The Pontifical Xavierian University is a private higher education institution founded in 1623. It is one of the oldest, most traditional, prestigious Colombian universities, directed by the Society of Jesus, with its main facilities in Bogotá and a second campus in Cali. "La Javeriana", as it is known by its students, has traditionally educated the Colombian elite. It is one of the 33 universities entrusted to the Society of Jesus in Latin America and one of 167 around the world; the Javeriana University in Bogotá has 18 schools comprising 61 departments and 181 academic programs catering to areas of knowledge, giving the university its multidisciplinary nature. It has 45 buildings in 445 acres; the Javeriana University in Cali offers 18 schools in four faculties. It is located in Cali, its Law School received a high-quality accreditation by Resolution 6808 6 August 2010, of the Ministry of National Education. The campus in Cali has sectional divisions of the Bolsa de Valores de Colombia, Temple University's Fox School of Business, others.
The University is one of the twelve universities in Colombia having a high-quality institutional accreditation, granted to it for eight years by Resolution 1320, 12 June 2003, of the Ministry of National Education. The university has 21 undergraduate programs with high-quality accreditation, eight programs in advanced stages of the accreditation process. In graduate programs, quality is acknowledged through the Qualified Registries; the university has 87 graduate programs with Qualified Registries and has presented another 29 to these processes. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings Javeriana is ranked in the 501 to 600 range worldwide; the College of the Society of Jesus was established in Santafé de Bogotá in 1604 as part of the San Bartolome School and Cloister. In 1623, the Audience and the Archbishop recognized; the students at that time received their degree, including Pedro Claver. That is the origin of what was known as the Academy of Saint Francis Xavier. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish colonies, which closed the first stage of Universidad Javeriana's history.
163 years after the university closed, an act of restoration was signed. In 1937 the School of Economics and Legal Sciences was founded, with the others following. In 1970, after multiple petitions from the community of Cali, the university started a programme in that city; the Universidad Javeriana in Cali took the name of "Cali Branch", offering degrees in business and psychology. The university offers 40 undergraduate programs, 69 professional specializations, 45 medical and surgical specializations, 8 dentistry specializations, 22 masters, 8 PhDs. School of Theology School of Philosophy School of Medicine School of Dentistry School of Nursing School of Psychology School of Law School of Political Science and International Relations School of Arts: drama, music School of Social Sciences: anthropology, literature, sociology School of Sciences: biology and physics, nutrition, biochemistry School of Engineering: civil engineering, industrial engineering, electronic engineering, systems engineering School of Economics and Management Sciences: management, economy.
School of Education: child pedagogy, basic education emphasizing Spanish and human sciences School of Communication and Language: communication studies, information science, languages School of Design and Architecture: architecture, industrial design, design of visual communication School of Environmental and Rural Studies: ecology and regional development The University has 61 departments and 14 institutes. Departments are academic units aimed at developing an area of knowledge through research and the implementation of services such as continuing education and advisory activities. Institutes are academic units responsible for research and consulting in areas requiring a special interdisciplinary approach. To provide technological support to research, education and administrative processes, the University has next-generation network services. Mention can be made of the technological components available in the following units: The SIU with its "People Soft" platform for Academic Management.
It has 130 laboratories and workshops. La Javeriana is among the leading universities researching the Muisca people and culture; the Xavierian University has two libraries: the General Library and the Mario Valenzuela, S. J. Library; the latter library specializes in philosophy and theology and is rated as the best in these disciplines in Latin America. It has seven document and resource centers in the following fields of knowledge: bio-ethics, political science, law, social communication, clinical epidemiology; the library stock numbers 418,008 titles among books, journals and dissertation papers, music scores, maps, VHS and DVD film recordings, sound videos, sound recordings. The system has about 90 subscriptions to databases and has access to complete text contents for online consultation of journals
The Bucareli Treaty, signed on 1923, was an agreement between the countries of México and United States. It was called "Convención Especial de Reclamaciones", for losses sustained by citizens or companies of the United States of America because of the Mexican Revolution; the treaty sought to channel the demands of U. S. citizens for alleged damage to their property caused by internal wars of the Mexican Revolution during the period between 1910 and 1921. The meetings were held in Mexico City and were conducted in a federal government owned building located on #85 Bucareli Street. Negotiations ended on August 13 of that year; the treaty was signed by President Álvaro Obregón to obtain diplomatic recognition from the U. S. government led by President Warren G. Harding, but were never formally approved by the congresses of both countries; the Bucareli Treaty was canceled shortly after by the President Plutarco Elías Calles. The situation of Mexico in which the treaty was signed was marked by political instability and constant military revolts.
