Celtic artifacts have been discovered from 500 BC to the Roman arrival, each of the men had first hand knowledge of Cisalpine Gaul. Nasica had conquered the Boii in 191, flaminius had overseen the construction of the road named after him from Bologna to Arezzo. Acidinus had conquered the Taurisci in 183, the triumvirate led 3,000 families to settle the area meaning Aquileia probably had a population of 20,000 soon after its founding. Meanwhile, based on the evidence of names chiseled on stone, the majority of colonizing families came from Picenum and Campania, among these colonists, pedites received 50 iugera of land each, centuriones received 100 iugera each, and equites received 140 iugera each.
Either at the founding or not long afterward, colonists from the nearby Veneti supplemented these families, roads soon connected Aquileia with the Roman colony of Bologna probably in 173 BC. The construction of the Via Popilia from the Roman colony of Ariminium to Ad Portum near Altinum in 132 BC improved communications still further. In the 1st century AD, the Via Gemina would link Aquileia with Emona to the east of the Julian Alps and it had, in times at least, considerable brickfields. In 90 BC, the original Latin colony became a municipium, the customs boundary of Italy was close by in Ciceros day. Caesar visited the city on a number of occasions and pitched winter camp nearby in 59-58 BC, although the Iapydes plundered Aquileia during the Augustan period, subsequent increased settlement and no lack of profitable work meant the city was able to develop its resources. Jewish artisans established a trade in glasswork. Metal from Noricum was forged and exported, the ancient Venetic trade in amber from the Baltic continued.
Wine, especially its famous Pucinum was exported, oil was imported from Proconsular Africa. By sea, the port of Aquae Gradatae, modern Grado, augustus was the first of a number of emperors to visit Aquileia, notably during the Pannonian wars in 12‑10 BC. It was the birthplace of Tiberius son by Julia, in the latter year, the Roman poet Martial praised Aquileia as his hoped for haven and resting place in his old age. In terms of religion, the populace adopted the Roman pantheon, although the Celtic sungod, Jews practiced their ancestral religion and it was perhaps some of these Jews who became the first Christians
The Band-e Kaisar, Pol-e Kaisar, Bridge of Valerian or Shadirwan was an ancient arch bridge in Shushtar and the first in the country to combine it with a dam. Built by a Roman workforce in the 3rd century AD on Sassanid order, it was the most eastern Roman bridge and Roman dam and its dual-purpose design exerted a profound influence on Iranian civil engineering and was instrumental in developing Sassanid water management techniques. The arched superstructure carried across the important road between Pasargadae and the Sassanid capital Ctesiphon, many times repaired in the Islamic period, the dam bridge remained in use until the late 19th century. The story is related by the Muslim historians Tabari and Masudi in the 9th and 10th centuries, local tradition ascribes to Roman settlers the origin of a number of trades, like the production of brocade, and several popular customs. The dam bridge at Shushtar belonged to the important road connection between the Sassanid centres of Pasargadae and Ctesiphon.
Two further Sassanid dam bridges on this road, the Pa-i-Pol across the Karkheh, both exhibit typically Roman masonry bound with mortar, a technique completely foreign to indigenous architecture. Shushtar lies on a plateau above the Karun, Irans most effluent river. An early dam, built by the Sassanids to divert water for the town and its extensive irrigable hinterland, the Band-e Kaisar was built across the dried-up riverbed, with its foundations following a winding course in search for solid strata of sandstone. As the water flowed permanently over the top, the structure conforms to the definition of a weir rather than a dam. Despite its modest height, the wall was quite thick in order to accommodate the arcaded superstructure. On top of the weir, a roadway supported by originally at least forty arches ran along its length of around 500 m. The pointed arches which dominate visually the present-day structure, or rather its remains, are testimony to numerous reconstruction, the typical clear span of the Pol-e Kaisar was between 6.6 and 9 m.
By comparison, pier thicknesses of Roman bridges located within the empire’s frontiers commonly made up one-fourth of the length of the bridge, on the upstream face, the river-bed was paved with large stone slabs, probably to prevent the current from undermining the dam base. One former Persian name of the dam, derives from this paving, another smaller barrage, the Band-e Mizan, whose construction may postdate the Roman works, was erected upstream to control the flow of water into the Ab-i Gargar canal. The time it took the Roman labour force to complete the ancient Shushtar hydraulic complex is reported as spanning three to seven years. The site has been referred to as a masterpiece of creative genius by UNESCO, along with the hydraulic works, it includes Selastel Castle and a tower for water level measurement, as well as a series of water mills. List of Roman bridges List of Roman dams Romans in Persia Chaumont, M. -L
Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, cream-colored and it is formed by a process of rapid precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at the mouth of a hot spring or in a limestone cave. In the latter, it can form stalactites, and it is frequently used in Italy and elsewhere as a building material. Travertine is a sedimentary rock, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from solution in ground and surface waters. Similar deposits formed from water are known as tufa. The word travertine is derived from the Italian travertino, itself a derivation of the Latin tiburtinus ‘of Tibur’ and its namesake is the origin of Tivoli, a district near Rome. Modern travertine is formed from geothermally heated supersaturated alkaline waters, with raised pCO2, on emergence, waters degas CO2 due to the lower atmospheric pCO2, resulting in an increase in pH. Since carbonate solubility decreases with increased pH, precipitation is induced, precipitation may be enhanced by factors leading to a reduction in pCO2, for example increased air-water interactions at waterfalls may be important, as may photosynthesis.
