Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon, caused by reflection and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground, centered on a line from the sun to the observer's eye. In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer violet on the inner side; this rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc; this is caused by the light being reflected twice on the inside of the droplet before leaving it. A rainbow is not located at a specific distance from the observer, but comes from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to a light source.
Thus, a rainbow can not be physically approached. Indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. If an observer sees another observer who seems "under" or "at the end of" a rainbow, the second observer will see a different rainbow—farther off—at the same angle as seen by the first observer. Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours. Any distinct bands perceived are an artefact of human colour vision, no banding of any type is seen in a black-and-white photo of a rainbow, only a smooth gradation of intensity to a maximum fading towards the other side. For colours seen by the human eye, the most cited and remembered sequence is Newton's sevenfold red, yellow, blue and violet, remembered by the mnemonic Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain. Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water; these include not only rain, but mist and airborne dew. Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind the observer at a low altitude angle.
Because of this, rainbows are seen in the western sky during the morning and in the eastern sky during the early evening. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is still dark with raining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the sun; the result is a luminous rainbow. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is visible, it appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours. The rainbow effect is commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. A moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on moonlit nights; as human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are perceived to be white. It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required.
Now that software for stitching several images into a panorama is available, images of the entire arc and secondary arcs can be created easily from a series of overlapping frames. From above the earth such as in an aeroplane, it is sometimes possible to see a rainbow as a full circle; this phenomenon can be confused with the glory phenomenon, but a glory is much smaller, covering only 5–20°. The sky inside a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the bow; this is because each raindrop is a sphere and it scatters light over an entire circular disc in the sky. The radius of the disc depends on the wavelength of light, with red light being scattered over a larger angle than blue light. Over most of the disc, scattered light at all wavelengths overlaps, resulting in white light which brightens the sky. At the edge, the wavelength dependence of the scattering gives rise to the rainbow. Light of primary rainbow arc is 96% polarised tangential to the arch. Light of second arc is 90% polarised.
A spectrum obtained using a glass prism and a point source is a continuum of wavelengths without bands. The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100. Accordingly, the Munsell colour system distinguishes 100 hues; the apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice. Newton, who admitted his eyes were not critical in distinguishing colours divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, green and violet, he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale. Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, the days of the week. Scholars have noted that what Newton regarded at the time as "blue" would today be regarded as cyan, what Newton called "indigo" would today be considered blue.
According to Isaac Asimov, "It is customary to list indigo as a colour lying between blue and violet, but it ha
Oh, the Places You'll Go!
Oh, the Places You'll Go! is a book written and illustrated by children's author Dr. Seuss, it was first published by Random House on January 22, 1990. It was his last book to be published during his lifetime; the book concerns the journey of its challenges. Though written in the style of classics such as Green Eggs and Ham and The Cat in the Hat, Oh, the Places You’ll Go! has many specific characters including a narrator and the reader. A young boy, referred to as "you", initiates the action of the story. However, the presence of a main character helps readers to identify with the book, it uses future tense. The story begins with the narrator; the protagonist travels through several geometrical and polychromatic landscapes and places encountering a place called "The Waiting Place", ominously addressed as being a place where everyone is always waiting for something to happen. As the protagonist continues to explore, spurred on by the thoughts of places he will visit and things he will discover, the book cheerfully concludes with an open end.
Upon its original release in 1990, Oh, the Places You'll Go! reached number one on The New York Times Best-Selling Fiction Hardcover list. That made Dr. Seuss one of the handful of authors to have number one Hardcover Fiction and Nonfiction books on the list. In the United States and Canada, Oh, the Places You'll Go! is a popular gift for students graduating from high school and college, spiking in sales every spring. It reached number one on USA Today's Best Selling Book list in 1997, reached #2 in 2015 and 2017. Based on a 2007 online poll, the National Education Association named the book one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children."
Hal Smith (actor)
Harold John Smith was an American actor and voice actor, best known for his role as Otis Campbell, the town drunk on CBS's The Andy Griffith Show. Smith was active in voice-over roles, having played many characters on various animated shorts including Owl in the first four original Winnie the Pooh shorts and The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, Uncle Tex on The Flintstones, Goliath in Davey and Goliath, Flintheart Glomgold and Gyro Gearloose on DuckTales, as well as multiple other characters in The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Quick Draw McGraw Show, The Gumby Show, The Jetsons, Top Cat, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, Clutch Cargo, Hong Kong Phooey, many more. He is known to radio listeners as the original voice of John Avery Whittaker in Adventures in Odyssey. Smith was born in Petoskey, in the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, but he spent a significant part of his early years living in Massena, New York, he graduated from the Massena High School in 1936. His mother, Emma P. Smith was a seamstress, his father, Jay D. Smith worked at the local Aluminum Company of America factory.