Part of the relative weakness of government of Álvaro Obregón came from the fact that the United States had not recognized its post-revolutionary regime. The Constitution of 1917, with a strong socialist and nationalist influence, had hurt many U. S. interests, President Warren G. Harding refused to recognize as the legitimate the government of President Álvaro Obregón, demanded the repeal of several articles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 or at least that they be not applied to United States. For Obregón, recognition of his government by the United States was a priority, because that way avoided the constant threat of an armed conflict with that country and weakened his internal enemies, who sought the support of United States. Due to the devastation and disorder caused during the Mexican revolution, Obregón considered that foreign direct investment was necessary to rebuild the Mexican economy, but the United States conditioned the recognition of Obregon, with a treaty in which Mexico would guarantee the rights of property of U.
S. citizens living in Mexico and its oil companies in Mexican territory. The oil problem stemmed from Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution, which states that Mexico is in direct control of everything on Mexican soil; that affected the possession and extraction of oil by U. S. and European oil companies. The low-profile negotiations that led to the treaty took place from May to August 1923 in a venue on Bucareli Avenue in Mexico City; the conditions demanded by the U. S. to the Mexican government were: Specify in the content of Article 27 of the Constitution the legal situation of oil industry and agricultural properties of foreigners. Resume payment of external debt, suspended during the government of President Venustiano Carranza. Pay compensation to foreigners for damages to their persons or property incurred during the revolutionary struggle; the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice granted and determined that Article 27 would not be retroactive for the oil industry. Regarding the resumption of external debt payments, Obregón tried to obtain funds through new taxes on oil but the oil companies opposed to the increase, stopped production and that forced the government to repeal the tax.
The Bucareli Treaty was signed by Álvaro Obregón on August 13, 1923 reached the following agreement: The agricultural properties expropriated from U. S would be paid with bonds; the properties that exceed that length, the payment would be immediate and in cash. It would create a commission to be responsible for reviewing the claims pending since 1868. Regarding oil, article 27 was not retroactive to the Americans who had acquired their leases before 1917, allowing them to continue exploiting the oil freely. Claims must be met for a period of two years and had to be processed for five years from the signing of the treaty. However, the treaty lacked legal validity because it wasn't approved by the congresses of the two signatory countries, being in a "gentleman's agreement", which involved only to Obregón but not their successors, despite of this, the government of Obregon was recognized by the U. S. government. The amount of money paid to Americans during the presidential term of Obregon is unknown to date.
Former interim president Adolfo de la Huerta, in Obregon's cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury, asserted that the treaty violated the national sovereignty and subjected Mexico to humiliating conditions". De la Huerta accused Obregón of treason against the nation, while de la Huerta was accused of incompetence in the performance of his duties and he was made responsible for financial plight. De la Huerta resigned and moved to Veracruz, from where he launched a manifesto that set off the Rebelión Delahuertista in December 1923. A common myth in Mexico says that the treaty forbade Mexico to produce specialized machinery, so Mexico delayed for many years the development of its economy, it has been argued that during the period between 1910 and 1930, civil wars, multiple military coups and rebellions devastated the industries in Mexico and stopped higher education and technological development, while social and political instability drove off the foreign investments. The Revolution did not, in fact, destroy the industrial sector, either its factories, extractive facilities, or its industrial entrepreneurs, so that once the fighting stopped in 1917, production resumed.
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George Elyott Dement, Jr. was an American innkeeper and restaurateur who served from 1989 to 2005 as the thirteenth mayor of Bossier City, Louisiana. Dement's parents were Sr. and the former Clara Catherine Depew. Employed by Gulf Oil, the senior Dement relocated in 1919 from Missouri to Bossier Parish in northwestern Louisiana; when Clara was giving birth to George, Jr. with the assistance of a midwife, a mule crawled under their old farmhouse in the Princeton community in search of corn. The creature shook the floor while the baby was being brought forward. Dement went to Arizona a year, he earned a dollar a day as a delivery boy for a Bossier City drugstore. Soon he was nearing completion of officer candidacy school in Corpus Christi, when he had a dispute with a lieutenant. Outraged, he joined the submarine section of the United States Navy during World War II. Though his submarine, the USS Razorback, did not enter service until 1944, it participated in five combat patrols in the Pacific Theater of Operations.
