Trelystan is a remote parish and township on the border of the historic county of Montgomeryshire with Shropshire. Trelystan now forms part of the community of Forden and Trelystan in Powys. St Mary’s Church, Trelystan is sited 900 feet up at the S end of the Long Mountain to the east of Welshpool. Trelystan was a chapel of ease within the parish of Worthen and it served the township of Leighton. In 1854 Leighton became a separate parish and in 1874 Trelystan became a parish. In 1933 Trelystan and Rhos Goch parishes were combined into a larger Trelystan parish. Trelystan is now within the Chirbury parish grouping in the Diocese of Hereford and within the Archdeaconry of Ludlow. In some old sources the parish is referred to as Wolston Mynd. There is a strong possibility that Elystan Glodrydd, who died in 1010AD, was buried at Trelystan and the Welsh placename could derive from Cappell Tref Elistan; the tradition is first mentioned in the Harleian Manuscript 1973, written by Jacob Chaloner: Elistan Glodrith, or Edelstan the renowned, borne in the Castell of Hereford, anno 933, in the 9 yeare of Edlistan, K of Saxons, his godfather, was Earle of Hereford, Lord of the countrey above Offa dich, betwene Wy and Severne, in tyme of Edelred, K of Saxons.
He dyed. In 1485, Long Mountain by Trelystan was the muster point of the Welsh army of Henry Tudor led by his famous military commander Sir Rhys ap Thomas, they marched from there to Bosworth Field, where they defeated King Richard III. Sir Rhys was a descendant of the Princes of Deheubarth, whose castle of Dinefwr he inherited from his father. Sir Rhys’ wife Efa was a direct descendant of Elystan via his grandson Idnerth ap Cadwgan ab Elystan. Unique in Montgomeryshire in that St Mary's Church is timber-built. Single-chamber, with south porch and west belfry, it was restored in 1856 with an outer outer timber framed casing and brick nogging outside and matchboarding inside. The church was restored again in September 2014 and this revealed that where the original timber-framing was intact, wooden panels were used to infill the framework, rather than the normal wattle and daub. At a date lathes had been nailed to the framing, this had been torched, so that the outside of the church, before the 1856 restoration, would have presented a smooth rendered surface.
The church has simple 19th-century cusped timber windows. The 15th-century roof of principals and arched braces has two tiers of trefoiled wind-braces; every other truss was strengthened with a tie-beam, now sawn off, replaced with iron tie rods. The flagstone floor is inset with C18 memorial slabs at the East end; the square wooden bell turret has a slatted lower stage and a second stage consisting of two square-headed louvred apertures in each face. There is a pyramidal slate roof surmounted by a wrought iron weathervane; the truss at the west end defines the position of the former gallery, reached by a ladder stair set in the north-west corner. Four modern chamfered uprights support. Behind these the ceiling slopes downwards broken only by the window aperture above; the front of the bell turret the gallery, has close-set studs, plastered between, with a large thick beam for the top rail. Rood Screen of five lights survives, without cresting, but with five different ogee tracery heads robustly carved in oak.
Crossley observed that the semicircular heads and boarding at the base are characteristic of the Dee valley screens and resemble the screen at Pennant Melangell. The screen looks out of place in its present position and it has been suggested that it came from Chirbury Priory at the time of the Dissolution; the altar rails have turned balusters and date from c. 1700. The Barrel Organ has a Gothic revival case. Old box pews are reused as wainscot; the stained glass in the east window of The Agony in the Garden, is by David Evans. The churchyard is a small rectangular enclosure which looks to have been extended to the north-east and to the south-west. Reached by a track across fields. Six yews of considerable age encircle the west side of the church. Close to this yew there is a tombstone to the three men who were killed during the construction of Leighton Church. Scourfield R and Haslam R, Buildings of Wales: Powys. Smith P, Houses of the Welsh Countryside, 2nd ed 1988, Maps 55, 58, 59.
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material made of some combination of wet soil, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, the technique is becoming popular again in more developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique; the wattle is made by weaving thin slats between upright stakes. The wattle may be made as loose panels, slotted between timber framing to make infill panels, or made in place to form the whole of a wall. In different regions, the material of wattle can be different. For example, in Mitchell Site on the northern outskirts of the city of Mitchell, South Dakota, willow has been found as the wattle material of the walls of the house. Reeds and vines can be used as wattle material.
The origin of the term wattle describing a group of acacias in Australia, is derived from the common use of acacias as wattle in early Australian European settlements. Daub is created from a mixture of ingredients from three categories: binders and reinforcement. Binders hold the mix together and can include clay, chalk dust and limestone dust. Aggregates give the mix its bulk and dimensional stability through materials such as mud, crushed chalk and crushed stone. Reinforcement is provided by straw, hay or other fibrous materials, helps to hold the mix together as well as to control shrinkage and provide flexibility; the daub may be by treading -- either by humans or livestock. It is applied to the wattle and allowed to dry, then whitewashed to increase its resistance to rain. Sometimes there can be more than one layer of daub. Still in Mitchell Site, the anterior of the house had double layers of burned daub; this process has been replaced in modern architecture by lath and plaster, a common building material for wall and ceiling surfaces, in which a series of nailed wooden strips are covered with plaster smoothed into a flat surface.