Precipitation may be enhanced by evaporation in some springs, both calcite and aragonite are found in hot spring travertines, aragonite is preferentially precipitated when temperatures are hot, while calcite dominates when temperatures are cooler. When pure and fine, travertine is white, but often it is brown to yellow due to impurities, travertine may precipitate out directly onto rock and other inert materials as in Pamukkale or Yellowstone for example. The latter has a historic value, because it was one of the quarries that Gian Lorenzo Bernini selected material from to build the famous Colonnade of St. Peters Square in Rome in 1656-1667. Michaelangelo chose travertine as the material for the ribs of the dome of St Peters Basilica. Travertine derives its name from the town, known as Tibur in ancient Roman times. The ancient name for the stone was lapis tiburtinus, meaning tibur stone, detailed studies of the Tivoli and Guidonia travertine deposits revealed diurnal and annual rhythmic banding and laminae, which have potential use in geochronology.
Cascades of natural lakes formed behind travertine dams can be seen in Pamukkale, Turkey, in Central Europes last post-glacial palaeoclimatic optimum, huge deposits of tufa formed from karst springs. On a smaller scale, these karst processes are still working, travertine has been an important building material since the Middle Ages. Travertine has formed sixteen huge, natural dams in a valley in Croatia known as Plitvice Lakes National Park, clinging to moss and rocks in the water, the travertine has built up over several millennia to form waterfalls up to 70 m in height. In the U. S. the most well-known place for travertine formation is Yellowstone National Park, Oklahoma has two parks dedicated to this natural wonder
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy, the metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. Three of Shakespeares plays are set in Verona and Juliet, The Two Gentlemen of Verona and it is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy at all, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities many times over. The city has been awarded World Heritage Site status by UNESCO because of its structure and architecture. According to a theory that considers the geographical position of the city, Verona is short for Versus Romae which means In the direction of Rome because as italian people say All roads lead to Rome. The exclamation Vae Romae if understood in Latin means Alas Rome, in fact, to express distress or denounce a disgrace ancient Romans used the Latin interjection vae.
So, you explain the famous poem by William Shakespeare There is no world without Verona walls, But purgatory, torture. Hence-banished is banishd from the world, And worlds exile is death, the writer would express a Roman concept through its character named Romeo, a name that invokes Rome, according to which the city of Verona was a boundary between the Roman world and barbaric one. Verona was a place of passage and to horses, for those who wanted to go and had walked the Via Claudia Augusta. So the expression Vae Romae Alas Rome would indicate spirit of the place, another theory is that it is connected to the river. Vera was a name of the river Adige before the adoption of the current name, as in many similar instances in Europe the name of the town is formed with the addition of suffix -ona which means settlement over. The city was sometimes known as Welsch-Bern in German. The precise details of Veronas early history remain a mystery, one theory is it was a city of the Euganei, who were obliged to give it up to the Cenomani.
With the conquest of the Valley of the Po the Veronese territory became Roman, Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC, and a municipium in 49 BC when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important because it was at the intersection of several roads, stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there. It remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a day in 541. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city, in 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when they were fully overthrown that the Goths surrendered it
The river sources near the Reschen Pass close to the borders with Austria and Switzerland above the Inn valley. It flows through the artificial alpine Lake Reschen, the lake is known for the church tower that marks the site of the former village of Alt Graun, it was evacuated and flooded in 1953 after the dam was finished. Near Glurns, the Rom river joins from the Swiss Val Müstair, the Adige runs eastbound through the Vinschgau to Merano, where it is met by the Passer river from the north. The section between Merano and Bolzano, is called Etschtal, meaning Adige Valley, the Chiusa di Salorno narrows at Salorno mark the southernmost part of the predominantly German-speaking province of South Tyrol. The Adige was mentioned in the Lied der Deutschen of 1841 as the border of the German language area. In 1922 Germany adopted the song as its anthem, although by that time Italy had taken control of all of the Adige. Near Trento, the Avisio and Fersina rivers join, the Adige crosses Trentino and Veneto, flowing past the town of Rovereto, the Lagarina Valley, the cities of Verona and Adria and the north-eastern part of the Po Plain into the Adriatic Sea.