Smith had two older sisters, Kathleen "Kay" Smith Villiere and Bernadeen S. Smith Damrath. Smith had a younger brother, Glenford C. Smith After graduation, Smith worked from 1936 to 1943 as a disc jockey and voice talent for WIBX Radio in Utica, New York. After serving in the United States Army Special Services during World War II, he traveled to Hollywood and appeared on many television series such as I Married Joan, The People's Choice, The Texan, Rescue 8, Dennis the Menace, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The Donna Reed Show, National Velvet and The Red Skelton Show. Smith's best-remembered on-screen character was Otis Campbell, the town drunk on The Andy Griffith Show, during most of the series' run from 1960 to 1967; when intoxicated, he would comically let himself into his regular jail cell, using the key, stored within reach of the two comfortable jail rooms, "sleep off" the effects of alcohol. Deputy Barney Fife would become irritated with Otis, attempted to either sober him up or rehabilitate him in several episodes.
Hal Smith was the opposite of his character. According to longtime friends Andy Griffith and Don Knotts, he did not drink in real life; the Otis character stopped appearing in the sitcom towards the end of the series because of concerns by the sponsors of the program in regard to the portrayal of excessive drinking. Smith appeared as Calver Weems in the Don Knotts comedy The Ghost and Mr. Chicken, playing the same town drunk character, Otis. Smith would play Otis one more time in the television movie Return to Mayberry. In the television movie, Otis is the town's ice cream truck driver and is reported to have been "sober for years". Smith used his Otis Campbell character in commercial spots for the Mothers Against Drunk Driving organization and appeared as Otis in Alan Jackson's music video "Don't Rock the Juke Box". In 1957, Smith played Rollin Daggett in the role of a newspaper man in the early days of Mark Twain in the "Fifteen Paces to Fame" episode of Death Valley Days, he made at least one appearance in the TV series Perry Mason, the episode entitled "The Case of the Treacherous Toupee", in 1960.
Smith had a cameo role as the Mayor of Boracho in The Great Race in 1965. He played the industrialist Hans Spear on CBS's sitcom Hogan's Heroes, he portrayed King Theseus of Rhodes in "The Three Stooges Meet Hercules". He played the character John Wilson in the 1967 episode "The Man Who Didn't Want Gold" of the syndicated Western series, Death Valley Days He played Mr Weber in The Lucy Show, Main Street USA 1967. Smith had a cameo role as a drunk driver in Adam-12 season 1 episode 19. In 1969, he appeared on Petticoat Junction in the episode "The Great Race", as Jug Gunderson. In the mid-1960s, Smith had a morning children's show on the Los Angeles television station KHJ called The Pancake Man, sponsored by The International House of Pancakes, he reprised the Pancake Man role as "Kartoon King" in the 1971 episode of The Brady Bunch titled "The Winner". He played Mother Goose in the X-rated animated feature film Once Upon a Girl in 1976. Beginning in the late 1950s with such shows as The Huckleberry Hound Show and Quick Draw McGraw, Smith became one of the most prolific voice actors in Hollywood working with most of the major studios and production companies, such as Hanna-Barbera, Walt Disney, Warner Bros.
The Mirisch Corporation, Sid and Marty Krofft, with voice roles on such series as The Flintstones in which he did the voices of Texas millionaires such as Fred's rich uncle Tex, Pink Panther, The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, Mickey Mouse, Yogi Bear and Looney Tunes. In 1962, he voiced Taurus, the Scots-accented mechanic of the spaceship Starduster for the series Space Angel. According to the book: Space Patrol, missions of daring in the name of early television, "It's rumored that Gene Roddenberry was a huge fan of the show and patterned Star Trek's engineer, Mr. Scott, after McCloud's Scottish sidekick, Taurus", he did voice
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River. The Congo Basin is located in a region known as west equatorial Africa; the Congo Basin region is sometimes known as the Congo. The basin begins in the highlands of the East African Rift system with input from the Chambeshi River, the Uele and Ubangi Rivers in the upper reaches and the Lualaba River draining wetlands in the middle reaches. Due to the young age and active uplift of the East African Rift at the headlands, the river's yearly sediment load is large but the drainage basin occupies large areas of low relief throughout much of its area; the basin is a total of 3.7 million square kilometers and is home to some of the largest undisturbed stands of tropical rainforest on the planet, in addition to large wetlands. The basin ends; the climate is equatorial tropical, with two rainy seasons including high rainfalls, high temperature year round. The basin is home to the endangered western lowland gorilla; the basin was the watershed of the Congo River populated by pygmy peoples, Bantu peoples migrated there and founded the Kingdom of Kongo.