In many regions this building method has itself been overtaken by drywall construction using plasterboard sheets The wattle and daub technique was used in the Neolithic period. It was common for houses of a Linear pottery and Rössen cultures of Central Europe, but is found in Western Asia as well as in North America and South America. In Africa it is common in the architecture of traditional houses such as those of the Ashanti people, its usage dates back at least 6000 years. There are suggestions that construction techniques such as lath and plaster and cob may have evolved from wattle and daub. Fragments from prehistoric wattle and daub buildings have been found in Africa, Europe and North America. A review of English architecture reveals that the sophistication of this craft is dependent on the various styles of timber frame housing; as discussed earlier, there were two popular choices for wattle and daub infill paneling: close-studded paneling and square paneling. Close-studding panels create a much more narrow space between the timbers: anywhere from 7 to 16 inches.
For this style of panel, weaving is too difficult, so the wattles run horizontally and are known as ledgers. The ledgers are sprung into each upright timber through a system of augered holes on one side and short chiseled grooves along the other; the holes are drilled at a slight angle towards the outer face of each stud. This allows room for upright hazels to be tied to ledgers from the inside of the building; the horizontal ledgers are placed every two to three feet with whole hazel rods positioned upright top to bottom and lashed to the ledgers. These hazel rods are tied a finger widths apart with 6–8 rods each with a 16-inch width. Gaps allow key formation for drying. Square panels are large, wide panels typical of some timber frame houses; these panels may be square in shape, or sometimes triangular to accommodate arched or decorative bracing. This style does require wattles to be woven for better support of the daub. To insert wattles in a square panel several steps are required. First, a series of evenly spaced holes are drilled along the middle of the inner face of each upper timber.
Next, a continuous groove is cut along the middle of each inner face of the lower timber in each panel. Vertical slender timbers, known as staves, are inserted and these hold the whole panel within the timber frame; the staves are positioned into the holes and sprung into the grooves. They must be placed with sufficient gaps to weave the flexible horizontal wattles. In some places or cultures, the technique of wattle and daub were used with different materials thus has different names, including pug and pine and stud, hourdis and dab, pierrotage/bousillage and columage. Bajarreque and jacal are examples of structure built with the technique of daub. In the early days of the colonisation of South Australia, in areas where substantial timber was unavailable, pioneers' cottages and other small buildings were constructed with light vertical timbers, which may have been "native pine", driven into the ground, the gaps being stopped with pug. Another term for this construction is pug. "Mud and stud" is a similar process to wattle and daub, with a simple frame consisting only of upright studs joined by cross r
Welsh Ambulance Service
The Welsh Ambulance Service, formally the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust, is the national ambulance service for Wales and one of the three NHS trusts in the country. It was established on 1 April 1998 and has 2,576 staff providing ambulance and related services to the 3.1 million residents of Wales. The Welsh Ambulance Service's headquarters is located at H. M. Stanley Hospital, St Asaph, Denbighshire; the service is divided into three regions: Central and West Region – based at Ty Maes Y Gruffudd, Cefn Coed Hospital, Swansea North Region – based at H. M. Stanley Hospital, St Asaph, Denbighshire South-East Region – based at Vantage Point House, Ty Coch Industrial Estate, CwmbranThe service is investing as part of a five-year modernisation plan, this will see the end of Regions and management will be via Heads of Services aligned to the Health Board areas along with a Head of Service for the Clinical Contact Centres and Head of Service for Production which oversees the resources available within the geographical areas.
The Welsh Ambulance Service provides: Emergency Medical Services - This service responds to emergency 999 calls and GP's urgent calls. A standard crew combination for this service would consist of a Paramedic and an Emergency Medical Technician; however double Paramedic / double Technician crews are not uncommon. As of 2013, the majority of the EMS fleet consists of Wilker Mercedes Benz 519 Sprinter Ambulances and Honda CRV / Ford Focus Rapid Response Vehicles. Non Emergency Patient Transport Service - This service deals with the planned care aspect of ambulance work. NEPTS staff provide transport between home and healthcare facilities or some inter-hospital transfers. Urgent Care Service - This service bridges the gap between NEPTS and EMS, allowing for patients to be transferred between home and hospital or hospital to hospital while meeting the advanced needs that some of these patients may have. UCS ambulance crews may be allocated to EMS calls at times of high demand and following clinical telephony triage by a nurse or face to face triage by Advanced Paramedic Practitioners or Paramedic Practitioners working from a Rapid Response Vehicle.