The Adige and the Po run parallel in the river delta without properly joining, the Adige is connected to Lake Garda by the Mori-Torbole tunnel, an artificial underground canal built for flood prevention. The Adige is a home to the Marble trout, but at far lower populations than in the past, fish stocking is one of the most significant causes of the sharp reduction in the original fish population of this subspecies. It will spawn with and interbreed with brown trout, which are stocked in the river
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015,594,733 people lived within the administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious past, part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The citys rich history in notably its art, music. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, is one of the countrys major economic centres. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the citys prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, the Genoa area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC.
In ancient times this area was frequented and inhabited by Ligures, Phocaeans and Etruscans. The city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbour probably saw use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. In the 5th century BC was founded the first oppidum at the foot of the today called the Castle Hill which now is inside the medieval old town. The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Artemidorus Ephesius and Pomponius Mela, Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed by the powerful Marseille and Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights, the original castrum thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.
Trades included skins and honey, goods were shipped to the mainland, up to major cities like Tortona and Piacenza. Among the archeological remains from the Roman period, an amphitheatre was found, another theory traces the name to the Etruscan word Kainua which means New City and still another from the Latin word ianua, related to the name of the God Janus, meaning door or passage. The latter is in reference to its position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, oppidum Genua, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as part of the Augustean Regio IX Liguria, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths occupied Genoa
The Ponte Nomentano is a Roman bridge in Rome, which carried the Via Nomentana over the Aniene. Having lain outside the city limits for most of its history, the bridge is noted for its medieval bridge tower. In antiquity, the Ponte Nomentano was located outside of the Aurelian Wall, the still intact late Republican fabric of the main arch, indicates that the bridge could have been only partially damaged in the event. In 1849, the bridge was cut on a length of 7 m by French troops to check Garibaldis advance on Rome, the bridge is surrounded by a park, well within the municipal limits of Rome, and restricted to pedestrians. Apart from this, only some layers of travertine in the retaining walls can be assigned with certainty to the Roman period. The two lateral arches were built in the reign of Pope Innocent X in lieu of stone vaults. Further examples for fortified bridges across the Aniene include the Roman Ponte Salario and Ponte Mammolo, catalogo generale, Vol.2, Edizioni Canova, pp. 37–39, ISBN 88-85066-66-6 O’Connor, Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, p
Piercebridge Roman Bridge
Piercebridge Roman Bridge is the ruin of a Roman bridge over the River Tees near the village of Piercebridge, County Durham, England. The bridge carried Dere Street Roman road across the river, Piercebridge Roman Fort guarded the bridge. The Tees has narrowed and changed its course over the centuries so the remains lie in a field around 90 metres south of the current course of the river, what remains of the bridge are massive masonry blocks that formed its piers. The lower courses of one of the abutments still stand, partially complete, all of the timber has disappeared in the nearly 16 centuries since the end of the Roman occupation. From this, and other evidence he argues that the Romans made far greater use of transport than is generally recognised. His views are set out in his books The Piercebridge Formula, On the Trail of the Legions, list of Roman bridges Roman Britain Brigantes Nation - Piercebridge
Ponte d'Augusto (Narni)
The Ponte d’Augusto is a Roman arch bridge in the Italian city Narni in Umbria, built to carry the Flaminian Way over the river Nera. Of the original four spans of the 160 metre long bridge, the bridge was built under Augustus around 27 BC using marble blocks. The 30 m high structure was one of the largest bridges constructed by the Romans, according to the Umbrian Superintendence of Archaeological Heritage, The complexity of the structure and a number of irregularities suggest that its construction was a lengthy affair. Evident signs of ancient restorations reveal structural failures resulting from use or from natural calamities. Chronicles from the Middle Ages report collapses caused by floods and earthquakes, documentation gives a definite date for the collapsing of the third pylon, which occurred in 1855. During the 1970s reinforcement work was done on the bridge, the surviving arch has suffered damage from recent earthquakes, in particular the 2000 quake. Restoration work is now in progress, the bridge was a popular destination on the Grand Tour.
James Hakewill wrote in A picturesque tour of Italy, There are few relics of antiquity that impress the traveller with greater ideas of Roman magnificence that the sight of this bridge affords. It is built with blocks of white marble, neatly squared and fitted in. The English painter J. M. W. Turner made sketches of the bridge in 1819, the French painter Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot produced in 1826 the famous painting The Bridge at Narni, which today hangs in the Louvre. Probable width of the four spans,19. 20m,32. 10m,18. 00m and 16. 00m. List of Roman bridges Media related to Ponte dAugusto at Wikimedia Commons Ponte di Augusto at Structurae Ponte dAugusto