Belgium and Portugal established colonial control over the entire region by the late 19th century. The General Act of the Berlin Conference of 1885 gave a precise definition to the "conventional basin" of the Congo, which included the entire actual basin plus some other areas; the General Act bound its signatories to neutrality within the conventional basin, but this was not respected during the First World War. Congo is a traditional name for the equatorial Middle Africa that lies between the Gulf of Guinea and the African Great Lakes, it contains some of the largest tropical rainforests in the world. Countries wholly or in the Congo region: Angola Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Rwanda South Sudan Tanzania Zambia The Congo forest is an important biodiversity hotspot, it is home to okapi and the Congo peafowl, but is an important source of African teak, used for building furniture and flooring. An estimated 40 million people depend on these woodlands.
At a global level, Congo's forests act as the planet's second lung, counterpart to the dwindling Amazon. They are a huge "carbon sink," trapping carbon that could otherwise become carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming; the Congo Basin holds 8 percent of the world's forest-based carbon. These forests affect rainfall across the North Atlantic. In other words, these distant forests are crucial to the future of climate stability, a bulwark against runaway climate change. A moratorium on logging in the Congo forest was agreed with the World Bank and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in May 2002; the World Bank agreed to provide $90 million of development aid to RDC with the proviso that the government did not issue any new concessions granting logging companies rights to exploit the forest. The deal prohibited the renewal of existing concessions. Greenpeace is calling on the World Bank to "think outside the box" and use the forest's potential in the battle against climate change. If these woodlands are deforested, the carbon they trap will be released into the atmosphere.
It says. Predictions for future unabated deforestation estimate that by 2050 activities in the DRC will release the same amount of carbon dioxide as the United Kingdom has emitted over the last 60 years; the government has written a new forestry code that requires companies to invest in local development and follow a sustainable, twenty-five-year cycle of rotational logging. When a company is granted a concession from central government to log in Congo, it must sign an agreement with the local chiefs and hereditary land owners, who give permission for it to extract the trees in return for development packages. In theory, the companies must pay government nearly $18m rent a year for these concessions, of which 40% in taxes paid should be returned to provincial governments for investment in social development of the local population in the logged areas. In its current form, the Kyoto Protocol does not reward so-called "avoided deforestation" - initiatives that protect forest from being cut down.
But many climate scientists and policymakers hope that negotiations for Kyoto's successor will include such measures. If this were the case, there could be a financial incentive for protecting forests. L’Île Mbiye in Kisangani is part of the Sustainable Forest Management in Africa Symposium project of forest ecosystem conservation conducted by Stellenbosch University. RDC is looking to expand the area of forest under protection, for which it hopes to secure compensation through emerging markets for forest carbon; the main Congolese environmental organization working to save the forests is an NGO called OCEAN, which serves as the link between international outfits like Greenpeace and local community groups in the concessions. Congo Basin Forest Partnership Exploration of the Congo basin Pygmies.org: African Pygmies website — first inhabitants of the Congo Basin rainforests
Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, the eastern Mill River; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2017, the estimated population was 154,758, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston and Providence, the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010; the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location. The Armory would play a pivotal role in the Civil War with its manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles". Today the city is the largest in western New England, the urban and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley.
Springfield has several nicknames – "The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River; the Hartford-Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges – the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States. The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions. Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as "Agawam Plantation" under the administration of the Connecticut Colony. In 1641 it was renamed after Pynchon's hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents, including trade disputes as well as Captain John Mason's hostilities toward native tribes, that precipitated the settlement joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
During its early existence, Springfield flourished as both an agricultural settlement and trading post, although its prosperity waned during King Philip's War in 1675, when natives laid siege to it and burned it to the ground as part of the ongoing campaign. During that attack, three-quarters of the original settlement was burned to the ground, with many of Springfield's residents survived by taking refuge in John Pynchon's brick house, the "Old Fort", the first such house to be built in the Connecticut River Valley. Out of the siege, Miles Morgan and his sons were lauded as heroes; the original settlement – today's downtown Springfield – was located atop bluffs at the confluence of four rivers, at the nexus of trade routes to Boston, New York City, Montreal, with some of the northeastern United States' most fertile soil. In 1777, Springfield's location at numerous crossroads led George Washington and Henry Knox to establish the United States' National Armory at Springfield, which produced the first American musket in 1794, the famous Springfield rifle.