NHS Direct Wales / 111 Wales is a 24-hour telephone and internet health advice service provided by NHS Wales to enable people to obtain advice when use of the national emergency telephone number does not seem to be appropriate but there is some degree of urgency. NHS Direct Wales / 111 Wales supports EMS Operations by providing clinical triage for "Green 3" calls that are deemed suitable. More than 45% of 999 calls have a disposition of not requiring 999 conveyance. In addition during times of escalation other calls deemed suitable are triaged, it does not replace any of the existing emergency or non-emergency medical services but complements those existing and enables callers who might not be able to diagnose themselves to be directed to care of an appropriate level of urgency, including transport to hospital if the diagnosis merits that action. Community First Responders - CFRs are volunteers from the community trained in basic first aid, oxygen administration and the use of an Automated External Defibrillator.
They are used by the ambulance service in rural areas to provide basic care, such as Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation before an EMS crew arrives. As CFRs are only sent to local calls in specified communities, they arrive before an EMS ambulance crew without the use of blue lights and sirens. Whilst most CFR teams are the sole responsibility of WAST, a number of teams are made up of regular divisions from St John Ambulance in Wales although this does not give them any exemptions. There are developing numbers of Advanced Paramedic Practitioners in the service who through their extended scope of practice are working toward advancing the service their patients receive with "see and treat" and "see and refer" models of care; this removes the need for some patients to travel in an ambulance to A&E. In 2012 a strategic review of the service was commissioned by the Welsh Government and was conducted by Professor Siobhan McClelland and published in April 2013. National Health Service NHS Direct Wales Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Direct Wales
A cruck or crook frame is a curved timber, one of a pair, which supports the roof of a building, used in England. This type of timber framing consists of long naturally curved, timber members that lean inwards and form the ridge of the roof; these posts are generally secured by a horizontal beam which forms an "A" shape. Several of these "crooks" are constructed on the ground and lifted into position, they are joined together by either solid walls or cross beams which aid in preventing racking. The term crook or cruck comes from Middle English crok, from Old Norse krāka, meaning "hook"; this is the origin of the word "crooked", meaning bent, twisted or deformed, the crook used by shepherds and symbolically by bishops. Crucks were chiefly in use in the medieval period for structures such as large tithe barns. However, these bent timbers were comparatively rare, as they were in high demand for the ship building industry. Where curved timbers were convenient and available, carpenters continued to use them at much dates.
For instance, base crucks are found in the roofs of the residential range of Staple Inn Buildings, Nos. 337 – 338, High Holborn, London. This is dated by documented records to 1586, with significant alterations in 1886 and further restorations in 1936, 1954–55. Despite these changes, an authority on English Historic Carpentry, Cecil Hewett, has stated that these 16th-century crucks are original; the large main barn of the manor house Barlow Woodseats Hall features what is claimed to be the longest continuously roofed cruck barn in Derbyshire, even in the United Kingdom. An example of a Yorkshire cruck barn complete with a heather thatched roof can be found in Appletreewick; the crucks or cruck "blades" are a single oak tree riven in two to form an shaped A frame. Rare examples of cruck framing are found on continental Europe such as in Belgium, Northern France and the Corrèze region of France. No cruck frames are known to have been built in America though there are rare examples of what may be an upper cruck or knee rafters.
During the current revival of green oak framing for new building work, which has occurred since 1980 in the UK, genuine cruck frames have quite been included in traditionally carpentered structures. There are some fine authentic reconstructions. For instance, Tithe Barn, Glastonbury, whose original roof was destroyed by lightning, has been rebuilt in 2005 from curved oaks; the necessary trees were sought out, in English woodlands. True cruck or full cruck: The blades, straight or curved, extend from a foundation near the ground to the ridge. A full cruck does not need a tie beam and may be called a "full cruck -open" or with a tie beam a "full cruck - closed". Base cruck: The tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: The blades land on masonry wall and extend to ridge. Middle are truncated by collar beam. Upper cruck: The blades land on tie beam similar to knee rafters. In Dutch called a kromstijlgebint. Jointed cruck: The blades made from two pieces joined near eaves.
They can be joined in at least five ways. The apex of a cruck frame helps to define the style and region of the cruck. Different types include the butt apex, housed and crossed forms. Hammerbeam roof Vernacular architecture Hewett, Cecil A. English Historic Carpentry, Philimore, pp 231–233. ISBN 0-85033-354-7 Harris, Discovering Timber-Framed Buildings, Shire Publications Ltd. Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire. ISBN 0852634277 Alcock, N. W. Barley, M. W. et al, Recording timber-framed buildings - An illustrated glossary, Council for British Archaeology, York. ISBN 1872414729 Cruck database Black and White Timber Framed houses
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Llangynyw is a hamlet and community in Montgomeryshire, mid Wales. It is located on a hill inside a bend in the River Banwy two miles north-east of Llanfair Caereinion; the focus of the hamlet is the Parish Church of St. Cynyw, which dates from between 1450 and 1500 and is a Grade II* listed building; the parish of Llangynyw had a population of 551 when the 1801 census was taken, 430 in 1901, 295 in 1971, increasing back to 582 at the 2011 census. Llangyniew Community Council website LLANGYNIEW, National Gazetteer 1868 & Lewis 1833 transcriptions, Genuki Photographs of Llangynyw and the surrounding area, Geograph