Dement was a member of the first crew of the Razorback. During a surface attack, he once mistakenly left oil in a fryer; this forced the boat to rise to the surface in enemy waters in daylight. The Razorback was nearly the last casualty of the Pacific war. Dement was present for the ceremony on Victory over Japan Day, September 2, 1945, when the Empire of Japan, under Emperor Hirohito surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur at Tokyo Bay. In 2004, the Razorback was moved to North Little Rock, Arkansas, as a display vessel, Dement was there for the ceremony. After five years in the military, Dement attended Methodist-affiliated Centenary College in Shreveport. At one time or another, Dement owned and operated fourteen restaurants in the Bossier City area, including "The Doghouse," where Elvis Presley ate in 1954, when he came to the Shreveport Municipal Auditorium for the Louisiana Hayride, his restaurant business originated while he was in the Navy. He sent his bride-to-be $70 per month, enough to allow her to open their first restaurant, "George's Big Boy", across from the Strand Theatre in Shreveport.
The outlet served foot-long hot dogs, Po' boy sandwiches, homemade chili, apple pies. By the late 1960s, faced with fast-food chain establishments in competition with his home-owned restaurants, Dement switched to hotels, he took over the management of a new Holiday Inn in Bossier City. Twice he was designated "Innkeeper of the World" for his work. In 1989, Dement was elected mayor as a Democrat, when the incumbent Donald Edward Jones, a former national president of the Junior Chamber International and a Bossier City businessman, did not seek reelection. Dement won second and fourth terms in 1993, 1997, in 2001, he retired on June 30, 2005 sixteen years from his original inauguration into office. He was known for his accessibility to the public, he pushed for the Louisiana Boardwalk in downtown Bossier City and worked to revitalize key areas of the city. Dement worked to increase the size of both the police and fire departments, to place computers and cameras in police vehicles, to establish four new fire stations.
He established an improved relationship between Barksdale Air Force Base. Retired Brig. Gen. Peyton Cole said that when he arrived at Barksdale in 1992, there was "some space" between the citizens of Bossier City and the resident airmen. Dement, worked to strengthen municipal ties to the air base. According to the Bossier Press-Tribune, Dement "embraced riverboat gaming" which brought to Bossier City three casinos with the revenue to build the CenturyLink Center, Arthur Ray Teague Parkway, the Benton Road Overpass; the leg work for some of the projects had begun in the Jones administration. In 2005, U. S. Senator David Vitter, a Republican, paid tribute to Dement as "the people's mayor" on the occasion of Dement's retirement from office. Dement was succeeded by a former opponent, the Democrat-turned-Republican Lo Walker, who still holds the position, the first Republican in the seat. Prior to his own election to the office, Walker was the city's chief administrative officer and executive assistant to Mayor Dement.
In the nonpartisan blanket primary held on April 1, 1989, Dement led his three opponents with 4,845 votes. The second-place candidate, fellow Democrat Wanda S. Bennett, trailed with 3,405 votes. Two other contenders, Democrat Lo Walker and Republican David H. Broussard followed with 2,072 votes and 1,978 votes, respectively. In the second round of balloting four weeks Dement narrowly prevailed, 7,091 to Bennett's 6,596. Dement was reelected in 1993 with 82 percent of the vote, in 1997 with 74.5 percent over two Republicans and a Democrat, in 2001, with 57.2 percent over the Republican Jerry E. Harris and the Independent Billy Ross Robinson, a former city judge. Dement is only the second mayor of Bossier City to have served four terms. Hoffman L. Fuller filled the position for sixteen terms from 1937 to 1953; when Dement left office, the Mayor George Dement Endowed Fund for Bossier was established in his honor. Dement was married to the former Sunshine Norris, a Shreveport native and one of two daughters of Steve Norris, a Bossier Parish sheriff's deputy, the former Avis Wasson.
Sunshine was homecoming queen at Bossier High School in 1942, when the players won the state football championship. She graduated in 1945 and like her husband attended Centenary College, where she obtained a bachelor's degree in education, she taught f