From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, making it the United States' longtime center for precision manufacturing. The near-capture of the armory during Shays' Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Constitutional Convention. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Springfielders produced many innovations, including the first American-English dictionary. Springfield underwent a protracted decline during the second half of the 20th century, due to the decommissioning of the Springfield Armory in 1969. During the 1980s and 1990s, Springfield developed a national reputation for crime, political corruption and cronyism. During the early 21st century, Springfield sought to overcome its downgrade in reputation via long-term revitalization projects and undertook several large projects, including a $1 billion intercity rail line a $1 billion MGM casino.
A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural. Myths and stories about fairies do not have a single origin, but are rather a collection of folk beliefs from disparate sources. Various folk theories about the origins of fairies include casting them as either demoted angels or demons in a Christian tradition, as minor deities in pre-Christian Pagan belief systems, as spirits of the dead, as prehistoric precursors to humans, or as elementals; the label of fairy has at times applied only to specific magical creatures with human appearance, small stature, magical powers, a penchant for trickery. At other times it has been used to describe any magical creature, such as gnomes. Fairy has at times been used as an adjective, with a meaning equivalent to "enchanted" or "magical". A recurring motif of legends about fairies is the need to ward off fairies using protective charms. Common examples of such charms include church bells, wearing clothing inside out, four-leaf clover, food.
Fairies were sometimes thought to haunt specific locations, to lead travelers astray using will-o'-the-wisps. Before the advent of modern medicine, fairies were blamed for sickness tuberculosis and birth deformities. In addition to their folkloric origins, fairies were a common feature of Renaissance literature and Romantic art, were popular in the United Kingdom during the Victorian and Edwardian eras; the Celtic Revival saw fairies established as a canonical part of Celtic cultural heritage. The English fairy derives from Old French form faierie, a derivation from faie with the abstract noun suffix -erie. In Old French romance, a faie or fee was a woman skilled in magic, who knew the power and virtue of words, of stones, of herbs."Fairy" was used to represent: an illusion or enchantment. Faie became Modern English fay, while faierie became fairy, but this spelling exclusively refers to one individual. In the sense of "land where fairies dwell", archaic spellings faery and faerie are still in use.
Latinate fay is not related the fey, meaning "fated to die", but some dictionaries do list "fey" as a kind of fairy. Various folklore traditions refer to fairies euphemistically as wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair folk, etc; the term fairy is sometimes used to describe any magical creature, including goblins and gnomes, while at other times, the term describes only a specific type of ethereal creature or sprite. The concept of "fairy" in the narrower sense is unique to English folklore made diminutive in accordance with prevailing tastes of the Victorian era, as in "fairy tales" for children. Historical origins include various traditions of Celtics, Germanic peoples, of Middle French medieval romances. Fairie was used adjectivally, meaning "enchanted", but became a generic term for various "enchanted" creatures during the Late Middle English period. Literature of the Elizabethan era conflated elves with the fairies of Romance culture, rendering these terms somewhat interchangeable.
The Victorian era and Edwardian era saw a heightened increase of interest in fairies. The Celtic Revival cast fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage. Carole Silvers and others suggested this fascination of English antiquarians arose from a reaction to greater industrialization and loss of older folk ways. Fairies are described as human in appearance and having magical powers. Diminutive fairies of various kinds have been reported through centuries, ranging from quite tiny to the size of a human child; these small sizes could be magically assumed, rather than constant. Some smaller fairies could expand their figures to imitate humans. On Orkney, fairies were described as short in stature, dressed in dark grey, sometimes seen in armour. In some folklore, fairies have green eyes; some depictions of fairies show them with others as barefoot. Wings, while common in Victorian and artworks, are rare in folklore. Modern illustrations include dragonfly or butterfly wings. Early modern fairies does not derive from a single origin.
In folklore of Ireland, the mythic aes sídhe, or'little folk', have come to a modern meaning somewhat inclusive of fairies. The Scandinavian elves served as an influence. Folklorists and mythologists have variously depicted fairies as: the unworthy dead, the children of Eve, a kind of demon, a species independent of humans, an older race of humans, fallen angels; the folkloristic or mythological elements combine Celtic and Greco-Roman elements. Folklorists have suggested that'fairies' arose from various earlier beliefs, which lost currency with the advent of Christianity; these disparate explanations are not incompatible, as'fairies' may be traced to multiple sources. King James, in his dissertation Daemonologie, stated the term "faries" referred to illusory spirits that prophesied to, consorted with, transported the individuals they served. A Christian tenet held that fairies were a class of "demot